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Archaeological & Natural History 


$JuMi«^lJe^ unfeer tl;e ^ivection of tije ^ccietu 


Edited by Rev. E. H. Goddard, Clyffe Vicarage, Swindon. 


Nos. 137—141. Dec, 1922 -Dec, 1924. 

C. H. Woodward, Exchange Buildings, Station Road 

December, 1924. 




No. CXXXVII. December, 1922. 

East Wiltshire Lichens: By Cecil P, Hurst 1— 10 

Widhill Chapel and Manor : by John Sadler 11— 17 

King's Bo wood Park [No. III.]: By The Earl of Kerry 18— 38 

The Sixty-Ninth General Meeting of the Wiltshire Archaeological 

and Natural History Society, held at Swindon, July 31st, 

August 1st and 2nd, 1922 : 39— 48 

Notes on Field- Work in N. Wilts, 1921—1922 : By A. D. Passmore 49— 51 
Notes on Field- Work round Avebury, December, 1921 : By O. G. 

S. Crawford, F.S.A 52— 53 

The Destruction of the Ancient Screen at Hullavington : By 

Canon F. H. Manley 64— 66 

Notes 67— 77 

Natural History Notes 77— 81 

Wilts Obituary , , 82— 88 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles 88 — 133 

Additions to Museum and Library 133 — 135 

Accounts of the Society for the Year 1921 136 — 139 

List of Officers and Members of the Society 140 — 149 

No. CXXXVIII. June, 1923. 

Great Bedwyn Flowering Plants and Ferns : By Cecil P. Hurst 151 — 166 

Notes on Wiltshire Churches : By Sir Stephen Glynne 167 — 214 

Report on Diggings in Silbury Hill, August, 1922: By Prop. W. 

M. Flinders Petrie, F.U.S 215—218 

Some Notes on Trowbridge Parish Registers : By The Rev. A. 
W. Stote, M.A., Camb., F.S.G., Lond, sometime Vicar of 

Holy Trinity, Trowbridge , 219—226 

Romano- British Villages on Upavon and Rushall Downs, Exca- 
vated by Lt. Col. Hawley, FS.A 227—230 

Wiltshire Newspapers — Past and Present (Continued). Part IV. 
Newspapers of North Wilts. " The Wiltshire Independent " : 

By J. J. Slade 231—241 

Wilts Obituary 242—245 

Notes 245—253 

Natural History Notes 253—255 

Bird Notes 256 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles 257—271 

Additions to Museum and Library 272 — 273 

Accounts of the Society for the Year 1922 274—276 


No. CXXXIX. December, 1923. 

Notes on Wiltshire Churches : By Sir Stephen Glynne 

(Continued) 277—306 

The Society's MSS. Inventory of the Goods of Sir Charles 

Raleigh, of Downton. 1698.. c 307—312 

Wiltshire Newspapers— Past and Present (Continued) Part V. 
Newspapers of North Wilts. " The North Wilts Herald " : 

By J. J. Slade, F.J.I 313—324 

The Source of the Foreign Stones of Stonehenge : By Herbert 

H. Thomas, M.A., ScD 325—344 

The Seventieth General Meeting of the Wiltshire Archaeological 
and Natural History Society, held at Marlborough, July 

80th and 31st, and August 1st, 1923 345—354 

List of Subscriptions received in answer to the Appeal by the 

Hon. Curator for ^100 for New Cases for the Museum, 1923 355 

Notes 356—373 

Wilts Obituary ,, 374—379 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles 379 — 406 

Books, Pamphlets, and Articles, by Wiltshire Authors 407 — 411 

Wiltshire Illustrations 411 — 419 

Wiltshire Portraits 419 — 424 

Additions to Museum and Library 424 — 426 

No. CXL. June, 1924. 

The Wiltshire Lichens in the Department of Botany at the British 

Museum: By Cecil P. Hurst 427—430 

The "Blue Stone" from Boles Barrow: By B. Howard 

Cunnington, F.S.A., Scot 431—437 

Notes on a Palimpsest Brass from Steeple Ashton Church : By 

Canon E. P. Knublby 438—441 

Notes on Wiltshire Churches : By Sir Stephen Glynne, Bart. 

(Concluded) U^—4.4:b 

The Method of Erecting the Stones of Stonehenge : By E. 

Herbert Stone, F.S.A 446—456 

An Early Iron Age Site on Fy field Bavant Down : By R. C. C. 

Clay, M.H.C.S., L.R.C.P 457-496 

Wansdyke. Report of Excavations on its Line by New Build- 
ings, near Marlborough : By Albany F. Major, O.B.E., 
F.S.A 497—500 

Wilts Obituary 501—511 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles 511 — 525 

Additions to Museum and Library 526—527 

Accounts of the Society for the year 1923 528—530 


No. CXLT. December, 1924. 
The West of England Cloth Industry : A Seventeenth Century 

Experiment in State Control : By Kate E. Barford, M.A. 531—542 

Savernake Forest Fungi: By Cecil P. Hurst 543—555 

A Lost Fragment of Hullavington Register Restored : By the 

Rev. E. H. Goddard 556-559 

The Churches of Aldbourne, Baydon, Collingbourne Ducis, and 

Coilingbourne Kingston : By C. E. Ponting, F.S.A 561—575 

Aldbourne Manor, Chase, and Warren : By John Sadler 576—587 

The Village Feast or Revel : By Mrs. Story Maskelyne... 588—591 

Notes ,. 591—605 

Wilts Obituary 605-608 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, &c 608—624 

Additions to Museum and Library 625—626 

Index to Vol. XLII 627—705 


Plan of the Pennings Circle, Avebury, 1922, 55. Two Views (from the 
west and from the east) of Screen in Hullavington Church, 64. Brooches 
from Cold Kitchen Hill, 67. Late Bronze Age Bracelet of twisted gold 
wire from Clench Common, 70. Plan of Silbury Hill to show Relation 
of Trenches [cut Aug., 1922] to Fence Levels of Surface Contours — Levels 
of Undisturbed Chalk, 215. Section of Silbury Hill to show Relation of 
Down, Turf Band, Chalk Levels, 216. Bronze Age Cinerary Urn found 
at Knowle, Little Bedwyn, 246. Cabalistic symbols inscribed on Spindle 
Whorl found in Bishops Cannings Churchyard, 247. Plan of Earthwork 
on Sugar Hill, Wanborough, 249. Plan of Stonehenge showing the 
" Foreign Stones " or " Blue Stones " black or shaded, 326. Plates 
I.— IV., showing Microscopic and other Sections of the Blue Stones from 
Stonehenge and others from Pembrokeshire, 341 — 4. Bronze object from 
site of Roman Dwelling, Avebury Truslowe, 360. Tessellated Pave- 
ment from Roman House near Avebury Truslowe, 1923, 360. Latten 
Pyx from Codford St. Peter, with inscription on the same enlarged, 363. 
Masons' Marks on the Barton Barn at Bradford-on-Avon, 364. Langdeane 
Circle, E. Kennett, 365. Plan of Langdeane Circle, E. Kennett, 365. 
Plan and section of double pit in Battlesbury Camp, 1922, 368. Vessel 
from Pit in Battlesbury Camp, 1922, 371. Objects of Iron and Bone 
from Pits in Battlesbury Camp, 1922, 372. House at Heytesbury, Wilts, 
where W. Cunnington, F.S.A., lived from 1775 to 1810, 431. The Blue 
Stone in Heytesbury House Garden — West and East sides, 434. Sketch 
of the Blue Stone in Heytesbury House Garden, 434. A Palimpsest 
Brass from Steeple Ashton Church, 438. Eight Illustrations of the 
Method of Erecting the Stones of Stonehenge, 453—456. Plans of two 
groups of Pits on Fifield Bavant Down, 457. Plates I. — XVIIL, Sections 
of Pits and illustrations of Objects found at the Early Iron Age Site on 
Fifield Bavant Down, 494. Plates XXIV. and XXV*., Skull from Fifield 
Bavant Pits, 494. Plan and Sections of Excavations on Wansdyke, 497. 
Collingbourne Ducis Church Tower, 571. Objects collected by Mr. 
Richard Coward, of Roundway, now in Devizes Museum, 600. Bronze 
implements hitherto unrecorded, in the Blackmore Museum, Salisbury, 






Archaeological & Natural History 


Published under the Direction of the 

A.D. 18 5 3. 


REV. E. H. GODDARD, Clyff'e Vicarage, Swindon. 

[The authors of the papers printed in this " Magazine'' are alone responsible for all 
statements made therein.l 


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Archaeological & Natural History 





East Wiltshire Lichens : By Cecil P. Hurst , 1 — lo 

WiDHiLL Chapel and Manor: By John Sadler ii— 17 

King's Bowood Park [No. III.]: By the Earl of Kerry... , 18— 38 

The Sixty- Ninth General Meeting of the Wiltshire 

Archaeological and Natural History Society, held 

AT Swindon, July 31st, August 1st and 2nd, 1922 39— 48 

Notes on Field Work in N. Wilts, 1921—1922: By A. D. 

Passmore 49— 51 

Notes on Field- Work round Avebury, December, 1921 : 

By O. G S. Crawford, F.S.A 52— 63 

The Destruction of the Ancient Screen at Hullavington : 

By Canon F. H. Manley 64— 66 

Notes 67 — 77 

Natural History Notes ,. 77 — 81 

Wilts Obituary c 82— 88 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles 88—133 

Additions to Museum and Library ,, 133—135 

Accounts of the Society for the Year 1921 136—139 

List of Officers and Members of the Society 140—149 


Plan of the Pennings Circle, Avebury, 1922 55 

Two Views (from the west and from the east) of Screen in 

Hullavington Church 64 

Brooches from Cold Kitchen Hill 67 

Late Bronze Age Bracelet of twisted gold wire from Clench 

Common 70 

Devizes :— C. H. Woodward, Exchange Buildings, Station Road. 




No. CXXXVII. December, 1922- Vol. XLII. 

By Cecil P. Huest. 

There are nine lichens from Savernake Forest and the vicinity of 
Marlborough in the Department of Botany at the British Museum and 
eight of these are in Edward Forster's Herbarium in that department ; of 
these latter, three {Placynthium nigrum^ Gollema furviim, and Leptogium 
plicatile) were collected at Manton, near Marlborough, in 1809 and the 
remaining five (Parmelia saxatilis form furfuracea^ Rinodina roboris, 
Lecanora pallida, L. parella var. Turneri and Arthopyrenia fallax) were 
found in Savernake Forest in the same year, while the ninth plant, Parmelia 
prolixa sub- species Delisei var. isidiascens, a rare form, was discovered 
growing on sarsen stones near Fyfield by Dr. H. F. Parsons in 1908 and 
sent to the Lichen Exchange Club, whence it found its way to the British 
Museum. It is interesting to note that Parmelia saxatilis form furfuracea 
is still common in the Forest and that Lecanora pallida, Rinodina roboris^ 
and Arthopyrenia fallax are also found there. Edward Forster, who is 
mentioned above, was born at Walthamstow, in 1765, and died at Woodford, 
in Essex, in 1849 ; he was a Fellow of the Royal Society and his Herbarium 
was purchased by Robert Brown and presented by him to the British 
Museum in 1849. 

The following eighty-one lichens were observed in 1920, 1921, and 
the first quarter of 1922 in Savernake Forest and near the adjoining 
village of Great Bedwyn. Bilimhia Naegelii, from its great rarity generally 
and its local abundance in the south-east of the Forest is, perhaps, our 
most important lichen ; its headquarters are the copse through which 
Rhododendron Drive runs, and here it is abundant in several places, covering 
the tree-trunks. Elsewhere in the Forest it seems confined to scattered 
trees, but it is widely distributed and occurs from Braydon Oak on the 
north, to Stokke Common on the south, and from Langfield Copse on the 
extreme south-west to Birch Copse on the east, and 1 have traced it south 
of the Kennet and Avon Canal into Bedwyn Brails Wood. When this 
lichen occurs on a tree, it is generally present in some quantity ; the thallus 
is of a very pale lilac shade, and the apothecia are almost always deep 
purplish-black, lead-coloured or flesh-coloured examples being uncommon. I 
first recorded it in the Marlborough College Nat. Hist. Soc. Report for 1919, 

2 East Wiltshire Lichens, 

and when I sent specimens to the British Museum from Savernake Forest in 
1920 Miss A. L. Smith informed me that a week previously plants had been 
received from Herefordshire, but before that the BritishiMuseum possessed 
no specimens from Great Britain, although they had examples from Ireland 
(Erriff, Connemara). The only English locality given in|the third edition 
of Leighton's " Lichen- Flora of Great Britain, Ireland, and the Channel 
Islands" (1879) is Shere, in Surrey, where it was found by Dr. Capron. It 
is a noteworthy addition to the Wiltshire list. Interesting jlichens also 
recorded below are Sphinctrina turbinata growing on the thallus of 
Pertusaria pertusa upon a beech near Rhododendron Drive, an instance of 
lichen parasitism ; the four rare aquatic Verrucariae ( Verrucaria aquatilis, 
V. laevata, F. aethiobola var. acrotella and V. suhmersa) occurringgon flints 
in the bed of a rivulet in Gully Copse, near Stype (the last-named, V. 
suhmersa, is by no means uncommon on stones in this situation), and the 
curious V. rupestris on walls in Great Bedwyn village and at St. Katharine's, 
Savernake, the perithecia of which are deeply submerged in little pits which 
their acid secretion has excavated in the stone. Other noticeable plants 
are the new orange variety flavo-citrina of Chaenotheca melanophaea, 
described only in 191*7 and known from few localities, growing on a conifer 
at Bloxham Copse, the rare Placodium phloginum on a beech near Eight 
Walks, the scarce form, melanosticta of Physcia ciliaris on brickwork at 
Wilton, the rare form carnea of Pertusaria Wulfenii on a tree in the 
Eorest, the curious very lurely fruiting var. ostreata of Cladonia macilenta, 
which is sparingly distributed through England, seen upon a birch on the 
fringe of the Forest neai: Marlborough, and the rare yellow var. flavens of 
Lecidea parasema occurring on ash trees to the east of Savernake Lodge. 
The frequency of the rather rare Lecanactis ahietina on trees in the middle 
of Savernake Forest is noteworthy. Parmelia physodes and Physcia 
caesia produced their rare apothecia in Foxbury Wood and near Great 
Bedwyn, and the rather rare fruits of Buellia canescens were noticed on 
the churchyard wall of the same village. In drawing up the list below I 
have followed the names and order of Miss A. L. Smith's "Monograph of 
British Lichens" (Part I., published in 1918 and Part II. in 1911), and 
Mr. R. Paulson, F.L.S., has very kindly named the plants. 7= North 
Wiltshire, and 8=South Wiltshire, the two vice-counties being separated 
by the Kennet and Avon Canal. 

Sphinctrina turbinata (Fr.). 7. A lichen with black top-shaped 
apothecia and no thallus growing upon the thallus of Pertusaria pertusa 
on a beech near Rhododendron Drive, Savernake Forest, it was in excellent | 
condition ; an interesting example of one lichen growing parasitically upon 
another lichen. I have noticed it in other places in Savernake Forest. 

Chaenotheca melanophaea (Zwackh). 7, 8. On oak near Thornhill Pond, 
Eight Walks, with Bilimbia Naegelii. Mr. Paulson wrote : — " The 
Chaenotheca melanophaea comes very near the new var. flavo-citrina ; if 
you can find any with a bright orange thallus, you will have the var. It 
i s known in a few localities only." About specimens that occurred on Pinus 
sylvestris in Bedwyn Brails Wood in August, Mr. Paulson wrote : — " Yes, 
the lichen is Chaenotheca melanophaea, but it has been so completely dried 
by the hot summer (1921) that it does not look altogether normal. There 

By Cecil P. H^irst. 3 

is so much yellow in the thallus that, if the weather were normal, I should 
be inclined to think it is the var. flavo-citriiia. Keep a look-out on the 
thallus after a period of rain." I also found this species (the type) on 
Pinus sylvestris in Foxbury Wood, and noticed it on Abies excelsa (here 
again with some orange in the thallus) near London Ride. Afterwards 
plants I found on a conifer at Bloxham Copse, Savernake Forest, in March, 
1922, were definitely referred to vsn.Jlavo-citrina (Paulson)by Mr. Paulson ; 
this var. was first found by Mr. Paulson in Bricket Wood, near St. Alban's, 
and described by him in the Journal of Botany iov 1917, It is included 
in the appendix to Part I. of Miss Smith's " Monograph of British Lichens'^ 

Calicium hyperellum ( Ach.). 7. Not uncommon on rough-barked trees 
throughout the Forest ; the bright yellow thallus of this plant makes it 
conspicuous ; the fruit, consisting of a black capitulum or head at the end 
of an elongated stalk, is not often produced, but I have found it in various 
localities in the Forest. This species was called Lepraria flava by the old 
lichenologists. C. sphaerocephalum (Wahlenb.). 7. On a tree near Eight 

Cyphelium inquinans (Trev,). 8. On an old gate near Ram Alley, 
Burbage ; the spores, which lie loosely in the apothecia, stain the fingers 
blackish when touched. It is a common English lichen, but has not 
been found in Scotland. 

Placynthium nigrum (S. F. Gray). 7, 8. Very common near Great Bedwyn, 
forming black stains on the walls and on the coping stones of the lock- 
pounds of the canal near Great Bedwyn, the fruit is also quite common ; 
plants were collected at Manton, near Marlborough, by Edward Forster in 
1809, and are now in the British Museum. It is general throughout the 
British Isles. 

Collema glaucescens (Hoflfm.) 7. On damp clay near Almshouse Copse, 
Froxfield, in some quantity ; Mr. Paulson tells me my specimens are not so 
glaucescent as some he has seen on the chalk. The Almshouse Copse plants 
produced apothecia copiously. C. pulposum (Ach.). 8. A large plant of 
jelly-like consistency growing on wet London Clay near Merle Down 
Brickworks, Great Bedwyn, and fruiting freely ; a gelatinous lichen com- 
mon throughout the British Isles. C. multijidum (Schaer.) 7. Growing 
with Collema glaucescens at Almshouse Copse, near Froxfield, and so named 
provisionally by Mr. Paulson in the absence of spores. 

Leptogium turgidum (Cromb.). 8. On the coping of the lock-pound of 
Burnt Mill Lock on the Kennet and Avon Canal near Great Bedwyn, 
without fruit. L. subtile (Nyl.). 8. A gelatinous species occurring on 
London Clay at Merle Down Brickworks and bearing minute apothecia ; 
general though not very common throughout the British Islands but 
frequently overlooked. 

Peltigera rufescens var. praetextata (Nyl.). 7. Upon Stokke Common, 
on an old elder several feet from the ground, with apothecia ; the edges of 
the thalline lobes were minutely squamulose ; a var. which grows among 
mosses, on shady rocks, etc., generally in moist places, throughout the 
British Isles. 

Parmelia physodes (Ach.). 7, 8. Mr. A. G. Lowndes, of Marlborough 
College, found fine fruiting specimens of this abundant lichen in Foxbury 

B 2 

4 East Wiltshire Lichens. 

Wood, where I had also previously noticed fertile plants ; the apothecia of 
this species are rare and are generally produced in mountainous districts. 
P. laevigata (Ach.). 8. On a tree in Wilton Brails and one or two other 
localities ; a common lichen on the trunks of old trees and on rocks in 
maritime and inland tracts throughout the Kingdom. P. mxatilis form 
furfuracea (Schaer.). 7. Common in the Forest ; a form densely covered 
with greyish-brown isidia, which in 1809 was gathered by Edward Forster 
in the Forest. P. sulcata (Tayl.). 7, 8. Very common on trees throughout 
this district, also occurring on old walls, 

Getraria glauca (Ach.). 7, 8. Not uncommon on trees, especially 
plentiful in Almshouse Copse, Froxfield. 

Ramalina calicaris (Fr.). 8. Fruiting freely on a tree at Dod's Down. 
P. fraxinea (Ach.). 7. On an oak in the extreme south-west part of 
Savernake Forest, nearKing Henry VIII.'s Sumnier House. R. fastigiata 
(Ach.). 7, 8. On trees, generally fruiting, not very common. R. pollinaria 
(Ach.). On an exposed brick wall at Parley Bottom, near Foxbury Wood ; 
Mr. Paulson wrote : — " The Ramalina is R. pollinaria. As it grew on an 
exposed brick wall, it is scarcely normal ; there are minute soredia and the 
apothecia are distinctly concave, not convex as in R. fastigiatar 

Usnea florida var. hirta. (Ach). 7, 8. Fairly common on tree trunks \ 
in my paper, " East Wiltshire Mosses, Hepatics, and Lichens," ( Wilts Arch. 
Mag. vol. xli., p. 40), I placed this plant under the aggregate Usnea barbata ; 
the above is a more precise record, it is the common form in the lowlands. 

Xanthoria potycarpa (Oliv,). 7, 8. On palings near Chisbury Camp 
and near Bloxham Copse, also on a tree at Dod's Down, with copious fruits ; 
an uncommon lichen which occurs here and there throughout England and 
Scotland but is not recorded for Ireland. It looks like a very attenuated 
edition of the abundant orange X. parietina. X. lychnea (Th. Fr.) 7. 
On palings near Bloxham Copse ; a rather rare species in which the margin 
of the thallus is turned up like a frill. 

Placodium murorum (D.C.). 7, 8. Walls in Great Bedwyn village \ 
an orange lichen with an orbicular stellate-radiate thallus which is very 
common on brickwork in this district. P. citrinum (Hepp.). 7, 8. On 
the stone coping of the lock-pound near the Lock House on the Kennet and 
Avon Canal between Great Bedwyn and Crof ton, and elsewhere ; a common 
species with citrine-or greenish-yellow thallus and orange-yellow 
apothecia. P. phloginum (A. L. Sm.). 7. On a beech near Eight Walks ; 
this lichen has orange apothecia and is a rare species. P. cerinum (Hepp,). 
8. On twigs and branches in a hedge in Brook Street, Great Bedwyn» 
also in a hedge near Dod's Down ; fairly common throughout the British 
Isles ; the yellow apothecia contrast effectively with the pale-grey thallus. 
P. variabile (Nyl.). 7. Growing with P. citrinum near the Canal Lock 
House in the above locality ; a rather rare lichen of western and central 
England, with dark thallus and apothecia with brown or blackish discs 
covered with bluish-grey bloom. 

Candelariella vitellina (Miill.-Arg.). 7. Occurring with apothecia on a 
milestone near Bedwyn Common ; probably common in the district ; forming 
a granular orange crust bearing the tawny-or dull-yellow fruits. 

Pkyscia ciliaris (D.C.)- 7. On trees near Cadley and Langfield Copse ; 

By Cecil P. Hurst 5 

in the latter locality the plants were in fruit. Form, melanosticta (Oliv.). 
S. On brickwork at Wilton ; local and scarce throughout the British Isles. 
Ph.fusca (A. L. Sm.). 7. Mr. J. A. Wheldon tells me the locality for this 
lichen on the sarsen stones in the " Valley of Rocks," near Marlborough, is 
the most inland station with which he is acquainted ; it was found on 
^itonehenge by Edward Forster many years ago and Stonehenge specimens 
collected by him are in the British Museum. It may still occur there. 
Physcia fusca is a lichen which generally grows near the sea. Ph. pulver- 
nienta (Nyl.)- 7, 8. On an oak at Dod's Down and on trees in Savernake 
Park ; general and usually common throughout the British Isles ; the 
thallus is more or less covered with a whitish bloom or pruina, but is 
dull green when moist, the apothecia are also often pruinose Ph. hispida 
(Tuckerm.). 7, 8. On the stone of a culvert at Froxfield, also on the 
churchyard wall at Great Bedwyn, fairly plentiful in hedges, and fruiting 
on palings at Oakhill, Froxfield ; a common lichen with copious marginal 
hairs or ciliae which give it a very hispid appearance. Ph. caesia (Nyl.). 
S. On the stone of a culvert near Froxfield ; on a slate roof at Newtown, 
yhalbourne ; also on stone by the canal at Great Bedwyn ; a pretty lichen 
with pale grey star-like thallus, uncommon but generally distributed 
through the British Isles ; the apothecia, which are rare, occurred at the 
Froxfield and Great Bedwyn localities and seem not uncommon in the 
district. This plant is generally sprinkled with round whitish-grey soralia. 

Rinodina roboris (Arn.). 7. On an oak near the King's Oak, Savernake 
Forest, and near Braydon Oak ; it was also found in Savernake Forest in 
1809 by Edward Forster and specimens collected by him in the Forest are 
in his Herbarium at the Natural History Museum, South Kensington. It 
is a rather common English lichen but has not been reported from Scotland. 

Lecanora muralis (Schser.). 7, 8. On a stone culvert near Froxfield, 
on sarsen stones in Tottenham Park, and in one or two other localities ; 
the brown apothecia contrast rather prettily with the greenish straw- 
coloured thallus in this plant which is uncommon though generally dis- 
tributed in Britain. L. subfusca var. chlarona (Ach.). 7. In Almshouse 
Copse, Froxfield ; not uncommon in this district ; it grows on the smooth 
bark of trees and differs from the species in the planer lighter-coloured 
disc and more prominent margin. L. rugosa (Nyl.). 8. On an oak 
in Bedwyn Brails ; Mr. Paulson wrote : — " I am inclined to call your plant 
L. rugosa ; the apothecia have a very thick rugose margin ; spores are not 
present ; the hymenium remains bluish with potassic iodide." L. campesti^is 
{ B. de Lesd.). 7, 8. Very common on walls near Great Bedwyn ; a common 
plant with white or greyish thallus and brown apothecia. L. atra (Ach.). 
7, 8. Very common on houses, walls, and bridges ; a frequent species with 
grey warty or granular thallus and large apothecia with deep black discs. 
L. pallida (Schaer). 7, 8. Palings near Bloxham Copse ; also on a tree 
in Burridge Heath Plantation ; abundant on a hawthorn hedge by the 
canal near Great Bedwyn, The apothecia are clouded over with a palish 
bloom, the species is rather rare throughout the British Isles Savernake 
Forest specimens collected by Edward Forster in 1809 are in the British 
Museum. L. carpinea (W-din.). 7. Old palings near Bloxham Copse; 
a not uncommon plant, closely allied to the preceding species, but diflfering, 

6 East Wiltshire Lichens. 

however, decisively in the yellow reaction of the apothecial disc with chloride 
of lime. L. galactina (Ach.). 7, 8. Common in and near Great Bedwyn 
on houses, calcareous walls, and mortar, etc., and very variable ; it has a 
whitish or straw-coloured thallus and very pale yellowish-green apothecia ; 
it is plentiful in most parts of the British Isles, and is one of the few lichens 
thatpersistinthe immediate neighbourhood of large towns. L. varia (Ach.). 
7. Very common on palings near Great Bedwyn ; abundant in the south of 
England generally, a lichen with pale yellowish granular thallus and widish 
greyish-green apothecia with irregular margins. L. polytropa (Schaef.)- 
7, 8. The pale greenish thallus of this species is rather common on th& 
brick bridges over the Rennet and Avon Canal between Little Bedwyn and 
Froxfield and the apothecia are freely produced ; it is more or less general 
on siliceous rocks, boulders, and walls throughout Britain. L. parella 
(Ach). 7, 8. Brickwork of the Somerset Hospital at Froxfield ; 
also on a bridge over the canal near Great Bedwyn and on a wall at 
Shalbourne ; an easily recognizable common species with a thick prominent 
margin to the apothecia, which have pale flesh-red or whitish discs generally 
covered with a white pruina; one of the dye-lichens known in early 
days as the Perelle or Orseille d' Auvergne. For dyeing purposes it was 
said to be far superior to L. tartarea and even equal to Orchil or Litmus, 
Roccella tinctoria. The colour furnished by it has rather more of a violet 
hue than that of L. tartarea^ and is prepared by similar processes ; both 
are capable of being so modified as to produce any tinge of purple or 
crimson. L. calcarea (Sommerf,). 7. On the churchyard wall at Great 
Bedwyn, with apothecia ; a plant with a chalky-or greyish- white thallus 
and small generally crowded immersed apothecia with black discs ; general 
and common in limestone districts. 

Pertusaria leioplaca (Schoer). 7, 8. Common on smooth-barked trees 
in the Forest and around Great Bedwyn and often growing with Lecanora 
subfusca (agg.) 3ind Lecidea parasema, P. Wulfenii (D.C.). 7. Rather 
common on beeches in Savernake Forest, also occurring on other trees ; a 
rugged dark-greyish lichen, with numerous verrucae or warts of irregular 
form, the ostioles or pores enlarge to a dark -coloured (more rarely flesh- 
coloured) disc with an irregular tumid crenate margin ; it is general and 
fairly common in the wooded districts of the British Isles. Form carnea 
(Fr.). 7. On a tree in Savernake Forest; the apothecial disc protrudes 
and is tumid and flesh-coloured, the plant is only found in southern 
England, where it is local and rare. 

Diptoschistes scruposus (Norm.). 7. On the brickwork of the Somerset 
Hospital at Froxfield ; a lichen with a thick greyish thallus and crater- 
like apothecia, the disc blackish ; general and common in Britain. 

Cladonia furcata (Ach.)- 7, 8. Near Folly Farm, Great Bedwyn. C- 
digitata {]loQm..). 7. At the base of a tree near Rhododendron Drive. 
Mr. Paulson writes: — "Yes, certainly C. digitata and in excellent condi- 
tion. Its squamules are large and there are a few quite digitate podetia. 
I find a smaller more delicate form in Essex and Middlesex ; it is quite a 
good find for your district." I have also seen this plant in Savernake 
Forest on a stump not far from Savernake Lodge. It is local and rather 
scarce in the more hilly regions of Britain ; the apothecia are red and the 

By Cecil P. Hurst. 7 

cups or scyphi are branched in a digitate manner. C. Jlabelliformis 
(Wain.). 8. On thatch at Merle Down Brickworks ; a plant that occurs 
chiefly in the more hilly districts of Britain. G. macilenta var. ostreata 
(Nyl.). 7. Growing plentifully upon a birch trunk on the outskirts of 
Savernake Forest close to Marlborough ; apothecia were absent and are 
very rare on this plant, which is found sparingly here and there throughout 
England on old mossy trunks of trees. 

Lecidea parasema (Ach.). 7, 8. Very common on trees and hedges in 
this district, a lichen occurring plentifully throughout the British Isles ; 
the whitish or grey coloured thallus bears black apothecia which are at 
first plane and thinly margined, and then somewhat convex and immarg- 
inate. Var/avms (Nyl). 7. This variety, which has a yellow thallus 
and the apothecia whitish within, occurred on ash trees in Savernake Forest, 
between Crabtree Cottages and the London and Bath Road ; it is rare in 
the southern counties of England and in east and north Scotland ; Mr. 
Paulson wrote : — " Yes, I decide on L. parasema ^d^v.fiavens owing to the 
absence of colour within the apothecia." Var. elaeochroma (Ach.). 
8. On a tree in Foxbury Wood, probably common, as it is throughout 
the British Isles ; distinguished from the type by the yellowish or olivaceous 
thallus and the apothecia greyish-white within. 

Biatorella moriformis (Th. Fr.). 7. On palings near Bloxham Copse ; 
somewhat plentiful throughout England but not recorded for Scotland or 
Ireland ; the thallus turns greyish-green when moistened. 

Biatorina Lightfootii (Mudd). 7. Larches near Rhododendron 
Drive ; Mr. Paulson wrote : — " I believe your specimen on the bark of ' fir ' 
to be Biatorina Lightfootii ; it is not quite the normal, but the modified 
form that occurs on firs and has smaller apothecia." This lichen chiefly 
grows on birch, rarely on fir. 

Bilimbia caradocensis (A. L. Sm.). 7. Larches near Rhododendron 
Drive and also on a coniferous tree in a copse near Sicily Cottages ; Mr. 
Paulson wrote : — " The lichen you sent is Bilimhia caradocensis. It does 
not answer well to the chemical test, but I have noticed this more than 
once ; it is similar in appearance to Lecidea Friesii, but your plant is not 
the latter." Bilimhia caradocensis is local but plentiful in southern and 
central England, rare in northern England. B. Naegelii (Anzi). 7, 8. 
A very rare lichen of the south and west of England and the west of 
Ireland, occurring in Savernake Forest and Bedwyn Brails ; its distribution 
in this district is given in the preface to this paper. 

Buellia canescens (De Not.). 7, 8. This common species produces the 
rather rare apothecia freely on the churchyard wall at Great Bedwyn, the 
black apothecial discs contrasting sharply with the intensely white thallus. 
B. myriocarpa {Mudd) 7. On palings with Xanthoria polycarpa and 
X. lychnea between Great Bedwyn and Crofton ; a frequent species in 

Rhizocarpon alhoatrum var. epipolia (A. L. Sm.) 7. Brickwork 
of a bridge over the Kennet and Avon Canal near Oakhill, Froxfield ; 
common in England but rare in Scotland; the apothecia are immersed in 
the thallus which closely surrounds them. B. ohscuratum (Massal) 8. 
On Fore Bridge over the Kennet and Avon Canal between Little Bedwyn 

8 ^ast Wiltshire Lichens, 

and Oakhill ; Mr. Paulson wrote :— " The specimen with rather sunken 
apothecia I believe to be Rhizocarpon obscuratum ; it is not quite true to 
description, but I have found this to be the case on more than one 

Baeomyces rufus (D.C.)— *7, 8. Fruiting on gravelly soil near London 
Ride, Savernake Forest, and on sandy clay at Dod's Down ; an interesting 
ground lichen which forms a whitish crust on the soil and bears brown 
apothecia on short stalks ; it is closely related to the pink-fruited 
B. roseus which also grows in the Forest. 

Lecanactis ahietina (Koerb.) 7. Very frequent on roughbarked trees, 
especially oak, in the middle of Savernake Forest ; the thallus is very pale 
lilac in colour and the apothecia are rather large and covered with a 
thickish white bloom or pruina which conceals their black colour ; this 
lichen is found in Northern and Southern England, where it is rather rare. 
The thallus shows yellow when scraped slightly ; in spite of its specific 
name I have never seen it on conifers but nearly always on the oak, rarely 
on the Spanish Chestnut. 

Arthonia pruinata (Steudel) 8. On oak posts near Shalbourne ; Mr. 
Paulson wrote :— " The lichen with pinkish thallus is, I believe, Arthonia 
pruinata. The spores are very scarce or badly developed ; those I have 
seen are of the right size, but I can get no reaction with Ca.Cl. The alga 
of the thallus is Trentepohlia^ but another alga is sometimes present, still 
TrentepohliahVit not the normal alga. Call it A, pruinata till I write 
again about it." 

Opegrapha atra (Pers.) 7, 8. In the north-east part of Savernake 
Forest and also in Bedwyn Brails and elsewhere, not uncommon on trees. 
O. varia (Pers.) 7, 8. Tree in the north-east of Savernake Forest, 
also on an oak by a pond near the southern end of Bedwyn Brails ; 
apothecia black, prominent, and with a wide disc ; a common species. 

Phaeographis dendritica (Muell.-Arg.) 7. On three trees near Rhodo- 
dendron Drive ; a lichen that occurs on trees in wooded regions, chiefly in 
the south of England and the south of Ireland ; the lirellae or apothecia 
are branched in a dendroid manner and their discs are broad and flat with 
a grey bloom. 

Enterographa crassa (Fee) 7. Not uncommon and sometimes growing 
very luxuriantly in Savernake Forest : very fine specimens were seen near 
Eight Walks ; previously, doubtfully reported, in the absence of spores, 
from near Ramsbury. It is fairly common in the Channel Islands and 
throughout England, more especially in the southern counties. The 
apothecia are minute, brownish-black and punctiform or dot-shaped. 
Verrucaria aquatilis (Mudd), V. laevata (Arch.), V. aethiohola var. 
acrotella (A. L. Sm.) and V, submersa (Schaer.) 8. These rare aquatic 
Verrucariae grow on flints in the bed of a stream in Gully Copse, towards 
Stype Wood, near Bagshot ; the brook, which largely dries up in the 
summer, has dug a channel for itself in the soft beds of the Reading Sands 
and after a short course eastwards disappears into a swallow hole near 
Stype. This stream is not named on the 6-inch map of the Ordnance 
Survey, although its course is marked and the direction of its flow 
indicated by an arrow. F. aethiobola var. acrotella also occurs on very 

By Cecil F. Hurst. 9 

small rounded flints (pebbles) in the old bed of a stream in Foxbury Wood. 
V. submersa, the thallus of which turns green when moistened, is the com- 
monest of the lichens in the stream near Stype, where it is rather frequent. 
As far as English records go, V. aethiobola var. acrotella appears to be 
knowm, at least as far as British Museum specimens are concerned, only 
from southern, and V. laevata only from northern England, while V. 
aquatilis is rare in western and northern England. V. aethiobola var. 
acrotella has no thallus and the perithecia form tiny black prominences 
scattered on the flints. The locality where these aquatic lichens occur is 
in Berkshire by the old county boundaries, but the new limits place it 
more than half-a mile within South Wiltshire. V, viridula (Ach.) 8. 
On flints in Rivar Firs, near Shalbourne, and very fine on flints 
in Rivar Copse, near Inkpen, which is just over the Wiltshire border 
in Berkshire ; also on a flint on Conyger Hill, Great Bedwyn ; 
common throughout England ; the thallus is olive-brown and the 
perithecia large, black and deeply, immersed. V. muralis {Koh.) 8. On 
the mortar of a wall at Ham, near Shalbourne, a not uncommon English 
lichen ; the perithecia black, hemispherical, small and semi-immersed but 
superficial on the substratum and not leaving pits in the stone. F. 
rupestris (Schrad.) 7, 8. On the churchyard wall at St. Mary's Church, 
Marlborough (A. G. Lowndes); on the churchyard wall at St. Katharine's, 
Savernake, and also on a wall in Great Bedwyn village, etc., frequent 
throughout the British Isles ; a curious lichen growing on rocks chiefly 
calcareous ; the numerous black perit^ ecia secrete an acid which dissolves 
the limestone on which they are seated, so that in time they come to be 
almost hidden in the deepish pits they have hollowed out, only their tips 
being visible. 

Arthopyrenia fallax (Arn.). 7, 8. Trees in Birch Copse, Savernake Forest, 
and in Bedwyn Brails and Chisbury Wood and elsewhere ; in this plant the 
thallus is developed under the bark (hypophloeodal), which it colours light 
or dark brown ; a common English lichen ; the perithecia are black and semi- 
immersed. Edward Forster's Savernake Forest specimens, collected in 1809, 
are in the British Museum Herbarium. A. stigmatella (A. L. Sm.). 7. 
Beech between Braydon Oak and Marlborough ; not uncommon in the 
south, but rare in the north of England ; the small black perithecia form 
numerous dots on the greyish thallus and are unequal in size. 

Pyrenula nitida (Ach.). 7. On beeches in Savernake Forest, apparently 
rather uncommon ; easily known by the greasy aspect of the brown thallus. 


The following lichens were noted during April and May, 1922 : — 
Chaenotheca aeruginosa (A. L. Sm.). 7. On a large oak in Birch Copse, 
Savernake Forest ; Mr. Paulson wrote : — " The thallus has a slight 
tendancy to turn red on the addition of K which suggests Chaenotheca 
brunneola, but the structure of the apothecia, stalk and colour of spore 
mass have decided me for the former." The thallus was pale glaucous in 

10 East Wiltshire Lichens. 

my specimens and the spore mass brown ; this lichen is stated by Miss 
Smith to be local and scarce in south-western and northern England. 

Fhyscia orbicularis var. virella (Dalla Torre). 7. Trees near Haw 
Wood ; light-brown when dry, turning bright-green when moistened ; not 
uncommon in England, rarer in other parts of the country ; the Haw Wood 
plants grew with Ph. pulverulenta. 

Cladonia subsquamosa (Myl.). 7. On a stump near Rhododendron 
Drive ; the podetia were radiate-cristate ; widely distributed in the British 
Isles but not common ; the fruits are reddish-brown. 

Lecanactis premnea (Weddell), 7. Three trees near the King Oak, 
Savernake Forest; a plant with large black prominent apothecia and 
whitish thallus which is not uncommon in England. 

It is stated above that Lecanora galactina is one of the few lichens that 
grows in the immediate neighbourhood of large towns; I have seen it on 
rough-cast walls on the front at Cliftonville, Margate, and its variety 
dissipata is one of the few lichens of the London area, forming ink-like 
stains, thallus and apothecia being further blackened by smoke, on 
composite walls, etc., in the more open districts such as South Kensington, 
Notting Hill, and Camden Town. Specimens from the two latter localities 
are in the Natural History Museum at South Kensington. 


By John Sadler. 

There is, or was, in the parish of Cricklade St. Sampson a chapel at 
Widhill, which was the subject of a suit in the Exchequer Court in the 
early days of James I. There was also a manor, of which the early history 
is wanting. 

The suit in the Court of Exchequer was brought by Andrew Lenn, the 
Vicar of Cricklade St. Sampson, against William Bonde, and alleged that 
the vicars had not only the cure of souls of that parish — being great 
and replenished with 2000 people and upwards — and that the tithing of 
Northwiddell had time out of mind been reputed and taken to be part of 
the parish, and there was a Chapel of Ease called the Chapel of Northwidhill 
within the parish of Cricklade St. Sampson, being distant a mile and a half 
from the parish Church, the which chapel had always been parcel and 
member of the parish Church and dedicated and employed for the service 
of God, and that the vicars ha,d always celebrated divine service there, and 
enjoyed the tithes and glebe. The Dean and Chapter of Sarum, the patrons, 
had presented complainant about five years previously and he had ever 
since celebrated divine service and preached in the parish Church and also 
at the Chapel of Northwidhill and had enjoyed the glebe and tithes, until 
of late one William Bonde pretending the Chapel of Northwiddhill was a 
concealed chapel, about June previously procured a grant or lease thereof 
from the King, by the name of the rectory of Estwiddhill, and did most 
disorderly enter the said chapel by force, kept possession, tore up the pews 
and turned the house of prayer into a private dwelling, and brought actions 
against complainant and others. 

Defendant's answer is not on the file : but complainant's replication says 
the chapel had always been a chapel of ease and was a rectory or parsonage 
and not founded or used for superstitious uses. It had been called some- 
times the Chapel of Widhill, sometimes the Chapel of Northwidhill, and 
sometimes the parsonage of Estwidhill, and all were the self-same thing, 
lies and Kemble mentioned in the Answer occupied under complainant, and 
paid tithes to him. [Exchequer B. Sf A. James /., Wilts \^1. F.B.O.] 

As appears by the Bill, William Bonde had already brought his action 
against the vicar and others, including George andMichaelKemble — possibly 
sons of William Kemble, of Widhill, gent., whose will [P.C.C. 31 Wallopp] 
was proved 30th May, 1600— and threatened to take the profits of the glebe 
and the tithes. He does not seem to have met with much success, as the 
Court on 21st Oct., 1605, ordered him to remove himself from possession of 
the chapel ; to suffer the vicar to say divine service there, to celebrate the 
sacraments as had been formerly accustomed, and to take to his own use 
the profits of the glebe and the tithes, upon bond of MO to the King to 
answer to the Court if judgment should be given against him upon the 
information for intrusion. William Bonde was ordered to set up the pews 

12 Widkill Chapel and Manor. 

by him pulled down and to answer the vicar's bill within eight days. [Excheq. 
Decrees Sf Orders^ 3 Jas. /., Ser. 11.^ vol. 3.] 

On 29th November following a further order was made. It appeared 
that the defendant had not given up possession and a process of attachment 
had been awarded against him ; defendant submitted an affidavit stating 
that he had then done so and removed his wife and children and household 
goods and would have done so before if he could have found a house to 
go to ; and that he had endeavoured to put up the pews but could not find 
a carpenter, but would with all convenient speed cause them to be erected 
and set up. The Court ordered the attachment to be discharged and the 
contempt respited until the trial [for .intrusion] ; Bonde being required, 
according to his own offer, to build up the pews again before Christmas, 
and to leave in Court the costs of the attachment before the discharge was 
sealed. [/6. vol. 2.] 

In the meantime evidence had been taken on Commission at Cricklade 
on 23rd September, by Sir Henry Bainton, Sir Henry Poole, and Symon 
James, gent. The witnesses were only five : Robert Waters, husbandman, 
aged 70 ; Alee Dennis, aged 80 ; Peeter Knight, yeoman, aged 30, son-in-law 
of Ptobert Withers, late Vicar of Cricklade ; Thomas Withers, yeoman, aged 
40, brother of the late vicar ; and Jynnyver Slatter, husbandman, aged 90 ; 
all of Cricklade, except Robert Withers, who was of Bishops Cannings, and 
all agreed that the Chapel of Est Widhill with the glebe and tithes had 
always belonged to the Vicars of Cricklade ; they had known the parsonage 
house, but did not know whether there was a parsonage there or not — except 
in name. Alee Dennis deposed that in Queen Mary's time her father, who 
was an inhabitant of Estwidhill and paid tithes there, brought an action 
against Sir John Cockle, then Vicar, for not saying service in the Chapel, and 
had an order to compel him to serve if he had lived ; and said "they used 
to marrie Christen and Administer the Sacraments theere bothie in the 
tyme of Supersticon and Sithence." [Excheq. Depns.^ 3, Jas. I., Michaelmas 
I'erm^ Wilts^ No. 45,] These depositions were returned into Court and 
ordered to be read and used, but counsel for Bonde affirmed that they were 
taken after the return of the Commission, and they were accordingly 
suppressed unless good cause to the contrary should be shown. But Robert 
Pittes, of Kemble, gent., made an affidavit on 9th February [1606] that he 
engrossed the depositions, which were taken on 23rd Sept., and not on 23rd 
Oct., as is mentioned in the head and title, and the same was misentered by 
by him in negligence and for no other object. The Court ordered that the 
date should be amended and the depositions used ; and as the vicar was 
" of small living " and craved a speedy hearing, the case was ordered to be 
heard the first sitting next term. {Excheq. Decrees Sf Orders, Jas. /., Ser. 
II.. vol. 3 Jo. 166^] 

On 30th June, 1606, the cause came on for hearing, but, as defendant did 
not appear, it was postponed for a week, and on 7th July it came up again ; 
defendant again failed to appear, and as it was shown by the records of the 
Court that after commencing his action against the vicar he had not pro- 
ceeded to trial, but had (as was certified) commenced a suit in the Court of 
Common Pleas, the Court finally ordered that the said Andrew Lenn and 
his successors, Vicars of Cricklade St. Sampson, should quietly enjoy the 

By John Sadler. 13 

said chapel, glebe, and tithes as parcel of the said vicarage, &c., until on a 
new bill to be brought by the said Bonde on other and better matter to be 
showed and proved, it should be otherwise ordered. And it was further 
ordered that the said Bonde was not to proceed further against the said 
Lenn concerning the premises, but was to pay 40s. to plaintiff towards his 
charges for wrongful vexation. 

The Manor. 
Widehille and Wildehille are mentioned in Domesday, and Canon Jones 
considered them to be different portions of Widhill, " the name now of some 
farms in the parishes of Broad and Little Blunsdon"; the first probably 
North Widhill, which was held of Alured of Marlbrough, and the other he 
considered to be West Widhill, which was held by Tetbald and Humfrey, 
two of the King's oflScersV 

I can find nothing definite about the manor until, soon after the lawsuit 
already mentioned, it came into the hands of Robert Jenner, whom I cannot 
satisfactorily identify. He was grantee, with his wife, Elizabeth, daughter 
of Thomas Longston, citizen and grocer of London, then deceased, of a 
tenement with garden and orchard, and an inn called the Swan, in Dartford, 
Kent, from his brother-in-law, Henry Longston, in satisfaction of his wife's 
portion and of her claim in the estate of her father under the custom of 
the City of London. Robert Jenner is described as a citizen and goldsmith 
of London in the indenture of conveyance dated 16th December, 1625. 
[Close Rolls, 2 Chas. I., pt. 2, No. 18.] 

Two years later he figures as a Wiltshire landowner. An indenture of 

I5th November, 1627, between Thomas Cooke, of Cote, gent., and Robert 

Jenner, of Widhill [Close Rolls, 3 Chas. I., pt. 19, No. 12.], recites that 

Thomas Cooke of New Sarum, merchant, by indenture of 23rd May, 28 

Henry VII., granted to Edward Tame, of Fairford, all his lands, &c., in 

Widhill at a yearly rent of £3, which rent had descended to Thomas Cooke 

of Cote ; and Robert Jenner, being then lawfully seised of the fee of 

the lands, Thomas Cooke sold to him the annual rent of £3. It is not shown 

how Robert Jenner acquired possession of Widhill, whether by purchase or 

inheritance, as nothing earlier on the subject has come to light. His dealings 

in land were not confined to Widhill ; he had about this time purchased 

the manor of Eysey from Sir John Hungerford, of Down Ampney, and Sir 

Anthony Hungerford, his son, apparently in the names of himself, John 

Jenner, of Crudwell, yeoman, and William Cibbs, citizen and goldsmith of 

London ; for on 2nd March, 4 Charles I., John Jenner and Wm. Gibbs, in 

performance of the trust reposed in them by Robert Jenner, conveyed to him 

all their estate in the manor of Eysey, lately purchased by him of Sir John 

and Sir Anthony Hungerford [lb. 6 Charles /., pt. 7, No. 11]. He did not, 

however, keep this manor of Eysey long, but sold it 17th November, 1630, 

and two closes called Farmer's Closes, heretofore one, in Eysey and Latton, 

in conjunction with John Jenner and Wm. Gibbs, to Edmund Dunche, of 

Little Wyttenham, Berks. [lb., 6 Charles /., pt. 10, No. 32.] Some years 

later, on 14th February, 23 Charles 1. (1648), he purchased the manor of 

Marston Meysey and all the property there, which had belonged to the 

Bishop of Salisbury ,f or £1092 12s 9g?., from the trustees of Parliament for the 

1 4 Widhill Chapel and Manor. 

sale of lands and possessions of the late Archbishop and Bishops. [76. 23 
Chmies /., pt.W, No. 6.] Marston Meysey was then part of the ecclesiastical 
parish of Meysey Hampton, in Gloucestershire ; and according to a petition 
to Parliament from the inhabitants it appears that there had formerly been 
a Chapel of Ease there, part of which still remained but had been converted 
to other uses by the late Bishops and their tenants or farmers, and the in- 
habitants asked permission to re-build and prayed that the tithes and 
duties arising locally might be assigned to them for the benefit of a godly 
and pious divine to preach to them, &c. Parliament by an ordinance in 
April, 1648, gave permissiou for building a Chapel or Church where the 
former Chapel stood, and for the use of the materials thereof : the said 
Chapel to be a parochial Church called by the name of Marston Mesey ; and 
the bounds and limits as they were known to li^n the County of Wilts to 
be the bounds and limits of the parish of Marstra Meysey : the Church to 
be a rectory ; the incumbents to be from time to time, and at all times 
"eligible" by Robert Jenner and his heirs and assigns, and presentable 
only by Robert Jenner, being lord of the manor, his heirs and assigns, as 
the patron; the two parishes of Meysey Hampton and Marston .Meysey 
to be several and distinct, discharged from all parochial duty, to each other, 
except that the Rector of Marston Meysey was to pay to the Rector of 
Meysey Hampton £*6 14s. towards the first fruits at such times as they 
should be due and payable by the Rector of Meysey Hampton. [Lords' 
Journal, 22nd April, 1648.] 

Robert Jenner died Vth December, 1651, and was buried in Cricklade 
St. Sampson's Church, where there is an altar tomb with an inscription to 
his memory [Sir T. Phillipps], describing him as a citizen and goldsmith 
of London, and aged 67. It records his gifts of eight almshouses in the 
Abbie of Malmesbury, with £40 a year for their maintenance, and a free 
school to " this " parish, with ^20 a year for its maintenance ; his building 
of the parish Church of Marston Meysey " at his own Proper Cost and 
Charge " : and his gifts to London — ^20 to St. Bartholomew's Hospital, 
£15 to the Goldsmiths' Company, for fifteen of the poorest men of 
the company, £5 to the poor of St. John Zacharias Parish, and £b 
to the poor of St. Leonard's Parish in Foster Lane, all yearly for ever. 
It will be observed that there is no mention of any family or local con- 
nection. John Jenner, of Crudwell, was presumably his brother ; He made 
his will 29th October, 1647 [F.CC. 114 Fembroke], leaving the residue 
of his goods, &c., to his kinsman, Henry Ottrig, his exor., and appointing 
his brother, Robert Jenner, one of the overseers ; but he mentions 
no children, l^he Visitation of Gloucestershire 1682 — 3 [Edn. Fenwich ^ 
Metcalfe] has a pedigree of Oatridge, of Butler's Court, Lechlade, which 
begins with Simon Oatridge, of Garsdon, Wilts, who married Jane, sister 
of Robert Jenner, of Widhill, Esq., and had seven sons, including Henry, 
Robert, Daniel, and John, and a daughter, Abigail — names which all appear 
in the will of Robert Jenner, But there were other Jenners in the neigh- 
bourhood, as the same will plainly shows [F.C.C. 242 Grey]. By it Robert 
Jenner left ^200 a year and a house in Foster Lane, London, to his wife for 
life; the manor of Marston Meysie to Robert Jenner, son of William 
Jenner the elder, of Marston Meysie ; the advowson of the rectory there to 

By John Sadler, 15 

John Jenner, the younger, son of John Jenner, of Marston Meysie ; 
household goods at Widhill to " kinsman " John Jenner the younger ; 
he directed that his kinsman, Henry Oatridge, should enjoy the 
lands at Widhill, except the house and two closes until \hlanh\ 
and that his kinsman, John Jenner, should let " his unckle Henry 
Oatridge " have possession. The manor of Widhill was settled by deed of 
20th May, 19 Charles I., on his wife for life. In a codicil it is stated that 
Henry Oatridge had been granted a lease of Widhill at a yearly rent of £450, 
out of which £40 was to be paid to the poor of Malmesbury [? for the 
maintenance of the almshouses]. It is probable that Robert Jenner had a 
daughter, as a marriage licence was granted by the Bishop of London on 
15th May, 1632, to Thomas Trevor, of St. Bride's, bachelor, aged 20, son 
and heir of Thomas Trevor, Kt., one of the Barons of the Exchequer, and 
Anne Jenner, of 8t. Leonard's, Foster Lane, spinster, aged 15, daughter of 
Robert Jenner, of the same, who consented. But assuming it to be so, as 
the description warrants, it is strange that the name of Trevor does not 
appear in the will, unless the daughter, Anne, died without issue before her 
father. The widow, Elizabeth Jenner, died 23rd November, 1658, and was 
buried at Cricklade. 

John Jenner succeeded to the property at Widhill. He was under age 
at the date of the death of Robert Jenner, and after a time got into diffi- 
culties so great that the property became the subject of many lawsuits, 
from 1684, if not earlier. John Jenner had to fly from home and was out- 
lawed. He continued an outlaw till his death in 1706. 

His only surviving son, Nathaniel, succeeded him, and took action to 
recover that part of the estate which had been seized under the outlawry. 
At first, in 1710, he claimed that Robert Jenner was his great-uncle, and 
that John Jenner, his father, was a very near kinsman and relative to the 
same Robert [Chancery Proceedings, Bridges, 249, 31] ; and two years later, 
in a Chancery suit concerning the school at Cricklade [lb. Bridges, 249, 32] 
he stated that Robert Jenner being minded to settle his estate so that it 
should remain in his name and blood, and for the better advancement of 
" his nephew," John Jenner, complainant's father, did by indenture of 20th 
May, 1643, between himself and John Jenner, of Marston Mesey, in con- 
sideration of his natural affection to the said John Jenner the elder, "his 
cousin german," and to John Jenner, his son, and William Jenner and 
Robert James, the younger, brothers of John Jenner, the elder, covenant, 
&c. Unfortunately I have not been able to trace this indenture as enrolled 
in any of the Courts, but the information is precise though not consistent 
in itself ; and it is late in being brought forward. This bill goes on to state 
that Henry and Daniel Oatridge, under colour of a nuncupative codicil to 
the will of Robert Jenner, built a school in Cricklade and placed a school- 
master there, paying him £20 yearly till John Jenner came into possession ; 
that John Jenner continued the payment for some years, but when he got 
possession of the deeds, which he could not do at first, he discontinued it 
under legal advice. Complainant having succeeded his father under the 
deed of 20th May, 1643, as his only surviving son, was greatly disturbed by 
defendants, the churchwardens of both parishes in Cricklade, who had 
taken proceedings for the re-establishment of the school ; to which 

16 Widhill Oha'pel and Manor. 

complainant had replied, and the other side had not proceeded ; but they had 
obtained a commission for charitable uses which without notice to him had 
decreed that he should pay £20 a year and arrears for four years and a half. 
The defendants in their reply to the bill gave a brief statement of the 
starting of the school and said that Robert Jenner desired that Mr. Durham, 
who lived at Staunton with Mr. [or Mrs ] Hippisley, should be the first 
master and teach Latin scholars only. Cricklade boys to pay 4s. yearly, 
and others what the master might arrange with their parents. Mr. Durham 
refused the mastership and Mr. Farmer was appointed ; he was succeeded 
by Francis Green, clerk ; after him John Jenner, who had come of age, 
nominated Mr. Nicholas Adee ; after him Mr. Edward Davis and several 
others ; the last Mr. John Haugh, who had been master for many years. 
The executors paid the £20 a year, and John Jenner continued it until, 
about thirty-two years previously, he absconded. John Haugh having been 
surety for many of John Jenner's debts, was forced to leave and had fled to 
Ireland. While John Jenner was outlawed the estate was miserably torn 
to pieces by his creditors, and the parishioners were unwilling to engage in 
suits with so many creditors, who during the time were much engaged in 
suits with one another. Complainant was said to have cut ofif the entail 
and refused to appoint a schoolmaster or pay the £20 a year. He did not 
answer the defendants' bill in the time allowed, and the decision of the 
Commission for Charitable Uses was given on 8th February, [then] last — 

One of the defendants to the first of these two bills, Henry Morgan, a 
tenant, said the Mansion House was demolished or fallen down before his 
time, some of the outhouses were sold by complainant, and part of the 
stones used by his servants to repair the highway ; he had heard of an 
ancient chapel on the estate, and that it had been down many years. There 
was, however, a capital messuage included in the sale in 1769. 

Nathaniel Jenner died in 1732, leaving a widow, Catherine, an only 
surviving son, Nathaniel, and two daughters, Margaret and Mary. He had 
two other sons, John and Robert, who died shortly before their father. 
The widow was dead in 1754, and so was the daughter, Mary, as adminis- 
tration was granted of the goods, &c., of both in that year to Nathaniel, 
the son and brother respectively. 

Nathaniel Jenner, the second of the name, died 17th February, 1764, 
leaving his only sister, Margaret, wife of Thomas Read, a brazier, of 
Wootton Bassett, his heir at law. By his will [P. CO. 144 Simpson], dated 
16th August, 1761, and proved 14th April, 1764, he left all his property, 
real and personal, excepting a few legacies, to Edward Pleydell, Esq., and 
Richard Kinneir, surgeon, both of Cricklade, in trust for the payment of 
his father's debts and his own, any surplus was to go to his kinsman, Adye 
Baldwin, of Slough, Bucks, innholder. What the kinship of Adye Baldwin 
to the testator was does not appear. The estate was once more the subject 
of lawsuits ; which were settled by a decree of the Court of Chancery 
dated 27th June, 1766. The real property was variously valued at £500 to 
£800 a year, and was mortgaged to Thomas Fettiplace for a trifle over 
£5000. The mortgagee was really in possession, but allowed Nathaniel 
Jenner to live in the manor house and to take £70 a year out of the rents. 

By John Sadler. 17 

The personal estate had shrunk to the furniture of the house, one horse, 
some hay, and a few other things of small value ; some plate was claimed 
by Walter Parker, brother of the testator's widow (there is no mention of 
her in the will), and a few things were taken away by Margaret Jenner, 
aunt of deceased ; Richard Kinneir, the surviving executor and trustee, had 
in his possession a gold watch, a gold ring, and sleeve buttons, which the 
widow claimed. The Court confirmed the will and ordered that the estate 
should be sold. Edward Pleydell, who had proved the will with his co- 
trustee, had died before putting in an answer to the bill which had been 
presented by the residuary legatee. Within three years VVidhill passed to 
Lord Folkestone. On 9th March, 1769, by an indenture which included, 
apparently, everyone having an interest in the property, Walter Parker, of 
Lisshill, brother of the widow of Nathaniel Jenner, and Richard Kinneir, 
the surviving trustee, at the request of Thomas Read and Margaret, his 
wife, the heir at law, John Escott and William Wasborough, surviving 
assignees of the estate of Thomas Read, who was a bankrupt, and Elizabeth 
Baldwin, the widow of Adye Baldwin, the residuary legatee, sold the manor 
of North Widdell ah. Widhill, to Jacob, Viscount Folkestone, grandson of 
Sir Mark Stewart Pleydell, of Coleshill, for -G18600. Sir Mark Pleydell 
had been accepted by the Court of Chancery as the" best purchaser but had 
died before the conveyance could be carried out. 




By The Earl of Kerry. 
{Continued from vol. xli., p. 522.) 

While the re-building and re-decoration of Bowood House were in progress 
changes no less important were being made in its surroundings. 

We have seen how, during the ' Interregnum,' the deer were driven off 
and King's Bowood Park was broken up into lots, which were separately 
sold to supporters of the Commonwealth. The ground was then no 
doubt 'assarted,' or cleared for the purpose of farming, and although 
the original purchasers had soon afterwards to make way for the 
Royalist grantee, Sir Orlando Bridgeman, it would seem that the place 
thenceforth remained a 'park' in name only. Maps of 1753 — 4, probably 
prepared for John Lord Shelburne at the time of his purchase, show the 
ground minutely subdivided by enclosures. Four separate farms then 
existed within the park : — the Lodge (now the Home) Farm ; Litton's Farm 
(on the site of the present Home Farm cottages) ; Shadwell's (now the 
' Osprey ') ; ^ and Granger's, now Queenwood. These survived as such 
for a time, but their situation, so near his home, did not fall in with the 
second Lord Shelburne's ideas, and with the exception of the Home Farm 
they appear to have been disestablished soon afte^his succession. The 
park was then taken up for sheep, in the breeding ofwhich it is clear from 
sundry notes and memoranda that its new owner took a lively interest. We 
find his wife writing in 1767 in her invaluable, if sometimes sententious, 
diary, "My Lord is very much satisfied with Farmer Mansfield, by whose 
care the Park is got into fine order, and the flock of sheep increasing fast. 
These circumstances and the number of workpeople employed there, makes 
Bowood have no appearance of the skarsity so allarmingly conspicuous 
in most parts of the country and so severely felt by the poor. The Rigour of 
the season gives apprehensions for the ensuing harvest and increase of 
every kind, but we ought to learn by past mercies not to despair of future 
ones." A later map dated 1778, shows all the old enclosures removed, 
while a 'pleasure ground' round the house, a considerable area under 
plantation, and a large sheet of ornamental water, all bear evidence of the 
work which had been carried out in the interval. 

The principal instrument in these changes was Lancelot, better known 
by his nickname of ' Capability,' Brown. Starting life in Lord Cobham's 
kitchen garden, at Stow, Brown had quickly risen to fame as a designer of 
' landscape ' gardens, which, under his influence, soon replaced many of 
the formal gardens of the seventeenth century. He first visited Bowood 
in 1757, during the lifetime of John Lord Shelburne, and a letter from the 

^ This curious name, by which the group of buildings forming the estate 
workshops is now known, apparently originated in a small enclosure hard 
by, formerly called the * Horse Bray.' 

King's Bowood Park. 19 

latter to his son, Lord Fitzmaurice, gives an amusing account of what then 
took place : — , 

" What would you give to know the consequences of the visit of the 
famous Mr. Brown and the fruit of the 30 guineas which I gave him 1 
He passed two days with me and eat & drank at rather a more elegant 
table than you saw here (if that be possible), and twenty times assured 
me that he does not know a finer place in England than Bowood Park, 
and that he is sure no Prince in Europe has so fine a fruit garden. This 
I protest is all that passed between him and me, to the astonishment 
of all who were witnesses or who have since enquired (and many have), 
what services he did for me, or what councils he gave. While the 
neighbours wonder, I laugh, because crying will not bring back my 
three-tiraes-ten guineas. However I am persuaded that the man 
means to present me at some future time, with a well-digested plan for 
this place, and perhaps to come to me to explain it. He was very 
careful in viewing and examining, but was so very reserved as to any 
hints concerning what would improve the place, that he appeared no 
more of the Profession which introduced him to me, than would the 
most unmathematical man in his Majesty's 20th Ivegiment.^ I must 
do him the justice to say that he desired I should lessen the sum in- 
tended for him, but you know that matter was stipulated with Mr. 
Bayntun,^ and I would not depart from it.^ 

The ' well digested ' plan was not, however, produced during the lifetime 
of the elder Shelburne, and it was not till 1762 that the following agreement 
was signed between his son and successor and the famous gardener : — 

An agreement made between The Earl of Shelburne on the one part, 
and Lancelot Brown on the other, for the underwritten ARTICLES of 
Works, to be performed at Bowood in the County of Wilts : — (To Wit.) 

AliTICLE the 1st. To make a Sunk Fence to enclose the Gardens, 
beginning at the Stable Office and ending at the Head of the intended 
Water ; in shape and direction as agreed to by his Lordship, and build 
in it a dry Wall. 

ARTI(3lE the 2nd. To make all the Garden which is to be enclosed 
within the above fence, and plant all the Trees Shrubbs, tfec, as also to 
make all the Walks whether of Sand or Grass, and to sow such Parts 
of it with grass seeds as are thought necessary to be in Turf. 

ARTICLE the 3rd. To Level all the Ground between the Kitchen 
Garden and the Water, as also to Drain, Plant, and sow with Grass 
seeds all such parts as shall be thought Necessary to be in Grass, 
making the whole compleat. 

^ The regiment (commanded by Wolfe) in which Lord Fitzmaurice was 
then serving. 

2 Edward Rolt, second son of the heiress of the Bayntons had assumed 
the name of Baynton ; he was created a baronet in 1762. 

' John Earl of Shelburne to Viscount Fitzmaurice, Nov. 2nd, 1757. 

C 2 

20 King's Bawood Parle, 

ARTICLE the 4th. To make a good and sufficient Head, to cause 
the Water to flow in such a shape and manner as is agreed to by his 
Lordship, making all the Plugs, Grates, and wastes for the discharge 
of Floods and for occasionally drawing down the Water ; to level and 
make all its edges, as also the second Head and Sham Bridge, to flow 
the Water up to the Wood, and to keep the same in repare for one year 
after the finishing. 

ARTICLE the 5th. To make all the Roads or Approaches to the 
House, beginning at the entrance into the Park from Chippenham and 
Communicating them to the House, Offices, &c., as also that frdrii the 
Road which is to be made through the Ground which belongs to Mr. 
Holland, beginning at the said Road, crossing Mr. Hungerford's, and 
so on over the sham Bridge or second Head, and from thence in the most 
natural and easy direction to the House Offices, &c. To level, Drain, 
alter, Plant, and sow with grass seeds all the ground on the South 
front, down to the Water. 

ARTICLE the 6th. To Level, Plant, and take up such Trees, and 
Busshes as shall be thought proper to be removed, in that Ground which 
is on the opposite side of the intended Water, beginning at the great 
Head, and ending at the Ground which belongs to the Colledge ; Carry- 
ing a Sand Walk from the above mentioned Ground in the I)est 
" direction for shade, Prospect, &c., as also to continue the same Walk 
along the great Pond Head, and so on till it communicates with the 
: Garden Sand Walk. 

ARTICLE the 7th. To repair alter and enlarge the pond below the 
Lodge ^ according to the stakes put in for that purpose. 

ARTICLE the 8th. To make the Great Plantations on each side of 
the Mausoleum, and all those Plantations Proposed to verge the Park 
in general, according to the Plan agreed to by his Lordship, and to 
■ " drain the wet parts. 

The said Lancelot Brown does promise for himself his Heirs Adminis- 
trators, and Assigns, to finish in the best manner in his or their Power, 
between the date hereof and June One thousand seven hundred and 
sixty six, the above written eight Articles. 

For the Performance of the above written eight Articles, The Earl of 
Shelburne does Promise for himself his Heirs Administrators, or 
Assigns, to pay or cause to be paid to the said Lancelot Brown, his 
Heirs Administrators or Assigns, the sum of Four thousand tliree 
hundred pounds of Lawful! Money of England at the underwritten 
Times of Payment. His Lordship to find six able Horses during the 
execution of the Work, as also Carts and Wheelbarrows and to keep 
the same in repair ; Brown to find all Forrest Trees as also under-wood ; 
His Lordship to find the curious trees & tree seeds, Brown to plant 
them ; His Lordship to find what rough Timber may be wanted, for 
Rails, Plugs, and Grates ; Brown to Dig & Carry the Stones for the Dry- 
Wall, Drains and Head of the Water, as also for the Sham Bridge. 

2 i.6., Home Farm. The pond no longer exists, but the pond-bead 
can still be seen. _ 

By the Earl of Kerry, 


The Times of Payment. 

In April 1763 

In October 

In March 1764 


In March 1765 


In March 1766 

On finishing the Work 


























£4,300 . 

August the 10th, 1762. 

Lancelot Brown. 

The 'lay out' of the park, as planned by Brown, is shown in a map 
prepared not long after the making of the above contract, and it appears 
that the scheme proposed was carried out with only minor variations. 
Its principal feature was the lake, which was formed by the construction 
of a dam or pond- head across the valley on the eastern side of the 
park. The pent-up waters of the Whetham stream — the 'Fynamore Water ' 
of the early perambulations — soon covered a considerable area, and the 
former pond, which had been just below the house, was swallowed up, 
as also a group of cottages which stood near the bridge spanning the 
stream a little higher up. This was the village of Mannings Hill, which 
belonged to Mr. George Gary : it was purchased by Lord Shelburne in 
1766, when the pond-head was in course of completion, but though provision 
was made elsewhere for its inhabitants, tradition says that one of them 
resolutely refused to leave her home until she was forced to do so by the 
rising waters ! 

The old boundary of the park on its south-eastern face ran, as we have 
seen, in. an almost direct lir^e from Horslepride (Sandy Lane) Gate to 
Mannings Hill, crossing the centre of Wire's i^lain and Clark's Hill.^ 
Skirting this pale was a road or pack way, which after reaching Mannings 
Hill Bridge turned right-handed through Laggus Farm and so crossed the 
Alders Common to Calne, but the new lake cut athwart its track and 
Shelburne appears to have been undecided in the first instance whether to 
carry the road over the water or to make a new one, which would at 
once serve the purpose of an approach to Bo wood and carry travellers 
from Sandy Lane by a more direct line to Calne. 

There are several drawings at Bowood, and at the Soane Museum, of 
architectural bridges some 70 feet in span, evidently designed in relation, 
to the first of these alternatives. The second plan, however, was 
eventually adopted, the road to Calne being taken from Cuff's Corner to 
Pondtail, where the present less ambitious bridge was built to carry it 
over the water, while a connecting link with Bowood House was made across 

See map, Part I. Wilts Arch. Mag., xli., 407. 

22 King's Bowood Park. 

the Washway stream, joining the CalneRoad at the top of Holland's Moor. 
It seems to have been at first intended that this approach should cross the 
valley by the dam below the Store Ponds, which is no doubt the ' Second 
Head' of Brown's contract. From the same document it is clear that 
this 'second head' was to have been adorned by the 'Sham Bridge,' 
and a "design of a bridge in imitation of the aqueducts of the ancients, 
proposed to be built over a branch of the lake at Bowood " may be 
seen amongst the published engravings of the brothers Adam.^ In the 
event, however, the Bowood approach was carjied across the Washway 
stream somewhat higher up the valley and without any external embellish- 
ments. The new road was afterwards extended to Calne, passing through 
the Pillars Lodge and Quemerford.^ 

The project is referred to by Bentham in a letter to his friend, George 
Wilson, written during his first visit to Shelburne at Bowood :— ^ 

"There seems no want of money here: grounds laying out, and 
plantations making, upon a large scale — a gate going to be made with 
a pyramid on each side of it, for an approach to the house at six miles 
distance: the pyramids to be at least 100 feet high. At this place a 
road, which is to be made from the house, is to join the road from 
London to Devizes. This new road will leave Calne (through which 
the present road runs) on the right, and save a mile or two. I call it 
l^gypt, in the way you have deep valleys, with meadows and a water 
mill at the bottom of them ; and the sides, craggy rocks, with water 
gushing out of them — ^just for all the world as if Moses had been there.' ^ 

Some small properties had to be acquired by Shelburne for the purpose 
of these alterations ; these were thrown into the new park and the old 
road over Clark's Hill was obliterated though its line can still be 
distinctly traced beyond the lake on Laggus Farm. 

There are certain items shown on Brown's map which do not seem 
to have been proceeded with. One of these is a ' Triumphal arch,' 
the erection of which was contemplated at the northern end of the 
park, not far from the present Derry Hill gateway. Another is an 
* Intended Mill,' shewn near the pond head. Some ancient drawings 
of milling machinery amongst the Bowood archives probably relate to the 
latter project, and though there is no evidence that a mill was ever built^ 

^ The Works in Architecture of Robert and James Adam, Esquires — pub- 
lished in 1779. 

2 Under a Turnpike Act of 1792 (32 Geo. II , ch. 114) a new road was 
made from the "Land of Nod" (Chittoe Heath) to Calne, via Whetham. 
This superseded the Horslepride to Calne Road for purposes of public 
traffic, but a special arrangement was made between the owners of Bowood 
and of Whetham under which a right was preserved for the former to pas& 
through Whetham Farm and for the latter to go from Whetham through 
Bowood to the Derry Hill Lodge. 

, ' August 28th, 178L Memoirs of Bentham, ch. v., p. 96. Bentham was 
evidently somewhat misinformed as to the scope of the project. 

Bij the Earl of Kerry. 23 

the mill race was prepared and forms one of the existing outlets for the 
water of the lake. 

The improvements of Bowood Park continued long after Brown's personal 
influence had ceased to count, but it is clear that he was responsible in the 
first instance, not only for the lake, but for the lay-out of the gardens or 
pleasure grounds with the sunk fence which divides them from the park, 
for the planting of the major part of the Big Wood, and for many of the 
older clumps of trees within the park, as well as for the 'Verge' which 
surrounds it.^ 

Lady Shelburne's diary coincides with the period of Capability's activities 
in and around Bowood. We give below a few extracts to illustrate the 
progress of his work : — 

1765. May l2th. There remains ... to form a considerable piece 
of water, on the head of which they are now at work. 

May 30th. Mr. Browne's plantations are very young but promising. 
Aug. 5th. Mr. Browne the Gardener came to dinner, and spent the 
evening in giving directions to his man. 

1766. Jan. 12th. I found Lord 8helburne talking to a Mr. Case about 
the construction of pond heads, and desiring him to look at that Mr. 
Brown is making at Bowood Park, on his way to Lord Egmont, where 
he works. 

June 17th. As soon as breakfast was over we took a walk and were 
vastly pleased with the effect of the water, which flows into a magnificent 
river, and only wants now to rise to its proper height, which it comes 
nearer to every day. 

July 2nd. Walked down to the head, which had so nearly been overflow'd 
by the extraordinary rains, that they have been forced to cut a passage 
for the water into Farmer Cowley's field. 

1767. April 17th. The work they are now upon is levelling the lawn 
before the house to the edge of the water. 

1768. July loth. To our great pleasure we found the place in perfect 
good order, except for the necessity that there has been of letting out 
ye water which has not yet had time to fill. The Menagerie has in- 
creased extremely. 

Aug. 5th. We went to Farmer Angel's, with whom my Lord talk'd of a 
purchase of two lives, which he wishes to make of him upon his estate 
on the top of the Alders, in order to bring in the road from London 
that way, but which ye Farmer did not seem disposed to treat upon. 
We therefore left that transaction as we found it. 

1769. June 1st. We arrived at Bowood and were delighted to find it in 
so much verdure and beauty. It is very much improved by ye alteration 
of ye ground on ye other side of the water. 

Aug. 24th. This evening Lord Shelburne drove me to the downs by the 

'The original boundary of King's Bowood on the Buckhill side must have 
been set back when these operations took place. The old stone gateposts 
which are traditionally (and no doubt correctly) supposed to mark the limits 
of the ' Liberty ' at this point, are some distance outside the present fence. 

24 King's Bowood Park. 

new Koad he is making and shew'd me an alteration he designs in the 
approach to ye House. It is indeed very fine and if my Lord can 
purchase three fields from my Lord Bottetourt or from Mr. Pitt, the 
whole extent of ye country between us and ye downs will be his, and 
we shall have a magnificent drive to them. 

To the foregoing may be added Lady Shelburne's characteristic 
account of an evening walk in the company of Colonel Money,' and 
Tom Cumming, the Quaker, who on a former occasion had brought Doctor 
Johnson with him on a visit to Bowood. It would hardly be guessed that 
the party during the course of this adventurous expedition were never more 
than half a mile from Bowood House, but it must be remembered that the 
ladies of that day were unaccustomed to take much walking exercise and 
had not developed the athletic propensities which characterise their sex at 
the present day : — 

" We had prayers as usual & in y^ evening as I never use the Cabriolet 
on y*^ days for my own, I took a walk with Lord Shelburne, Col. 
Monney, & Mr. Cummins. Lord Shelburne and y® latter kept behind, 
talking on business, & Col. Monney & I arriv'd first at John Croom's 
House on y* other side of the water. We had chairs brought out & 
sat in y^ Wood on the Banks of the Water waiting for them. At last 
they came up to us & sat for some time, when my Lord recollecting 
he had letters to write, said he would go over in y^ Boat to the House 
& leave me to walk home with them, w'^'' I did so slowly that it was 
quite dusk when we arrived at y^ Green Bridge. My Lord had un- 
luckily forgot to leave it open & I having no key about me we were 
forced to walk back to the cottage for one. When we had taken y^ 
additional walk we found to our great disappointment it wou'd not 
open it & were obliged at last to break open y* Hurdles behind the 
Head of y* Water & scramble thro' into the Park ; We had also a very 
high Stile to climb over, in which operation I desir'd to decline the 
assistance of Col. Monney & Mr. Cummins & at length with great 
difficulty prevaild upon them to leave me to myself, tho' in all y^ rest 
of the walk I was much indebted to their assistance, which was afforded 
me at y* expense of great trouble to them. I arriv'd by ten o'clock 
heated and tir'd by my walk, it was really a very pleasant one had 
there been more time for it. I found my Lord in the blue room, so 
much engaged in his letters of business, that he made no reflexion on 
the length of time I had taken to perform a short walk in & was much 
surpris'd at hearing of all my diflBculties. Col. Monney talks so much 
of it, that I expect it will be one of y* marvellous events he will have 
to relate of Bowood." ^ 
Shelburne was fond of committing his thoughts and resolutions to paper, 
and amidst a mass of private notes iu his own hand we find the following 
memorandum : — 

1 Col. James Money, of Ham House and Whetham. He was descendant 
through the female line of the Ernies and Fynemors. 

2 Lady Shelburne's Diary : Sunday, July 16th, 1769. 

By the Earl of Kerry, 25 

Abstract of Gaby's disbursements at Bowood 




From Nov., 1761, to Jan., 1762 




to Jan., 1763 




to July, 1765 




Wood account to Aug., 1765 




Total of Gaby's disbursements- 

-about 3J 





N.B. — These accts. are independant of Mr. Brown's work and of 
building. Kesolved this day, Sep. 30th, to suffer no accounts to 
remain unpaid beyond a fortnight. 

From the above it will be seen that Brown's activities were already being 
supplemented by the work of others, and the Bowood accounts show that 
a succession of gardeners with a large staff of labourers were continuously 
employed during and after the termination of Capability's contract. 
Something like ;^8,000 appears to have been spent in this way between 
1765 and 1775, and it is to be feared that the economical resolutions 
which Lord Shelburne had formulated remained in a large measure 
unfulfilled. A very large part of the work consisted in levelling, and 
it is interesting to observe that although Brown favoured the informal 
or landscape type of garden, both he and his co-workers were largely 
engaged in altering the natural conformation of the ground. Thus we find 
that an addition of ^1000 was made to his original estimate in consideration 
of the levelling of the slope above the lake, while on another occasion he asks 
for special consideration in view of the difficulty experienced in "lowering 
the hill between the house and the wood." 

There was a good deal of sickness at Bowood about this time. It was 
put down to the proximity of the new lake and provoked Shelburne to 
enquire ; — 

" (1) What regard is due to a notion which has got among the ser- 
vants that the healthiness of Bowood is affected by the size of the 
water 1 

(2) If it is — is it so constantly or only at particular seasons ? 

(3) What bad consequences are to be apprehended from it, and how 
can they be guarded against ? 

(4) Can the fogs which sometimes prevail be attributed to the size 
of the water T' 

So ran his questions : the answers, which we may guess to have been 
supplied by Dr. Allsop, of Calne — the maker of the White Horse — were 
reassuring if somewhat platitudinous. The inhabitants of Bowood were 
enjoined "to keep within doors when the air was overloaded with humidity," 
but since the soil of the place was " either silicious or marlial (?) or heavy 
clay and both were incorruptible," it was officially pronounced to be a 
healthy spot in spite of the water ! ^ 

Shelburne appears to have had a fondness for wild animals, and the 

^ Estate memoranda at Bowood. 

26 Kiifbg'^ Bowood Park, 

Bowood papers contain constant references to iis Menagerie. The situa- 
tion of this menagerie seems to have been several times changed. We 
find it first, in Brown's map, placed close to the offices, between the 
Little House and the kitchen garden. Not long afterwards, however, a 
son and heir was born and the ' Little House' was specially fitted out for 
the accommodation of the infant Lord Fitzmaurice : it is not perhaps 
astonishing to find that the wild beasts were then removed to the stable 
yard, where Adam's plan of 1768 shews several "dens" ready for their 
reception. These dens (which have now become prosaic horse-boxes) can- 
not, however, have been long occupied by Shelburne's animals, for by 1780 
the Menagerie had again changed its location and was transferred to the 
park on the slope between Monks Hill and the Wash Way. This hill was 
still known as " Lagery Hill " some fifty years ago, though curiously enough 
no one then knew the origin of the name. There is little record of the nature 
of the wild beasts, nor are they spoken of, as might be expected, in Lady 
Shelburne's diary. We can only say that there are numerous accounts of 
* horse-flesh' and 'cow-flesh' supplied for their maintenance ; that John 
Button's accounts shew him to have been constantly at work on " the lion's 
den " for which we must suppose an inmate ; that there is a bill of lading 
for a wild boar (£78 10s. Od ) sent to Shelburne by Count Lippe ^ in 1769, 
and that Jeremy Bentham gave him a white fox from Archangel " which 
occasioned some pleasantries when we called some of the Bowood Ladies 
' the White Foxes.' "^ Bentham moreover mentions the presence of a tiger 
at Bowood in 1781, and the Estate Office still contains a feline skull which 
is reputed to be that of the last inhabitant of the Bowood Zoo ! 

Of the eighteenth century additions to Bowood I'ark it only remains to 
notice the cascade and the rockwork with its subterranean passage (now for 
some unexplained reason known as the " Crooked Mustard") with which 
Shelburne adorned Lancelot Brown's pond-head some years after this had 
been completed. The rockery was made by " the ingenious " Josiah Lane, 
who had been previously employed by Shelburne at High Wycombe in the 
early sixties on work of a similar character. John Britton tells us that the 
cascade was designed " by a man of real taste, Mr. Hamilton of Pains Hill, 
who took a picture of Nicholas Boussin for his model," but there is still 
extant at Bowood a plan for the cascade (which appears to differ little, if 
at all, from that which was adopted) emanating from John Whitehurst of 
Derby. This distinguished horologer must therefore be given his share of 
credit for the conception of a work which was considered worthy to provide 
the frontispiece for the *' Beauties of Wiltshire " ! ^ 

^ The hereditary Comte de Lippe- Schaumbourg (1724—1777). He raised 
a force in his principality during the Seven Years' War and employed it in 
the British interest. Shelburne met him while on military service on the 
continent in 1759. 

^ An allusion no doubt to Miss Caroline Fox, sister of Lord Holland, 
who was one of the ' Bowood Ladies.' 

3 By John Britton, 1801. 

Bij the Earl of Kerry. 27 

■ Writing in 1785 to his second wife, Lady Louisa Fitzpatrick,' whose 
presence in Wiltshire was prevented by the prevalence at the time of 
putrid fever, Shelburne^ says "Lane is much improved in his rockwork, 
which is much advanced, and will be certainly finished against Winter." 
The progress of the rockery, however, is constantly referred to for some 
time afterwards in the Bowood papers, and the Abbe Morellet and other 
foreign correspondents evince a marked interest in his " Rocher," and Vaudreuil,^ who had visited Bowood some 
time before, would be able to produce a better one in his park near Paris. 
Shelburne's hobby was evidently, to his political enemies, something of a 
joke. One of the contemporary cartoons by Sayers, the caricaturist, with 
the title "An ex-Minister training a terrier at Bowood," represents him 
urging a small dog to worry a bust of Pitt which is ensconced in a grotto of 
ornamental rock work. The dog has the head of Joseph Jekyll, Shelburne's 
nominee as M.P. for Calne, so the allusion is sufficiently obvious. 

In the year 1791 Shelburne made a tour in Wales, during the course of 
which he visited CarditF, then fast rising into prominence as a great 
industrial centre. His impressions are noted in a diary kept for the benefit 
of the " College "—a term by which he was accustomed to denote the family 
circle at Bowood, consisting of his second son Lord Henry Petty, Miss 
Caroline and Miss Elizabeth Vernon (half-sisters of the second Lady 
IShelburne), and Miss Caroline Fox : — " I own I could not help feeling not 
a little mortified at seeing the same time and perhaps the same money which 
I have spent on desolating about Bowood, so much better employed in 
reclaiming a whole country from barbarity, creating houses, families, and 
wants, and satisfying them. I assure you I would gladly change now, and 
give you the honour of saving the State into the bargain ! " 

Fortunately— in so far as King's Bowood is concerned — Shelburne's 
heart searchings did not persist, and the work continued, under the almost 
daily supervision of its owner. 

Two years before his death he wrote to his nephew, lord Holland, " My 
greatest resource is this place, where I am perpetually doing and undoing, 
and to which I grow every day more attached." 

His later years were specially devoted to planting, but here he found more 
scope for his activities in Co. Kerry, where vast woods had been felled a 
hundred years before to feed the iron furnaces, than in Wiltshire. With 
the exception, however, of the plantations by Brown which we have already 
mentioned, the older woods in and round Bowood all owed their origin 
directly to Shelburne.'' 

^ Daughter of the Earl of Upper Ossory. Shelburne married her in 1779, 
bis first wife having died in 1771. 

2 Shelburne had by this time become Marquis of Lansdowne but, follow- 
ing his biographer, Lord Fitzmaurice, I retain the use of his earlier title. 

3 Joseph de Uigaud, Comte de Vaudreuil, friend of the Comte d' Artois. 

^ The collection of Conifers in the 'Pinetum' was planted by the 3rd 
Lord Lansdowne about 1850. 

28 King's Bowood Park. 

It will be remembered that besides King's Bowood the only property- 
purchased by John Lord Shelburne had been the Manor of Bremhill. His 
successor, while busy with the improvement of the house and park, lost no 
opportunity of enlarging by purchase the boundaries of his Wiltshire 

The first and principal acquisition was the Manor of Calne, more correctly 
described as the Hundred of Calne and Manor of Calne and Calstone. 
This property, originally belonging to the Zouches,*had for nearly two 
centuries been in the hands of the Duckett Family, who lived at Calstone 
till their house was destroyed in the Parliamentary War, when they migrated 
to Hartham. At the time of which we are writing the family was then 
represented by Thomas Duckett, the member for Calne since 1754, whose 
financial affairs had become so much involved that he was forced to sell 
the manor. The contract for sale at a price of £28,600 was signed in Feb., 
1763, and Shelburne at once entered into possession. The vendor not long 
before had had some kind of paralytic stroke, and it was alleged that he 
was non-compos and had been unduly influenced in the matter of the sale. 
He died three years later, and his executors refused to complete, but his 
younger brother, William, stepped in and the matter was soon afterwards 
finally concluded.' The lands thus bought were elaborately and artistically 
mapped at the time by William Powell, Shelburn's surveyor, to whom we 
have already had occasion to refer. They include Sands and most of 
Quemerford, besides Hollyditch, Stockley, and a number of small detached 
blocks in other parts of the parish. The Calstone Manor lands were not 
included in this survey, but they would appear to have been mainly 
represented by portions of the two great fields (North and South Field) into 
which the commonable land of Calstone was at that time divided. 

The next purchase was that of the ' Prebend' Manor of Calne, bought 
from William Northey in 1765. The history of this manor, which had 
originally been granted " in prebendam " by Henry I. to the Church of Sarum, 
and had since been leased by the Church to various individuals, is fully 
given in Marsh's History of Calne.^ Its possession was no doubt useful, if 
not indispensable, to those who wished to retain the political interest of 
Calne Borough. William Northey had bought from the ex-M.P. Benjamin 
Stiles in 1747, and himself became member the same year, while from 1765 
onwards Shelburne's nominees were returned without question to represent 
the borough at Westminster. ^1 1,950 was the price paid, and it is curious 
to note that the prebend had changed hands forty-five years before for 
almost exactly the same sum.^ There is at Bowood a survey or ' terrier ' 
of the manor at the time of the sale, from which it appears that the property 
consisted of a few leaseholds together with a quantity of small charges 
(tithes, quit rents, etc.), distributed amongst the various tythings of Calne 
Parish. So numerous were these latter that a quarto volume of nearly 300 
pages is absorbed in their relation ! 

* Sir George Duckett's Duchetiana. 

2 Page 20 foil. 

' £12,000. See Marsh's History of Calne. 

By the Earl of Kerry, 29 

The making of the lake, and of the new Calne approach, involved, as 
we have, seen, an extension of the park and the acquisition of several small 
properties, which had formerly abutted on its borders. One of these was 
Nusterleigh, the "Nustrell's Lease" of the seventeenth century,^ now called 
Clark's Hill, after the farmer who was in occupation at the time of its 
purchase. The old King's Bowood boundary ran across the hill in question 
and part of Nusterleigh was already within its pale, but some 34 acres were 
outside and these were bought in 1765 from Mr. Lumley Hungerford 
Keate, of Bath, who was at this time the Wiltshire representative of the 
ancient family of Hungerford. 

A branch of the Hungerfords had settled some two hundred years before 

at Cadenham, but they had at the beginning of the century transferred 

themselves to Studley, which had been bought from the Norbornes. The 

last male heir of this branch, George Hungerford, of Studley, having died 

the previous year, sine prole^ the succession fell to the offspring of his sister, 

Frances, who had married John Keate, of Whitlesea, Cambridge. Lumley 

i Hungerford Keate was their grandson.^ It may be permissible here to 

follow the Hungerford pedigree a little further, since their descendants 

have continued to hold land in this neighbourhood up to the present time. 

i Lumley Hungerford, like his great uncle, left no heir, and on his death in 

I 1766 the succession again went through the female line in the person of his 

: sister, Henrietta Maria. Henrietta married George Walker, of Calne, who 

I took the name of Hungerford, but once again there was no son. The 

Walker- Hungerfords' only daughter, Henrietta Maria Anne, married in 

1807 John, second Lord Crewe, and the family is now represented by his 

! grandson, the present Marquis of Crewe. 

Cowidge, a farm of some 84 acres lying between W^hetham and Bowood, 
1 was also bought in 1765. It belonged to one Rogers Holland, "of Chippen- 
I ham," but though his name survives on the Ordnance Map, in "Holland's 
\ Moor," I have been unable to discover any details concerning him. It seems 
I curious that this land, surrounded as it was by portions of the Calne Manor, 
; should have formed part of the Royal manor of Cherhill. Such, however, 
1 was the case, and the original grant — endorsed with the sign manual of 
King Henry VIII., whose ' Great Seal' is attached by a silken cord of green 
and white (the Tudor colours) — is amongst the Bowood charters : — 

"Henricus Octavus dei gratia Anglie Francie rex, fidei defensor, 
Dominus Hibernie, omnibus ad quos presentes littere pervenerint 
salutem. Sciatis quod nos de gratia nostra speciali et ex certa scientia 
et mero motu nostris, dedimus et concessimus et per presentes damns 
et concessimus dilecto servienti nostro Edwardo Beynton militi, unum 
messuagium et duodecium acres terre, sexdecim acres prati, quater 
viginti ajjres pasture, vocate Cowythe, et sex acres bosci vocati Jackys 
Arme,^ cum suis pertinentiis in Cawlne in comitatu nostro Wiltes, 

'See note at end. 
^ Hungerfordiana^ by Sir Richard Colt Hoare. Privately printed, 1823. 
^ This name survives in ' Arm Quarry ' Wood, near Pond Tail. 

3D King's Bowood Park. 

Que quid em messuagium terra pratum pastura et boscum predicta 
sunt membra sive parcella manerii nostri de Chiriell in comitatu pre- 
dicto. Quod quidem manerium est parcella terrarum nostrum vocatum 
Warwyk Land,^ et que quidem messuagium terra pratum pastura et 
boscum quidem Henricum Persons nuper tenuit et occupavit et modo 
tenet et occupat de nobis ad placitum nostrum pro reddita quattuor 
marcarum per annum. Habenda et tenenda messuagium terram pratum 
pasturam et boscum predicta cum omnibus suis pertinentiiS prefato 
Edwardo Beynton et heredibus suis masculis de corpore suo legittime 
procreatis in perpetuum de nobis et heredibus nostris, per fidelitatem 
tantum pro omnibus aliis servitiis et secularibus demandis et absque 
compoto seu aliquo alio nobis aut heredibus nostris predictis per pre- 
missis seu aliquo inde parcella reddendo vel faciendo . . . apud 
Westmonasterium decimo septimo die junii anno regni nostri vicessimo." 

The grantee, ' Edwardus Beynton Miles,' was the Sir Edward Baynton, 
of Bromham, Vice-Chamberlain to King Henry VIII., to whom that 
monarch granted Stanley Abbey at the Dissolution ; a small quit rent was 
still payable to his successor in respect of Cowidge at the time of its 
purchase, though the property had no doubt long since passed out of the 
hands of that once powerful family. 

About the same time 93 acres were bought on the other side of the lake in 
Coombe Grove, from the trustees of Mr. Bogers, whose family then owned 
land at Heddington and elsewhere in the neighbourhood and are still 
represented in the county. 

Coming nearer to Bowood, there were two more small estates which 
Shelburne had for some time been anxious to obtain, since his projected 
lake was destined to cover some part of them with its waters. One of these 
was Laggus, a farm of 37 acres, formerly belonging to the Hort family, but 
at this time to Stephen Mead, (described as a "fuller") ; the other, a somewhat 
smaller holding, now forming part of the last-mentioned farm, but then 
quite distinct, was known as Woodlands, or Mannings Mill, and was the 
property of Clare Hall, Cambridge. Both these were bought in 1766 — 
Laggus for £1800 and the " College Land " for £1074 18s. 9c?. 

The purchase of Mannings Hill necessitated a special Act of Parliament, 
since it had been left (by one John Wilson, "clerk, late of Bremhill"), to 
the Master and Senior Fellows of Clare Hall, Cambridge, for the eifpress 
purpose of maintaining and educating ' two poor scholars ' at that college. 
To his bequest the testator had added the quaint direction " that if any of his 
kindred at any time stood to be chosen by the said Master and Senior Fellows 
into the said scholarships, being equally sober and learned, they might have 
the preeminence." Parliament raised no objection, and the property, with 
its " writings " and a " pew in Calne Church belonging to thi said capital 
messuage" was transferred to Shelburne, on condition that the Rev. Peter 
Stephen Goddard, D.D., Master of Clare Hall, should immediately reinvest 
the £1074 18s. 90?. in real estate for the benefit of future Wilson scholars. 

' The manor of Cherhill had been formerly held by the Earls of Warwick 
(see Marsh's History ofCalne^ p. 278—9). 


By the Earl of Kerry. 31 

The " writings " which came with this little copyhold to Bowood are an 
extremely interesting collection of old charters, from which the history of 
*' Wodelond " can be traced since it was first granted, with some land at 
*' Pyneles," at the "rent of a rose" by Will. Michel to Phil le Marler in 
1328. There followed a succession of yeomen owners. The Marlers leased 
and eventually sold to the Mannyngs — whose name, though now forgotten, 
continued to be associated with this hill some centuries after they had left 
it. After them came several generations of a family named Gawen, 
Gawine, or Gawne, from Stock, followed by another set of owners whose 
patronymic appears to have been " Servaunte alias Ralfe." Lastly there 
appears one Kogers, of Brimbell (Bremhill), by whom the property was 
heavily mortgaged early in the eighteenth century, and it would seem that 
John Wilson must have profited by the financial embarrassment of his 
neighbour, in order to step into the latter's shoes. These charters contain 
frequent references to members of the old families— Fynamores, Blakes, 
and Ducketts — as also to early place-names now forgotten ; amongst these 
latter we may note a pasture called in the fourteenth century "Aires," or 
*' Airichelie," which seems to have been the prototype of the " Alders," or 
" Alder's Lee," one of the Calne Common Fields afterwards disestablished 
by the Enclosure Acts.^ 

It is unnecessary to say much about Shelburne's subsequent purchases. 
The houses in the bed of the lake have already been mentioned, at the same 
time a number of other cottages on the confines of the park at Red Hill, Cuff's 
Corner, and Buckhill, were bought from the same owner, Mr. George Cary, 
of Torr Abbey, Devonshire, who had inherited the property through the 
female line from Christopher Villiers, Earl of Anglesey. ^ 

In 1769 £920 was paid to John Talbot, of Lacock, " eldest son of John 
'J'albot, the elder, of Charlton," for the Abbots Waste, a transaction which 
seems to show that the Colonel Sherington Talbot of Commonwealth times 
had proved successful in his claim that this part of Bowood was a perquisite 
of the abbey and his " ancient inheritance." ^ 

Spittal Farm, said to have once been the infirmary of Stanley Abbey, was 
bought from Daniel Bull, the son of John Bull and Member for Calne in 
1768. Rough Leaze, Blackland Farm, and Pinhills were acquired from the 
same source later on, and Calstone Manor Farm, which had a few years 
before been sold by Lord Radnor to one Henry Bailey, was added to the 
Bowood estate in 1776. 

Studley manor house, or Studley Hungerford, the former headquarters of 
the Hungerford family, would appear to have been left by George Hungerford, 
mentioned above, to his widow, Elizabeth Pollen, who survived till the year 

* The Alders was eventually allocated to Lord Lansdowne in consideration 
of his giving up his rights in the other Calne Commons. 

' George Cary was not the son (as stated by Canon Jackson, in his History 
of Chippenham), but the great grandson of Edward Cary, who had obtained 
this property by marriage with Mary Pelson, granddaughter of the Earl of 
Anglesey. C Burke's Landed Gentry.) 

' See Part 1., w'a.AI., vol. xli., p. 420. 

32 King^s Bowood Park. 

1816. The house and farm are included in an old list of Lord Shelburne's 
purchases, as bought by him in 17V7 for £7000, subject to Mrs. Hungerford's 
life interest. The site is to-day once more in the hands of the Hungerford 
family, and it would seem that it must have been repurchased after 
Lord Shelburne's death. ^ The eighteenth century tything maps show that 
Studley Hungerford was in its day an important building, with a court yard, 
garden, dog kennels, and a curious ornamental canal which cut across the 
present line of the Calne Railway ; all this has now disappeared. The 
present farm house was rebuilt in 1875 ; of the former buildings only an 
old barn remains in situ, with the walled approach to the house and some 
large elms which appear to have once formed part of an avenue running 
from it down to the river. 

The following is an extract from some " Notes on his private affairs," 
which appear to have been written by Shelburne after his various pur- 
chases of land had been completed or probably not many years before his 
death ; — 

Bo WOOD Park. 
Nothing is wanting except to keep it in order and to keep the 
Plantations thinned. Care must be taken to watch the sale of the 
following Estates, and to forego no opportunity of acquiring them. 

(1) Mr. Hungerford's, on account of the Pleasure ground audits 
lying directly between Bremhill, Calne, and the Park. 

(2) Mr. Moure's, as it consists of scraps of land intermixed every- 
where with our property, which altogether make no object, but will 
enable you to inclose in some places and allot in others to such advantage 
that they cannot be well bought too dear. 

(3) Foreman's a small property close to the shrubbery. 

(4) That part of Mr. Browne's which may be said to lye within the 

(5) Whetham : the want of which is sufficiently obvious in front of 
the House and which once acquired with Mr. Hungerford's and others 
above mentioned, the Park would be insulated by Turnpikes all round. 

(6) A small estate of Mr. Broome's called Norley ^ should be added 
to complete this. 

There is likewise a small estate of Sir Edward Bayntun, and I have 
always kept Spittal house with a view to exchange with it. 

(7) There is likewise a small estate of the younger Mr. Brooke's, 
leading up to the Downs, with a very easy ascent from Bowood, which 
would be the most agreeable circumstance possible ad^ded to Bowood. 
The Downs will always be found the great feature about Bowood for 

1 Canon Jackson is surely in error in stating (Aubrey's Wiltshire Collectionst 

p. 38, note) that this site was ever in Angell ownership. He possibly 

confused Studley House with the other Manor House in Studley, viz., 

Rumsey, which was until recently the home of the Browne- Angell family. 

■-' ^.e., the Rumsey property. 

^ ? near Noriey Lane in Studley. 

By the Earl of Kerry. 33 

change of air, exercise, magnificence, and variety, and this farm is all 
that is wanting to make them to all intents and purposes your own. 
It is entailed on a second son of Mr. Maundrell's and will certainly be 
on sale sooner or later. 

Other estates are desirable, such as that part of Sir Edward Bayntun's, 
which lies intermixed with Bremhill, and the Duchess of Beaufort's 
Farm, which Pepler now rents, and other things ; but I set down only 
those that are indispensable in point of convenience or improvement, 
for undoubtedly buying and selling is not the natural employment of 
a gentleman, so much as it is to improve what he inherits. 

As may well be imagined, Shelburne's activities at Bowood and elsewhere, 
which continued over a period of forty-four years, had placed a heavy strain 
on his resources, and there can be no doubt that, although he enjoyed a 
considerable income, this had been constantly and largely exceeded. He had 
(as we have seen) bought Bowood from his mother in the first instance, and 
had since entirely redecorated and virtually rebuilt the house. Immense 
sums had been spent in making the park and grounds, and round them had 
been formed a large estate, every acre of which he had purchased: In 
London he had bought, finished, and furnished Lansdowne House, while 
all his life he had been collecting pictures, statuary, prints, books, and 
manuscripts, wherever he could find them. It is not, therefore, astonishing 
to find that according to Bentham he was already in 1781 indebted to the 
extent of ^300,000. During his later years great efforts were made to set 
matters straight : his estate at High Wycombe was sold to Lord Carrington ; 
another property, in the City of London, which had been originally acquired 
by Sir William Petty and comprised the whole of Tokenhouse Yard, was 
sold to the Bank of England for £12,000 in 1799, and several estates in 
Ireland were similarly disposed of about the same time. A heavy debt, 
however, still remained, though Shelburne was at pains to prove that the 
property which he left to his successors compared favourably with that 
which he had himself inherited. 

An elaborate statement was prepared with this object in 1801, and with 
the following memorandum was attached to his will : — 

" When I came to the estate I found no person employed in my 
affairs but such as served to mislead me, through incompetence or 
some worse motive : no agent inthe habitof accounting regularly : neither 
house in town or country except Wycombe, which was barely habitable 
and without [even] a tablecloth. However as I know by experience 
how liable not only the best intentions, but the best conduct, is to be 
misrepresented and misconceived, and considering that every man 
owes an account to his family of his conduct (particularly where a 
confidence has been reposed), I had the above account made out. It 
may be proved by inspecting the vouchers in the offices at Lansdowne 
House and Bowood Park. 

I intend to leave a copy of this paper with each of my sons, hoping 
that those who succeed me and their children, may keep in mind Sir 
William Petty, my great-grandfather's, exhortation tO| his family, to 


34 King's Bowood Park. 

improve upon the foundation which he laid with no worse negotiations 
than he proved himself by his will to have done, with so much integrity 
and honour." ^ 

Four years later Shelburne died and was succeeded by the Earl of 
Wycombe,f ormerlyLord Fitzmaurice,who had assumed the former title when 
his father was created a marquis in 1784. The second Lord Lansdowne had 
for some time been on bad terms with his father, and refused to take any 
part in the administration of his affairs, a duty which thus devolved on the 
trustees of the family settlement. These were Sir Francis Baring, the 
famous city merchant, ancestor of the several branches of the Baring family 
and founder of the house of Baring Brothers, and John Eardley Wilmot, 
son of the Lord Chief Justice, and afterwards a Master in the Court of 

A serious situation was at once disclosed, and though the financial 
stringency due to the Napoleonic war rendered the moment unfavourable, 
the executors were forced to sell all the available personalty for what it 
would fetch. All the collections were dispersed at auction, with the 
exception of the ancient marbles, which, when on the point of being sold 
to the British Museum, were transferred at a valuation to the second 
Marquis. At Bowood the entire contents of house, farm, and garden were 
similarly disposed of, the park and woods were denuded of all saleable 
timber, and some of the lands more recently purchased — Pinhills Farm 
amongst the number— were sold, to be afterwards re-purchased by Shel- 
burne's second son. 

The second Lord Lansdowne spent most of his time at Southampton, 
where he had built himself an elaborate Gothic castle, and made no effort 
to inhabit Bowood, which was thus left derelict during the four years of 
his possession. He was followed by his half-brother. Lord Henry Petty, 
who succeeded as the third Marquis in 1809. A report by James Broad, 
the estate steward, made soon afterwards, gives a sad picture of the 
place, and of the havoc which had been wrought since the death of the first 
Marquis. Everything had been removed from the house, including fixtures, 
such as grates, presses, coppers, and brewing utensils, even the paving of 
the orangery had been torn up and sold — no painting had been done for nine 
years, and the wet was coming in through the roof and windows, most of 
which were broken ! The garden and grounds were in no better case, and 
such woods as had not been cut down were described as " nearly waste." 

It was some time before Bowood could be rendered once more habitable, 
but the damage was fortunately not beyond repair. Under the third Lord 
Lansdowne the house was gradually refurnished, a new picture gallery was 
collected, and a new library formed. Structural work was not neglected 
and the improvements during this period must be briefly noticed. 

^ c.f. Betty's will, printed in Lord Fitzmaurice's Life : — " I, Sir William 
Petty, Knt., doe make this, my last will, premising the ensueing preface to 
the same ... for justifying on behalfe of my children the manner and 
means of getting and acquiring the estates wch. I hereby bequeath unto 
them, exhorting them to emprove the same by no worse negotiations." 

By the Earl of Kerry, 35 

The first in order of date was the Chapel which was built by Charles 
Cockerell in 1823. The stained glass windows were designed by Louisa 
Lady Lansdowne, who must have employed the whole of the College of 
Heralds in elaborating the ancestral coats of arms which adorn them, for 
some of these go back nearly to the Conquest ! The Bowood papers show 
that a Chapel and an Ante-Chapel had existed in the middle of the eighteenth 
century, and they appear to have been in the same part of the house as 
Cockerell's building. They must however have been disestablished at the 
time of the Adam alterations, for Jeremy Bentham gives an account in 1781 
of family worship in the Hall, where it would seem his sense of propriety 
was somewhat offended at the presence of " a naked Mercury, an Apollo 
in the same dress, and a Venus de Medici," as "attendant saints" at the 
ceremony ! ^ 

Communication between the original block of Bowood House and the 
newer portion built by Keene, had from thefirst proved atroublesome matter, 
since, owing to differences of levels, the connecting link had to be such as to 
provide for a steep ascent from the ground-floor of the Great House to that 
of the Little House. Adam, as we have seen, had attempted to get over 
this difficulty by means of a ' staircase-hall ' ; but this arrangement had 
evidently proved inconvenient, and William Lord Lansdowne was at the 
time of his death actually in treaty with George Dance, R.A. (the younger), 
for a new plan. Dance's plan (which may be seen amongst the architectural 
drawings at the Soane Museum) involved the construction of a passage 
way which, after running parallel to the Great House and rising up a flight of 
steps, was to enter the Little House through the ante-Library. In 1830 
Charles Barry, then a young but rising architect, was employed by Lord 
Lansdowne to devise a better scheme. He entirely removed the octagon 
staircase-hall and substituted for it the present marble stairs. An ap- 
propriate approach to the staircase was made by removing the dividing 
walls between the several small rooms on the ground floor of the western 
side of the Great House, thus constituting the present ' gallery,' while the 
'corridor' was added alongside of the drawing room in order to give 
communication between the two parts of the house without passing through 
that room. Not long after this (1833) the roof of the drawing room, which 
I had been built about 1770, was found to be in a dangerous state; Barry 
was again employed for its renewal, and it may be presumed that the 
rather uninteresting ' barrel ' ceiling, which now covers this room, was 
then substituted for one originally designed by Adam. The Library ceiling 
also underwent a change, though at a later date. Its somewhat florid 
decoration was the work of a German artist who was employed on this 
room and on the Gallery towards the middle of the century. 

A wooden clock tower over the Chapel was built, also by Barry, in the 
early 30's, but this soon became affected by dry-rot and had to be re- 
placed a few years afterwards by the existing stone turret. 

The Lodge at the Derry Hill approach was, if we may judge by the 
number of drawings for such a building found at Bowood, a matter which 
had long been under contemplation. It appears that Thomas Wyatt was 

^ Memoirs of Bentham^ ch. V. 

D 2 

36 King's Bowood Park. 

amongst the architectural candidates for its erection, for he has left some 
well-finished sketches, signed and dated 1841, for an elaborate gateway in 
the ' xM oorish-Gothic ' style. These fortunately did not find favour, and the 
' Golden Gates ' were eventually built by JBarry, though on a scale much 
more modest than that indicated by his first plans for this addition. 

At the period with which we are dealing a large estate was scarcely 
considered complete without some kind of monument — or Folly (as such 
erections came to be disrespectfully named) — and in 1846 Barry was com- 
missioned to erect the obelisk, which now forms such a prominent landmark 
on the top of Cherhill Down, and as a local rhyme has it — 

pointing to the skies 

Shows the weary traveller the way to Vize. 
It is curious that the object of this monument should not have been 
recorded by inscription or otherwise. By some it has been supposed to 
mark the limits of the Bowood Estate in that direction : by others to 
commemorate the birth of the late King Edward. The relations between 
the then owner of Bowood and his Sovereign were such that he must 
have shared to the full in the joy which this auspicious event occasioned 
amongst all loyal subjects. It must however be recorded that a trust- 
worthy and contemporary authority* states definitely that the obelisk was 
erected to the memory of Lord Lansdowne's distinguished ancestor, Sir 
William Petty. 

It only remains to say a word about the Terraces, which now form 
an important feature of Bowood House. These were all built in 
the time of the third Lord Lansdowne :— the Upper Terrace probably not 
long after his succession, but I have not so far been able to find any 
record of its designer or its date; the Lower Terrace,— designed by George 
Kennedy, — in 1851 ; and the Forecourt in front of the portico, with the 
recumbent lions and the loggia at the south-west corner of the Terrace, 
very soon afterwards— though in this case again we have no record of date 
or architect. The East Terrace was the last of these additions, and was in 
fact barely finished when Henry Lord Lansdowne died in 1863. 

1 have carri^ed my subject up to a period, which the title of " King's 
Bowood "—already almost forgotten in the eighteenth century —may scarcely 
seem to warrant, but I will conclude by reverting for a moment to the 
legitimate sphere of archaeology. 

There are in Bowood Park several small Sarsens, the presence of which, 
some miles from the nearest example on the downs, seems to require ex- 
planation. It has been supposed that they were brought down as curiosities 
or for use as landmarks. If this is so it must have been done long ago, for 
one of the stones, at all events, has been where it now is for two centuries ^ 
There is, moreover, plenty of stone on the spot, only a few feet 

* Mr. Twopenny^ in the memoir already referred to. 

2 The "Whore Stone," i.e., the Old (Hoar) stone. This is in the park 
near the Deermead and gave its name to one of the enclosures shown in a 
map of 1755. 

By the Earl of Kerry. 37 

below the surface. It may be noted that Aubrey attests the presence of 
sarsens even further afield (at Christian Malford) in the seventeenth 
century ; ^ is it not then possible that the vanished geological formation 
which gave them birth may have extended over these regions, and that 
they are in situ ? 

We are accustomed to associate barrows and tumuli with the downs, but 
there are mounds in and about Bowood which, in the absence of proof to 
the contrary, might well be supposed to belong to this class of monument. 
Some are now planted with trees, about one hundred and fifty years old, 
and may have owed their origin to Capability Brown, though it would seem 
that the great landscape gardener would have been more likely to level 
them than to make them. There is one, however, outside the park (on 
Laggus Farm), which, though insignificant to-day, was of sufficient import- 
ance to find a prominent place in the earlier maps of the eighteenth century, 
and there can, in this case be little doubt of a prehistoric origin. 

The flomans were strongly established at Verlucio (Wans) and at many 
other places in the neighbourhood ; it might, therefore, be expected that 
we should find some traces of their occupation at Bowood. Hoare mentions 
the fact that a Roman villa was found " between the mansion and the lake " 
in the eighteenth century,^ but there are no present indications of its site. 
Quite recently a quantity of pottery, apparently of the Romano-British 
type, was found on Clark's Hill (the old Nusterleigh), during the course of 
quarrying operations ; unfortunately, however, nothing was preserved, and 
the date of this settlement cannot be fixed until further specimens are 


King^s Bowood Park, Part /., vol. xli. : — 

Page 408, line 11 from i\iQ hottom^ iov ^^ south-western " read ^^ south- 

Page 407, line 17. The return made hy a jury at Malmeshury in 1275 
has since been found by Mr. Crawford. It is printed in the " /S'pea'a^ 
Collections " Hundred Bolls, Wilts, No. 8. This return is more in the 
nature of an inquisition than a perambulation and contains little infor- 
mation beyond that given in Canon Jackson's article. 

Page 413, " Nusterleigh," note. I think I am wrong in attempting to 
equate this with Nuthills, which, though connected by Nustrell's Lease 
Lane, is too far distant from Nusterleigh. 

"Nostedelegh infra Pewsham " is mentioned in the Forest Pleas of 
1370— in connection with a certain Johannes de Stoudlegh, who had 
enticed and impounded other people's cattle in his pasture — and would 
appear to be another form of the same name. It is, however, difficult to 
establish any direct relationship between the two sites. 

Stod-leah (Stodlegh, Studley) is, I am informed by Professor Grundy, 

^ Natural History of Wiltshire. 
^ Hoare's Ancient Wiltshire, II., 124. 

38 King's Bowood Park. 

the Saxon for " Horse-pasture," and Nostedelegh might mean the North 
Horse-pasture ; but Nusterleigh is a full mile from, and to the south of, 
Studley village ! 

Page 414, line 5, "Earl of Castlehaven," note. The lands in question 
had presumably been the subject of a royal grant and as such were seized 
by the Commonwealth. It would appear that the property was not re- 
covered by the Audley family after the Restoration, but curiously 
enough they became once more possessed of part of Chippenham Forest 
through marriage. 

Christopher Villiers, Earl of Anglesey (seep. 410) left no male heir 
and his possessions passed through his daughter, Anne, to two grand- 
daughters, the issue of her second marriage with Richard Pelsen. One of 
them married the Edward Cary mentioned above, and the other, James 
Lord Audley, 5th Earl of Castlehaven. Canon Jackson states that the 
Audley property was that eventually sold to Mr. Ludlow Bruges. 

Page 418, " Broadmine," note. Considerable quantities of iron-ore were 
once found in the Lower Greensand in this neighbourhood. The iron 
was smelted in " blomeries," or furnaces, at Heddington, Bromham, &c. 
c.f. Aubrey's Wiltshire Collections^ edited by Canon Jackson, p. 44, note. 







July 31st, August 1st and ^ncl, 1922, 

Fresident of the Society : — 

W. Heward Bell, F.G.S., F.S.A. 

For the sixth time in its history the Society held its Annual Meeting at 
Swindon, the last occasion when it visited that town having been in 1907. 
The Town Hall having been most kindly placed at the disposal of the 
Society by the Corporation free of charge, the proceedings began with the 
holding of the Annual Business Meeting in the Council Chamber, at 3 p.m., 
at which forty- three Members were present, the President of the Society in 
the chair. Twenty new Members were duly elected, and the Hon. Secretary 
then read 


Members. — The total number of members on the Society's list, including 
those to be elected at the annual meeting, is 397 (386 annual and 1 1 life 
members), against 374 in 1921, an increase of 23 in the year. There have 
been 16 resignations and 7 deaths, while 46 new members have been elected. 

Finance.— The general fund of the Society began the year 1921 with a 
balance of ^88 16s. M. and ended it with one of ^78 13s. The Museum 
Maintenance Fund began with a balance of £\9 5s. Id. and ended with one 
of £19 19s. 2c?. The Museum Enlargement Fund increased from ^654 Os. M. 
to £67 Os. 4o?., and the Museum Purchase Fund from i;78 10s. to £79 Is. 
The Life Membership Fund decreased from £71 16s. 7c?. to ^66 5s. 2d. 
The Bradford-on-Avon Barn Fund increased from £30 12s. 6c?. to £'34 I7s. Id. 
The total balance (not including the Bradford Barn Fund) standing to the 
Society's credit for all purposes on Dec. 31st, 1921, amounted to £324 4s. 3c? , 
against £357 7s. 9o?. at the beginning of the year, a decrease of £33 3s. 6d. 

The Magazine. — The two numbers of the Magazine issued during 1 921 cost 
£196 17s. 2c?., and contained 233 pages. The total cost was, therefore, very 
little short of £l per page. It is hoped that this inordinate cost of printing- 
may be greatly reduced in the future, but it still remains very heavy, and 

' The fullest account of the Meeting is given in the Wiltshire Gazette^ 
August 3rd, 10th, 17th, and 24th. 

40 The Sixty-Ninth General Meeting. 

if the Magazine is to be maintained at its present level, and the other work 
of the Society carried on for the present small annual subscription of 10s. 6(i., 
every effort must be made by all existing members to induce new members 
to join the Society and to increase its resources. The alternative seems to 
be to increase the annual subscription considerably. 

Library. — Since the last report the library has received a large number 
of gifts from thirty different donors of various new Wiltshire items. The 
most important of these have been a quantity of original deeds and docu- 
ments with Court Books dr. 1650, relating to the manors of Calne and 
Calstone, presented by the Marquis of Lansdowne through Lord Kerry, and 
a large MS. map to scale, by the late Sir W. St. John Hope, of the Saxon 
and Norman Cathedrals at Old Sarum as excavated, presented by Lady 
Hope after his death. The librarian was also most generously allowed by 
the executors of the late Mr. H, E. Medlicott, in accordance with his express 
wish, to select from his library a considerable number of items that will be 
of use to the Society's library. During the past year another large album 
of prints and drawings has been completed and its contents carefully indexed. 

In addition to these gifts, a MS. Commonplace Book of Dr. Stukeley's, 
containing a great deal of archaeological matter of interest, has, through the 
kind intervention of Mr. A. D. Passmore and Captain Cunnington, been 
purchased by the Society, from the Purchase Fund, for £.Zb. Canon 
Jackson's own annotated copy of "Jackson's Aubrey" has also been 

Museum,. — The number of visitors during 1921, exclusive of schools, 
societies, etc., was 1 ,078. Among the gifts during the year was a complete 
officer's uniform of the Wilts Yeomanry and the special case made to contain 
it, presented by Mr. James Sadler, of Lydiard. The chief charges on the 
Museum Maintenance Fund during the year have been a payment of 
£12 65. 5c?. for repairs, and the repayment of a loan of £15 borrowed from 
the General Fund in the previous year. The total receipts for this fund 
were £48 17s. lOd of which ^15 Q&. 3d. came from payments for entrance 
and donations in the box, and only £28 6s. lOd. from annual subscriptions. 
This sum does not suffice for the necessary upkeep of the Museum, and it 
is hoped that all new members who are not already subscribers to the 
Museum Maintenance Fund will become so to the extent of at least 5s. a 
year. The provision of more cases, especially for the exhibits of the valuable 
collection of objects from All Cannings given byCaptain and Mrs. Cunnington, 
is an urgent necessity at the present moment. The sale of certain ethnological 
objects from New Zealand and the Pacific Islands was sanctioned by a 
general meeting several years ago, but could not be carried Out during the 
war. Some of these objects have recently been purchased by the British, 
and the Oxford and Cambridge University Museums, and the remainder 
will shortly be sold. 

The sanction of the general meeting is asked to-day to confirm a resolution 
already passed by the committee, to deposit on loan, indefinitely, at the 
British Museum, the gold ornaments from the barrows belonging to our 
Society, as well as the remarkable gold bangle of the late Bronze Age, 
recently given by Mrs. Cunnington. These have for some time past been 

The Sixty -Ninth General Meeting^ 41 

withdrawn from exhibition and their place has been taken hy facsimiles, as 
it was felt that their safety could not be guaranteed in our own Museum. 

Excavations. — Col. Ha wley continued his work at Stonehenge last summer 
and is again at work there this year— chiefly on the excavation of sections 
of the ditch. Mr. H. St. G. Gray carried out a fortnight's work at Avebury 
this spring, clearing out the remainder of the section of the ditch on the east 
side of the Kennet entrance causeway, the work on which was stopped dur- 
ing the war. This finishes the work undertaken by the British Association, 
and the excavations have now been finally filled in. The ditch proved to 
have been 30ft. Sin. deep from the brink of the fosse to the bottom at the 
deepest point. At All Cannings Captain and Mrs. Cunnington were 
digging again on the village site last autumn, and propose to complete their 
work there this year. They have also this summer opened a number of pits 
in Battlesbury Camp, the presence of which was revealed by the cutting of 
a trench for a water pipe. It is a matter for congratulation that Figsbury 
Camp has recently passed into their possession, and will probably be ex- 
plored by them in the future. 

Devil's Den. — The work of concreting the N.E. upright, which was in a 
dangerous condition, was carried out last September, under the superintend- 
ence of Mr. A. D. Passmore, at a cost of £55 15s. Id, raised by subscription. 
A full account of the work, with list of subscriptions, etc., appears in the 
Magazine for June, 1922. 

The Annual Meeting of 1921, held at Warminster, was in every way 
successful, and left a small balance of £4 Os. 8g?. to the Society. The evening 
meetings were especially interesting. 

The report having been passed, the officers of the Society were re-elected, 
with the addition of Dr. R. C. Clay, of Fovant, and the Rev. H. E. Ketchley, 
of Biddestone, to the list of Local Secretaries, and of the Earl of Kerry and 
of Mr. John Saddler, as members of the Committee. 

Capt. B. H. Cunnington mentioned the urgent need of fresh case room in 
the Museum to contain the large collection of objects from the diggings at 
All Cannings which Mrs. Cunnington and himself are presenting to the 
Museum, though at present they cannot be exhibited for want of room. 
He proposed before the end of the year to issue an appeal for a sum of £100 
to alter all the central cases in the Stourhead Room, as two have already 
been altered at a cost of ^633. This will be met from the Museum Main- 
tenance Fund, but it will absorb nearly the whole of that fund for the 
current year. Mr. Goddard reminded members that in addition to the gift 
of everything found at All Cannings, Capt. and Mrs. Cunnington had already 
themselves given a case to the Museum costing over ^£30, and the President 
remarked that the least that other members could do by way of recognising 
their generosity, was to provide the money appealed for. Mr. Goddard 
emphasised the passage in the report dwelling on the need of members 
who had joined within the last few years becoming subscribers to the 
Museum Maintenance Fund. The Society's Museum could not be carried 
on properly unless it had a regular income that it could depend upon. The 
old subscribers to this fund were naturally decreasing, and an appeal must 
be made to the newer members to fill up the gap. The President observed 

42 The Sixty-Ninth General Meeting, 

that they did not want to do as other archaeological societies had already 
done, raise the annual subscription, but members should bear in mind that 
10s. 6c?, is nowadays a very small subscription, and should be willing to help 
the Society by becoming annual subscribers to the Museum Maintenance 

With regard to the gold ornaments belonging to the Museum, the proposal 
of the committee to place them on loan in the British Museum for an in- 
definite period was endorsed by the meeting. Mr. Goddard explained that 
the British Museum authorities undertook to keep them together and to 
exhibit them as lent by the Wiltshire Archseological Society. They would 
not, of course, undertake to guarantee their security absolutely, but the 
.objects would be guarded precisely as the rest of the national collections 
were guarded, and as it was impossible to guard them at Devizes, it was 
better that they should go to the British Museum than that they should be 
shut up in a bank where no one could see them. Mr. Goddard asked that 
the action of Capt. Cunnington and himself in purchasing Stukeley's MS. 
Commonplace Book for £35 and Canon Jackson's own copy of Aubrey's 
Wiltshire Collections with MS. annotations for £3 15s. from the Museum 
Purchase Fund should be approved of by the general meeting, and this was 
done accordingly. Canon Knubley then reported that Mr. Guy Peirson, of 
the Marlborough College Natural History Society, and himself, as repre- 
senting our Society, had attended a meeting at Bristol, convened by the 
Bristol Naturalists' Society with a view to forming a sort of Union of 
West of England Natural History Societies and establishing a scheme of 
common action for observation and record. The idea had not yet progressed 
beyond this initial stage, but both the Wiltshire representatives had been 
placed on the committee, which would further consider the matter. 

This ended the business meeting, and the members adjourned to the new 
Municipal Museum, opened in 1920, close to the Town Hall. This is 
now, thanks to the work of the Curator, Mr. C. H. Gore, F.G.S., arranged 
in a way that makes it, as the President said, an example to all similar 
museums. He did not know of any museum where the sequence of the 
geological record and its connection with prehistoric archaeology was so well 
shown by the exhibits as it was there by representative specimens, admirably 
arranged and labelled in an educational way, and it was very important 
that this connection should be brought to the people's notice. The geological 
exhibits are mostly, especially the fine collection of local fossils from the 
Swindon pits, from Mr. Gore's own private collection. In addition there 
is a large series of topographical prints, drawings, books, &c., &c., of much 
interest for the history of Swindon and the neighbourhood, most generously 
given by Mr. Powell. The Swindon Museum has already, so far as geology 
is concerned, taken a foremost place amongst the institutions of the County 
of Wilts. 

From the Museum the visitors returned to the Town Hall, for tea, most 
hospitably provided by the kindness of the Mayor and Corporation ; and 
then proceeded up the hill to visit Mr. A. D. Fassmore's private 
collections. All these had been carefully arranged so that they could be 
inspected with comfort, and Mr. Passmore, though suffering from a recent 

I'he Sixty -Ninth General Meeting. 41-5 

accident, resulting in a broken collar bone, was able to explain them to the 
visitors. The Saurian remains from the brick pits in the Kimmeridge Clay- 
are a remarkable series of bones of Icthyosaurus, Plesiosaurus, Pliosaurus, 
Steneosaurus, and many others. The most remarkable example of 
all, a turtle, named after its discoverer, was represented only by a 
photograph, as the original is on loan to the British Museum (Nat. Hist.). 
The Palaeolithic flints comprise a few, which are specially interesting as 
being from new sites in the Swindon neighbourhood. The Neolithic series 
is large, with many fine specimens from Windmill Hill, Avebury, Aldbourne, 
Ogbourne, &c. Of the Bronze Age there are drinking cups, urns, and 
incense cups, from burials at Swindon and elsewhere in N. Wilts, and good 
Wiltshire examples of celts, palstaves, spear heads, &c. ; of the Pxomano- 
British period, a considerable variety of remains from Wanborough, 
Westlecott, and other sites ; with a few of the Saxon period. Mediaeval 
encaustic tiles, swords of the seventeenth and later centuries, a few choice 
specimens of Oriental and English porcelain, slip ware, and delft, (amongst 
the latter a magnificent example of Bristol Delft, in the shape of a large 
covered posset pot of the seventeenth century), fine old wine glasses, and 
many other objects, including Egyptian antiquities, make up a remarkable 
collection,in which everyone found something to suit his own particular taste. 

The Annual Dinner, held at the Goddard Arms Hotel, was largelyattended, 
but there were not so many present at the evening meeting which followed, 
at the Town Hall, as there were the preceding year at Warminster, the 
number on the first evening being fifty-four. The Mayor, Alderman Reuben 
George, welcomed the Society to Swindon in a speech which dwelt on the 
value of the study of the past and the lessons to be learned from it, to a 
comparatively new community like Swindon. Swindon had need of all the 
knowledge that the Society could give it. The President, in his reply, said 
that the Society was not accustomed to be so warmly received, and he 
thanked the Mayor for his welcome and for the high ideal that he had held 
up before the Society. 

Mr. O. G. S. Crawford, P.S.A., then gave an important address^ on 
the unpublished drawings by Stukeley which he had lately discovered at 
Dinmore Court, more especially in their bearing on Avebury and on the 
questionof the existence of the Beckhampton Avenue,illustrating his remarks 
by a number of photographic fac-similes of the plans. Stukeley never 
published any plan of the Beckhampton Avenue— but amongst these 
drawings and unpublished plans is one of this avenue, showing every stone 
that existed in Stukeley's days (probably the plan was drawn in 1723). In 
all thirty-four stones are shown, of which all but three had then fallen. 
Of the three then standing Adam and Eve, or the Devil's Quoits, at Long- 
stone Cove, near Beckhampton, are the survivors. There are also accurate 
plans of the Keimet Avenue and of the circles at Avebury. This new 
evidence of the existence of the Beckhampton Avenue, whether it is con- 
sidered conclusive or not, will have to be taken into consideration in all 
future accounts of Avebury. 

' A summary of this address is printed in The Wiltshire Gazette, Aug. 
3rd, 1922. 

44 The Sixty-Ninth General Meeting. 

Mr. Albany Major followed with some account of the work which he 
had just undertaken of tracing the course of Wansdyke through Somerset 
to the sea. He believes that he has discovered a number of earthworks in 
connection with the dyke which formed camps or stations for the defence 
of the rampart, and he suggests that the whole line of Wansdyke in Wiltshire 
should be carefully examined with a view to discovering if similar earth- 
works exist in this county. 


Leaving Swindon at 9.30, the first stop on this day's excursion was at 
Uf5.ngton Church, where the Vicar, the Rev. E. M. Hadow, gave an 
interesting account of what is known of the history of this very remarkable 
thirteenth century Church, the architecture of which, with the elaborate 
external consecration crosses, suggest, he argued, that it may have been built 
by the architect of Salisbury Cathedral. The Rev. E. H. Goddard also 
briefly pointed out the various architectural features. Leaving the Church 
the party found a heavy shower of rain falling, the only rain during the 
meeting that at all interfered with the members' pleasure. 

Proceeding to Kingston Lisle Church, the members were met by the 
Vicar, the Rev. A. W. G. Giffard, who supplemented what was said by the 
Rev. E. H. Goddard on the points of interest. The wall paintings of the 
story of the martyrdom of St. John Baptist, the patron saint, round the 
north chancel window aroused much interest. Thence the party walked to 
The Blowing Stone, where they were met by Mr. H. W. G. DAlmaine, 
F.S.A., of Abingdon, who has paid special attention to the antiquities of 
this district. He poured copious cold water on the traditions which have 
— thanks chiefly to Tom Hughes, he thought — gathered round the stone, 
of its use to summon the forces of Alfred, and thought that its renown 
probably dated from the time when the landlord of the " Blowing Stone 
Inn " annexed it as a desirable object of interest. The stone was duly blown 
in illustration by a boy in attendance, and one at least of the members 
succeeded in eliciting a groan from it. From this point the motors 
took the party on to Brimscombe Farm, immediately under the 
escarpment, where luncheon, at which over fifty members were present, 
had been laid in a barn, by the kind consent of the tenant, the provisions 
having come from Newbury. After lunch a drive of half-a-mile or so along 
the "Ichnield Way" brought the party to the foot of the trackway up 
which they walked to the White Horse, and on to Uiilngton Camp 
above. Here Mr. DAlmaine gave an interesting talk. With regard to the 
Horse, he did not believe in its attribution to Alfred, and could find no 
ground for the current idea that the Horse was the badge of the Saxons. 
He suggested that the Horse was really not a Saxon but a Pre- Roman or 
Late Celtic monument, and, in support of his belief, exhibited a number of 
photographs, showing the dismembered horse on Late Celtic gold coins, 
the degenerate copies of the stater of Philip of Macedon, and claimed that 
the white horse with its curious disjointed limbs is a copy of the similar 
horse on the coins. There is much to be said for this contention. As to the 
camp Mr. DAlmaine contended that these camps were placed intentionally 

The Sixty-Ninth General Meeting. 45 

at distances of one day's march from each other throughout the country, 
and were thus in some way connected with one another. Mrs. Cunnington 
thought nothing useful could be said as to the age of camps until they had 
been properly explored with the spade. As to the curious circular flat- 
topped mound below the White Horse, she said that it was obviously 
artificially scarped round the sides, and levelled ouithe top, and she suggested 
that the name sometimes given to it, of " Uffington Castle," as distinguished 
from " UflSngton Camp," really preserves the true tradition of its purpose, 
that of a Norman " Motte." Mr. O. G. S. Crawford, F.S.A., then drew 
attention to two or three small sarsens showing in the side of the rampart 
of the camp, inside the ditch, placed there, as he believed, to prevent the 
slipping of the chalk bank. 

From the camp the members walked along the Ridgeway to Way land's 
Smithy, where, again, Mr. D'Almaine gave an address that was much 
appreciated, on chambered tumuli in general, and Wayland's Smithy in 
particular, explaining the plan of the monument, and giving an account of 
what was done in the recent excavations, for which he was chiefly responsible, 
in the way of making the structure so much more intelligible than it was 
before. He announced that the Smithy had just been handed over by the 
owner to the nation. He hoped that it would not be necessary to enclose 
it, but if people persisted in lighting fires against the stones and chipping 
pieces off, it would have to be done. 

The weather had cleared, and the sun came out for the very pleasant 
walk along the Ridgeway to the Smithy, with the down flowers in full 
bloom, and back to the nearest roadway, where the motors were waiting to 
take the members down the hill to the Ichnield Way, and so along that 
very picturesque road to Little Hinton Church, which was described 
by the Rev. E. H. Goddard. The next item on the programme was tea on 
the adjoining Rectory lawn, most hospitably provided by the Rector, the 
Rev. C. E. Perkins, and his sister. To some of the members the charming 
little dell at the back of the Rectory garden, wherein a large collection of 
ferns flourish as one could hardly think it possible they should flourish in 
Wiltshire, was not the least interesting thing seen during the day. As 
there was plenty of time in hand at this point, it was decided to stop and 
inspect the interesting Church of Wanborongh, on the way home. 
Here Mr. Goddard described the building and the Rev. C. F. Burgess added 
further information. This done, members returned to the cars and reached 
Swindon at 6.15. 

The evening meeting at the Town Hall began with an address on " The 
Geology of Swindon," by Mr. W. R. Bird, illustrated with a number of 
slides of the Saurians whose remains have been so abundantly found in the 
Kimmeridge Clay of the brickworks at Swindon, and other extinct mon- 
sters. Mr. A. D. Fassmore followed with an address on "Recent 
work at the Devil's Den, and Archaeological Discoveries in the 
Avebury District," illustrated with a large series of excellent slides 
showing the progress of the work at the Devil's Den, and views of a num- 
ber of standing stones, remains of circles, and lines of sarsens on the downs 
recently noted by Mr. Fassmore, but hitherto undescribed, as well as the 
sarsen known as the " Templar's Bath " at Temple, and the stone in the 

46 'The Sixty -Ninth General Meeting. 

Cove at Avebury, which he contends has a worked surface. Some dis- 
cussion arose as to Mr. Passmore's contention that the ditch at Avebury 
was intended to be filled, and was as a matter of fact, filled with water. 
The ordinary water level of the wells at Avebury, he said, was only 25ft. 
from the surface, and that would mean that a ditch 30ft. deep would have 
5ft. of water in it. Against this Mr. Goddard urged the fact that no sign 
of silt or mud on the bottom of the ditch had been found in the recent ex- 
cavations, but that on the contrary there was chalk rubble of some size 
right down on the original bottom of the ditch. Moreover, the inevitable 
result of a wet ditch would have been that it could not have been kept 
cleared out, and masses of debris from the precipitous sides would have 
fallen into the water and choked up the ditch, whereas a dry ditch could 
be kept clear of this. The President, too, could not accept the wet ditch 
theory, no water stood in the ditch during any of the recent excavations. 
Mr. Crawford, on the other hand, thought that if Mr. Passmore's levels were 
right, as he believed they were, theoretically water ouglit to have stood 
in the ditch, but so far as the evidence went it did not, he could not 
say why. As regards the Devil's Den Mr. P. Williams asked whether the 
Dolmen stood on the original surface or on a raised artificial mound. Mr. 
J^assmore replied that it stood some 3ft. above the original chalk on soil of 
a different colour and nature from that outside the limits of the barrow, 
and that he was persuaded this was made ground. On the other hand Mrs. 
Cunnington suggested that perhaps this was really a portion of the original 
surface of the valley above the chalk which had been scarped and retained 
as the nucleus of the barrow, all the similar soil (such as is often found in 
the bottom of a valley) having been peeled off (as on a larger scale hap- 
pened at Silbury) and piled up to form the barrow. As to many of the 
lines of sarsens on the Downs, Mr. Passmore thought that they probably 
dated from Romano-British times and were formed by the stones being 
cleared oflf the cultivated fields and dragged to the side to be out of the 
way of the plough. Mr. Goddard remarked that precisely the same thing 
was being done continually to-day on arable land on the chalk. Tea and 
coflfee were again provided by the Mayor and Corporation. 


Leaving Swindon again at 9.30 the procession of cars made for Ingle- 
shani, the first point on the programme. The Church here came as a 
surprise to almost everyone present, for it is one of the very few Churches in 
England which remains in an entirely unrestored condition, and contains, 
small as it is, admirable examples of work of the 13th century, with fine 
woodwork in the screens, the Jacobean pulpit, and reading desk, and old 
square pews. Its present condition is by no means the result of neglect, 
but rather of the loving care which of late years, at least, has carefully 
^reserwcZ and avoided anything in the shape of "restoration" or replace- 
ment of old or damaged work by new. The result is that at this moment 
it remains an untouched and almost unique example of what the parish 
Churches of England were like at the beginning of the nineteenth century. 
For this the Society for the Protection of Ancient Buildings and the late 

The Sixty-Ninth General Meeting. 47 

Mr. ]\Iicklethwaite, who advised on the necessary work of repair and 
preservation many years ago, deserve the thanks of all who are interested 
in the history and architecture of our country Churches. Lying a little 
distance off the main road, and practically invisible from it, it has escaped 
the notice of travellers between Highworth and Lechlade. It lies, how- 
ever, close to the bank of the Thames, and of late years boating parties up 
the river from Lechlade have become popular. Whether this has any 
connection with the deplorable fact that the Church has suffered of late 
years from the depredations of marauding visitors, is not known, but the 
sad fact remains that pieces of the carved work of the screens have been 
broken off and carried away on several occasions, to the irreparable damage 
of the woodwork. In such a case as this the only cure seems to be to lock 
up the Church, objectionable as in principle thelocked-up Church is. The 
Rev. E. H. Goddard described the building to the members. The Vicar, 
the Rev. F. J. W. Girling, was unable to be present owing to illness, but 
his son very kindly pointed out several very interesting matters which had 
quite lately come to light, including what appears to be a portion of a 
painted reredos. 

Leaving Inglesham and crossing the Thames into Gloucestershire by 
Lechlade Bridge, the party stopped next at Igeclilade Chnrck, where the 
Vicar, the l^ev. R, G. P. Brownrigg, gave an interesting account of the 
history and architecture of the Church. A further drive brought the 
members to Fairford Church., the principal object of the day's excursion. 
Arriving here at 11.50, the party was met by the Vicar, Canon Jones, who 
most kindly put himself at their disposal both before and after lunch, 
giving first an admirable sketch of the history of the Church and the glass 
and then explaining each window in turn in careful detail, as the members 
passed round the Church. It is seldom that the society has the good for- 
tune to listen to so clear and excellent an exposition, even in the case of 
a building of such unique interest as this Church, which retains its original 
glass as it was in Pre- Reformat] on days, certainly in a more perfect con- 
dition than any other Parish Church in England, and probably more per- 
fectly than any other in Europe. At one o'clock the members drove down 
to "The Retreat," on the outskirts of the town, where, in a tent erected on 
the lawn, they were entertained, to the number of 76, by Dr. and Mrs. King 
1'urner, with quite astonishing generosity and kindness, the special menu 
printed for the occasion reminding the company that this year is the cen- 
tenary of the foundation of the asylum over which Dr. King Turner pre- 
sides. The society has probably never enjoyed more sumptuous hospitality 
in the whole course of its history. After the President had expressed the 
Society's gratitude, members drove back to the Church, and spent the time 
until 3 o'clock in examining the windows and other features of the Church 
in greater detail. They then left for Cricklade St. Mary's Church, 
walking up the street afterwards to S. Sampson's, both buildings being 
shortly described by the Pvev. E. H. Goddard. Leaving Cricklade at 4.30, 
about 20 minutes' drive brought the party to Purton, where they were 
entertained most kindly at tea by Mrs. Walsh, at the beautiful old Manor 
House, which, with its great barn, groups so strikingly with the closely- 
adjoining Church. After tea the Church was visited, the Rev. E. H. 

48 The Sixty -Ninth General Meeting, 

Goddard again acting as guide, and pointing out its many points of interest 
including the Golden Book, or Roll of Honour, recently placed in the 
Church, a perfect example of modern illumination. From this point the 
motors returned to Swindon and the meeting came to an end. Again the 
society had been fortunate in the weather, for the day was dry though 
cloudy until a slight shower fell as Swindon was reached in the evening. 
Our society has somewhat of a reputation amongst kindred societies for the 
punctuality and exactness with which lits programmes are carried out, a 
reputation which is owing entirely to Capt. Cunnington's minute and care- 
ful organisation beforehand. This reputation was sustained throughout 
the meeting and proceedings were carried out strictly according to scheduled 
time. Everyone was pleased with the meeting, the weather was quite kind 
on the whole, and the very satisfactory balance of £13 13s. remained after 
all expenses had been paid. 



By A. D. Passmore. 

Unrecorded Long Barrow on Horton Down, Bishop's Cannings, t 
O.M. Sheet XXXV. N.VV. Parish of Bishop's Cannings. Horton Down. 
'Height 700. On the west side of this sheet towards the top is the well- 
known square earthwork (Smith E. VII. A.), alongside which is a pond. 
Standing by the latter and facing 5° W. of S., at 250 yards distance, is a long 
barrow hitherto unrecorded. Immediately east of Brown's Barn is a modern 
corrugated iron erection, from here the barrow is conspicuous on the sky 
line looking slightly N. of E. (all bearings magnetic). The barrow is 132 
I feet long by 36 feet broad, and roughly 3 feet high, and is now on the open 
jgrass down. There are several slight hollows along the highest part and 
I in the S. end is a square pit, apparently dug down to the old surface level, 
!with two small sarsens m it. The true bearing of the long axis of the 
barrow is 4° west of north, practically N, and S. The northern end is 
if anything slightly higher than the other. There are only the slightest 
1 traces of side trenches, but the absence of these appendages is no proof that 
a mound is not a long barrow. 

I New Long Barrow at Liddington. O.M. XXIII. N.E. Parish of 

I Liddington. In the left-hand top corner of this sheet the 700 foot contour is 

tongue-shaped and almost equally divided by the Liddington — Wanborough 

parish boundary. On the highest point of this ridge is an unrecorded long 

•barrow, now measuring 165 feet long by 42 feet wide, and 5 feet high at the 

JS. end, the longer axis being rudely S.E. — N.W. (Exactly 40 degrees E. of 

[S. magnetic). The mound has been much narrowed at its extremities by 

[repeated ploughing and the centre portion has several hollows indicative of 

j former excavation. Towards the S. end is a large sarsen stone showing 

above the turf, while at intervals towards the N. are others of smaller size. 

; On the east side of the tumulus is a fence, in digging the post-holes for which 

[(about 1890) three skeletons were found. A few years later a shepherd 

I found another, several bones of which came into the writer's collection and 

I have lately been examined by Professor Parsons, of the University of 

London, who reports as follows :— " The bones submitted to me by Mr. 

Passmore were those of an adult male. The only complete bones were a 

right humerus and a right tibia, which latter measured 360 mm. without 

the spine. This should give a total height of 164 cm., or about 5ft. 4|in. 

There is a facet on the front of the lower end of the tibia, known as a 

squatting facet, showing that the individual was in the habit of squatting on 

the ground. The bones are those of a not particularly muscular individual 

and do not suggest the clean lines and perfect symmetry which I have 

learned to associate with Anglo-Saxons. I see nothing to make me think 

that these bones may not have been those of a Neolithic long barrow man, 

but the absence of the skull and teeth makes the question a difficult one to 

decide." 2 

^ The references throughout these notes are to the six inch Ordnance Maps. 
- These bones have been presented to St. Thomas's Hospital. 

50 Notes on Field-work in N. Wilts, 1921—1922. 

Oolitic Stones in Long Sarrow, Bishop's Cannings (65, 

Goddard). While examining this barrow a patch of loose earth in its- 
south side was noticed to contain fragments of Oolitic stone foreign to the 
neighbourhood. One thin slab, roughly six inches square, was obtained 
and consists of a fossiliferous rock exceedingly like, if not identical with, 
the shelly coralline limestone which occurs to the west of this spot, the 
nearest point being at Calne, just over five miles in a straight line. Similar 
stone was noticed by Thurnam in excavating the long barrow at West 
Kennett. These facts raise the question as to why the long barrow people 
should have gone so far for stone when there was plenty of good chalk 
rubble close at hand 1 It seems that some long barrows were edged by 
lines of stones between which were connecting walls of dry construction to 
contain the mound. Chalk rubble, which occurs in lumps, was not so 
suitable for the purpose as the thin slabs of Oolite. Perhaps the example 
of the neatly-walled long barrows of Gloucestershire was followed in 

New Long Barrow at Avebury (Barrow 21, Goddard). Quoted 
as a round barrow by Smith, is close to the remains of a stone circle and i& 
a distinct long barrow with the broadest and highest end to the S.S.W. : on 
each side are very broad but shallow hollows which, together with the 
mound, have been nearly obliterated by the plough. It now measures ISO 
feet by 60 feet. The circle above mentioned, which I propose to call 
Falkner's circle, in honour of its discoverer, has only one stone now re- 
maining. This must have been on the west side, as it agrees with Falkner's 
measurements from the Kennett Avenue. 

Standing Stone at Stanton Pitzwarren. O.M. Sheet XL, N.W. 
N.E. of the Church about 400 yards, in a hedgerow by the footpath leading 
from the village to the Highworth — Swindon Road, stands a large sarsen 
stone 4 feet 6 inches above ground. It is a rough brown stone in its natural 
state, and erected with its bigger end downwards. In September, 1920, 
permission having been obtained by Mr. W. H. Masters, he, together with 
Mr. A. J. Jones and the writer, excavated the base of the stone on its S. side,, 
and partly explored the ground to the east and west. The base was found 
resting on the natural rock at 2 feet below the surface. With the exception 
of one doubtful bit of pottery, nothing was found, but a few flint flakes 
occurred at a small distance away. As the only people who erected large 
isolated stones were the prehistoric megalith builders (as far as we know), 
we must attribute this stone and the two following to that age. It is 
mentioned in Goddard's "List of Wilts Antiquities" and W. Morris's^ 
" Marston and Stanton." 

Standing Stones at West Overton. O.M. XXVIIL, S.E. In the 
right-hand top corner of this sheet is " Down Barn " : immediately south of 
this in a hedgerow are two large unrecorded standing stones. Their 
direction i^ 25 E. of N. The larger stone is to the south and stands 7 feet 
2 inches clear of the ground. The east face is 4 feet 2 inches wide at the 
base, but rapidly falls away to 9 inches at the top. The N. and S. faces are 

By A. D, Passmore, 51 

! feet 8 inches wide at the ground level and remain of the same size till 
learly to the top, when it narrows rapidly to 14 inches. The N. Stone is 
• feet high, and irregularly oblong in section : E, face, 3 feet 3 inches ; N. 
ace 2 feet 6 inches. This stone is in its natural state, but the other is part 
>f a larger stone. These monoliths may have been part of a circle or 
)eristalith of a long barrow and owe their survival to their position in the 
ledgerow, the others making way for the plough, which has passed on both 
ides for many years. 

Manton Downs. O.M. Sheet XXVIII., N.E. In the centre of this 
heet and 500 yards N.W. of the Manton Chambered Long Barrow on Dog 
iill, stands "Four Acre Plantation," bounded by an earthen bank and 
jlitch, the latter outwards. The straight N. side and the whole of the W. 
ind are set with closely-packed large sarsens like a wall, those on the W. 
tide extending somewhat beyond the earthwork. Stukeley mentions an 
larthwork set with stones to the east of Avebury. This is probably what 
e refers to. There are no indications as to age or purpose. The numerous 
jmall lines and squares on these downs seem to be the results of cultivation 
,1 Romano-British times, 


j Wew Stone in the Kennett Avenue. During the drought of 1921 
examined the whole of the Kennett Avenue with the idea of tracing 
juried stones. One large patch of burnt grass indicated a stone below the 
urface, alongside the Bath Road and E. of East Kennett. A bar immediately 
proved the presence of a large stone. This is to be excavated at some future 
|me when the crops permit. Above and E of this spot, near the site of the 
lanctuary, and in the line of the avenue, a large stone was struck by the 
jlough about 1890. This was dragged out by horses and deposited in a 
abbish pit at the S.E. corner of the field, where it remains to-day covered up. 

Overton Belling. O.M. Sheet XXVIIL, N.E. On the west of the 
alley N. of Piggledean and 650 yards slightly W. of S. from the keeper's 
ouse at " Overton Delling" a small valley runs towards Avebury. At the en- 
rance to this valley stands a large stone 14 feet by 12 feet, and very thick, 
bviously not in a natural position. Just above it stood another of very 
trge size, unfortunately broken up during the war. After a careful ex- 
mination of the ground I conclude that these stones were on their way to 
.vebury, but not being required were abandoned en route. As the stones 
f Avebury are the largest in the district there can be no doubt that they 
^ere selected for their size, and no doubt some came from the " Valley of 
tones," which is the most important drift of sarsens. As the only easy 
ay out of the main valley is by the small lateral one above mentioned, 
le suggestion that these large stones were on their way to Avebury seems 
fair one. An old man who has broken sarsens all his life tells me that 
itside Avebury the largest stone he has ever seen was six paces (about 18 
let) long. 

E 2 




By O. G. S. Crawford, F.S.A. 

The first work undertaken was at the remains of the Long Barrow in the 
field immediately north of Beckhampton House (Avebury 17 in Mrs. 
Cunnington's list, W.A.M., xxxviii., 384). I had with me a photograph of 
Stukeley's " Tab. XXIV. p. 46 " (Abury), which he describes as a " Prospect 
of Bekampton Avenue from Longston Long Barrow, 1724." Theprospect has 
altered greatly since then ; there were only four houses at Beckhampton, ij 
the Waggon and Horses public house on the N. side of the Bath Road, and \\ 
three houses on the south. Trees have grown so that it is now impossible to 
see the tower of Avebury Church. The most interesting discovery was that 
of a hitherto unrecorded long barrow 430 feet E.S.E. of the south-western 
Longstone. This barrow is marked on the old MS. (2 inches to a mile) 
edition of the 1 inch O.S. map (dated 1815). I had already transferred its 
position from the MS. map at Southampton to my own 6 inch map (Sheet 
28 S.W.), and after visiting the Long Stones, had inspected it and entered 
it as " probably the remains of a Long Barrow." It was oriented approxi- 
mately N.W. — S.E., but the S.E. extremity has been destroyed by the 
modern road (called "South Street" by Stukeley) from Avebury Trusloe 
to Penning Barn. On working out the details of Stukeley's panorama from 
the Long Stone Long Barrow I found that, exactly where this new long 
barrow is situated, he marks a high mound and on the right (S. or S.E.) of 
it, five upright stones. These stones were doubtless the remains of the 
peristalith. This is clearly the " King-barrow " described on p. 44 as " near 
liOngstone Cove set round with stones." Its truncation by South Streel 
doubtless led Stukeley to regard it as round, though he says that " king 
barrows vary in their turn and shape as well as magnitude." 

No signs of the stones marked by him immediately below and to the lefl 
of the Long Stone Long Barrow could be seen ; but I was able to plot theii 
approximate site on the 6 inch map. They must have stood immediately t(j 
the south of the cross-roads at B.M. 538.1, about half-way between the Lonjj 
Stones themselves and the Long Stone Long Barrow. The two stones " dej 
molished by Rd. Fowler," which Stukeley places " at the crossing of the twj 
roads," would appear to have stood on or close to the site of the house on thi 
north side of the Bath Road, opposite Beckhampton House and garden. (Th 
shrubbery on the south side next to the Devizes Road is called Cuckoo Pej 
on the Tithe Map of Avebury, 1845). The identification of these last fouj 
stones, however,depends on the position of the cross-roads ; and if, as is quif 
likely, the roads were much wider in 1724, the positions suggested aho\ 
will be slightly erroneous. These positions involve a rather sharp bend 1! 
the south in the avenue — sharper than the Overton bend of the eastei 
avenue, but at exactly the same distance from the Avebury terminus. 
the north side of the Devizes Road, at the corner of the field 120 feet E.N.l 
of spot-level 506, is an upright sarsen stone possibly connected with tl 

! Notes on Field-work round Amhnry, December, 1921. 53 

venue, though far smaller than the Long Stones. Stukeley's last stone 
'ould appear to have been close to spot-level 506, but the foreshortening 
f his view makes a close approximation difficult. A later visit enabled 
le to identify "Tab. XXV." as made from a spot in the ploughed field a 
uarter of a mile due west of Beckhampton House. Rays drawn from this 
pot and from the Longstone Long Barrow intersect exactly at the spot 
'here the small sarsen still stands and confirm the suggested termination 
f the avenue near spot-level 506 and also the positions of the other stones. 

Avebury, Barrow 47. (E. H. Goddard's list, W.A.M., xxxviii., 180). 
'he site of this barrow is marked on Sheet 28 N.W., halfa-mile due south 
f the top of Windmill Hill, 430 feet S.W. of B.M. 558-4. On the MS. 

inch map of 1815 it is marked by the symbol used for long barrows (the 
ame as that employed by Colt Hoare). It is still plainly visible, being 
bout 150 feet long, though much ploughed down. It is IVOO feet N.W. of 
lorslip Bridge, and is certainly that referred to by Stukeley as a " con- 
iderable long barrow of a large bulk, length, and height ; it regards the 
nake Head Temple though here not in sight " (quoted in Mrs. Cunnington's 
iSt under " Stukeley's description of Long Barrows round Avebury " and 
Ihown in the distance in Stukeley's Tab. XVIIL, p. 34). I tested the 
rientation on the spot, which exactly agrees with Stukeley's description ; 
jlie barrow points towards Overton Hill, which is hidden behind Waden 


There are no signs whatever of A. C. Smith's barrow east of the last 
oddard 47a.) 

Barrows near Pox Covert, Sheets 27 S.E. and 28 S.W. The group 
lf barrows occurring partly on each of these sheets immediately S. and S.W. 
If Fox Covert (Goddard's "Avebury, 10—16" W.A.M. xxxviii., 176,) 
5 evidently the same as that shown by Stukeley in his "Tab. XXIX., p. 56 
-a group of barrows on the side of the valley above Beckhampton." He 
[idicates ten in all, four large and six small. This is the number shown 
y Colt Hoare {Ahury and Silhury), Plate 10, Nos, 1 — 10). Eight are now 
isible — the westernmost by powdery white soil and a slight mound, 
jithers by chocolate soil contrasting with the black natural soil. 

Stukeley's "Tab. IX., p. 16." This view shows the Roman Road 

7est of the point where it crosses the Beckhampton — Devizes Road. The 
pw of black smudges shown on each side of it are the pits from which the 
halk for the causeway was obtained. These can still be seen here in the 
rable, but are much clearer where the down is unploughed further west. 
n Stukeley's drawing two other pits occur inside the circle of a "Druid's 
amulus," or disc-barrow, which has now been entirely ploughed away, 
his disc-barrow is marked on the old MS. 2 inch map of 1815 on the south 
deof the Roman Road, 1500 feet west of the point where it crosses the 
eckhampton— Devizes Road. It is also marked as a circular bank 200 
iet in diameter, on the first edition of the 6 inch map (Sheet 27, 1889), and 
•om this the site will be replaced on the new edition now being prepared. 
Stukeley's " cut barrow," which is shown on the north side of the Roman 

54 Notes on Field-work round Avebury, December, 1921. 

Road opposite the disc-barrow, is Goddard's Avebury 8a. Stukeley'i 
description shows that it was opened before his time, and signs of tb 
opening are still visible though filled in. It is now planted with beeche 
and crowned by an upright boundary stone. It is not marked on Sheet 2' 
S.E. (edition of 1900). 

" Old Chapels." Stukeley (Abury, 47, 48) describes three sites callei 
by this name : — 

(1) Near Glory Ann. 

(2) " Upon the declivity of Hakpen, towards Winterburne Basset 

(3) " In Beckhampton town." 

(1) The position of the " old chapel " near Glory Ann is fixed by Si 
liichard Colt Hoare's map {Ancient Wilts, between pp. 34 and 35) whic 
shows an earthwork with an opening in its S. W. side. This agrees exact! 
with Stukeley's "one entrance on the south-west side towards Abury 
The situation of the place is high [actually it is 800 feet above O. I).] an 
has a descent quite round three of its sides ; the verge of the descent ii 
closing it like a horseshoe." If we identify Balmore Pond (p. 48) with tli 
largest (westernmost) of the two ponds south of the barn at Glory Ann 

I am strongly inclined to do, Hoare's position is confirmed. On the N.V 
of Old Chapel was what must have been in Stukeley's time a very fi 
chambered long barrow. This is marked on the old O.S. MS. map of 181; 
and it can still be seen as a low mound, almost ploughed away. In additio 
the same map marks a round barrow here. Traces of this cannot be sai 
with certainty to be visible now ; but besides the long barrow there arei 
the field undulations which are probably the remains of it and of the eartl 
works of Old Chapel. Every one of the large stones has vanished. 

(2) The "Old Chapel" east of Winterbourne Basset is probably,! 
Smith suggests (p. 121, H. ii. b.), the earthwork at the foot of Winterbouri 
Down (0,S., Sheet 22. S.E.), quarter-mile south of the sixth milestone ( 
the Marlborough Road. (Goddard's list, W.A.M., xxxviii., p. 356). 

(3) The Beckhampton "Old Chapel" seems to have been close to tj 
cross-roads, but Stukeley describes no earthworks there. A grass field (( 
the south is very hummocky and suggestive of mediaeval occupation. j 

Mill Barrow and Shelving Stones. The site of the Shelvi! 
Stones is marked, on the old MS. O.S. map of 1815 on the north side of tl 
track from West Field Barn to Winterbourne Monkton, quarter-mile N | 
of the Church. This agrees very closely with the site of Mill Barrow 
Smith's map (F. iii. f.), but on the old O.S. map the Shelving Stoij 
are marked by the symbol adopted there for long barrows. I have not t 
slightest doubt that (as Hoare suggested, A.W. II., 94) the Shelving Stoij 
were simply the uprights of the burial-chamber of a Long Barrow. Wl, j 
is probably one of them still survives in the north side of the hedge of I ; 
field immediately opposite the position where the long barrow is shownjf 
the old O.S. map. It is that on which B.M. 544"4 has been cut (Sheet [I 
N.W.). Not the faintest trace of the mound can now be seen. I wasj! 
one time inclined to think that Millbarrow and the Shelving Stone w! 
the same ; but am now very doubtful whether this is the case. J j 

v_ • 


\ t 


: 6 




-J ! L 


Plan of the Pennings Circle, Avebury, 1922. 

Stones are shown In solid black and depressions in the grass 
where stones may have stood by broken circles 

By 0, G. S, Crawford, F.S.A. 55 

Goddard says : — "I do not think the Shelving Stone and Millbarrow are 

the same at all. Stukeley figures both ; and Long ( W.A.M., iv., 334) 

describes (1) Millbarrow (2) the large sarsens removed by Mr. Eyles ; and 

then (3) the Shelving Stone ; and says : ' This, too, has been removed within 

, a few years.' Clearly I think he regarded these as three separate monu- 

I ments. Smith marks and describes them as separate : F. III. (e) Shelving 

Stone, (f) Millbarrow, and (g) large sarsen stone covering interment; all 

apparently being near together." Stukeley's unpublished drawings (St. 

John MSS.) show that Millbarrow was near the site of the Shelving Stone, 

whose exact site is fixed by the one and two-inch O.S. map. It would thus 

I appear that there were two chambered long barrows here in close proximity. 

I Hoare's reference to Millbarrow' may possibly refer to the remains of a 

iflat round barrow on the hill (Goddard, WinterbourneBassett, I. d.) one 

\ mile S.E. of Winterbourne Bassett, half in Berwick Bassett. That 

I portion of the hill which lies in the former parish is called " Millboro and 

iHackpen" on the Tithe Map of 1843; and that which lies in Berwick 

(Bassett is called " Mill Brow " on the Tithe Map of 1838. 

Small Stone Circle. I hunted in vain for the " diminutive cromlech " 
on Avebury Down described by Smith (p. 150, XL, H. 5, n.) and referred 
to in Goddard's List ( W.A.M., xxxviii., p. 1 83). It seems to have disappeared 
j completely. But I was more successful in my search for the small circle 
excavated by Mere wether {Proc. Arch. Inst.^ Salisbury^ p. 106). This is 
'the one which Smith says he was unable to find, but which he marks on 
ihis map pretty close to its true position (H. IV., 5, p. 134). It is in Avebury 
iparish, amongst the grey wethers between Avebury Down Barn and Monkton 
iPenning,2 2000 feet E. by N. of the well at Avebury Down Barn, and 2400 
If eet due south of a large upright sarsen. The stones of the circle are actually 
[marked on the Ordnance Map by four sarsens placed close together im- 
imediately south of the " y " in " Grey Wethers," Sheet 28, N.VV.) ; and on 
■the 25 inch map, where the large scale permits it they are shown as a circle. 
The circle^ stands on the brow of a low bluff and consists of at least six 

'After speaking of "the kistvaen in Monkton fields, mentioned by 
Stukeley, and known by the name of Shelving Stone," Hoare continues : 
*' On an adjoining hill retaining the name of Millbarrow, from a windmill 
placed on it, there was formerly a barrow, but it is now levelled nearly to 
the ground" (A.W. IL, 94). 

2 This old enclosure is marked on the Ordnance Map (Sheet 28, N.W.) 
without its name, which is given on the 1815 edition. It was in existence 
in Stukeley's time. It lies about a mile east of the village of Winterbourne 
Monkton, immediately east of Hackpen Barn, and consists of two large 
fields enclosed by hedges. The area within contains many fine cultivation 
banks of the Romano- British type. As its name implies, it was a cattle 
or sheep enclosure. The word "penning" is the modern equivalent of 
the Old English " pen," which occurs in Hackpen itself. 

*It is that figured by Stukeley, Itin. Cur., ii. (1746), Plate 92. "A 
Celtic Temple at Winterbourne, 22 Aug., 1723." Eight stones are shown. 

56 Notes on Field-work round Avehury, December, 1921. ^ 

large sarsens, placed mostly on the south and west, surrounding a low 
mound. The holes of at least three other sarsens are visible on the cir^ 
cumference. In the centre are traces of a central stone no longer visible. 
The diameter of the circle is about six paces. It closely resembles the- 
circle at Kennet recently discovered by Mr. Passmore. A fragment of 
Samian ware was found by Merewether immediately under the flat centra] 
sarsen, and lower down fragments of "British" pottery, animals' bones,, 
flint scrapers, and flakes. 

Hollow Ways. Between the upright sarsens and the circle runs a 
most remarkable wide sunken trench, with some remains of a bank on each, 
side with sarsens set in it. The stone rows are incomplete but unmistakable, 
and there are many stone-holes ; they are even visible from the arrangement 
of the sarsen symbols on the 6 inch map. The hollow way — as I take it to 
be — first begins to be plainly visible at a point 700 feet N.E. of the circle. 
It runs south-westwards and is very clear indeed crossing the S.E. corner of 
the field in which Avebury Down Barn stands. After leaving this field it 
turns sharply southwards, and is lost in the plough immediately N.W. of 
the westernmost barrow on " Five Barrows Hill." 

Another equally ancient hollow way crosses the one just described on the 
field boundary, at a point N. by W. of the westernmost barrow. It can bfr 
traced westwards only 700 feet, to the hedge running south from Avebury 
Down Barn. Eastwards, however, it can be followed almost without a- 
break for a mile and three quarters nearly as far as Old Totterdown. It 
climbs Hackpen between three barrows (Goddard, Avebury 41, 42, 43) 
and a modern pond, where its true character — of a track— is clearly seen. 
It then enters Sheet 28 N.E., passing to the south of an unmarked barrow, 
and is marked " ditch " on the Ordnance Map. Down to the bottom of the 
next valley (where it ends on the Ordnance Survey Map of 1901) it can b& 
followed quite easily. At the bottom of the valley it passes to the north 
of two large circular depressions, probably ancient ponds. Both of them 
have the appearance of great age. The northernmost is 22 paces in diameter 
from north to south. The south (or lower) side is embanked and on the em- 
bankment are a number of large sarsens piled up. As the hollow way climbs 
the hill towards Totterdown its age and character become most apparent. 
This beautiful hillside has never been disturbed since the Romano-British | 
people abandoned their small rectangular fields, whose balks, set with sar* { 
sens, still line the slopes. The hollow track passes between these lynches or 
cultivation banks, respecting them and obviously contemporary with them- 
It is impossible for anyone walking up this ancient lane to doubt for a j 
moment that it is part and parcel of the same system as the fields on each side. I 
The lynches find a natural termination against the old track, which threads j 
its way between the fields like a modern lane through enclosures. Its j 
characteristic section is that of a fairly broad flat depression between two I 
low banks. The eastern objective of this road is uncertain ; but the western I 
would appear to have been Windmill Hill, to which the portion south of j 
Avebury Down Barn points directly. If this portion were prolonged it i 
would come into line with the boundary between Avebury and Winterbourne | 
Monkton where that boundary crosses the Kennet ; and would follow it j 

By 0. G. S, Crawford, F.S.A. 57 

past the line of four barrows to the circular entrenchment round the top. 
Though this old track in its present form must be ascribed to the Early 
Iron Age civilization, the route followed is the most direct one by which 
settlers on Windmill Hill could obtain the flint they used so abundantly 
there ; and the track may, therefore, be of much greater antiquity. 

It is interesting to note that Dr. Grundy identifies this trackway (where 
it is crossed by the parish boundary between Avebury and West Overton) 
with the "ditch to the south of Aethelferth's stone" mentioned in the 
bounds of Overton (Birch, Cart. Sax., 734). If this identification is correct 
it is very important as evidence that in Saxon times the road had ceased to 
be used, and was regarded only as a ditch. Had it been in use it would 
certainly have been described as " hollow way " or " herepath." It is useless 
to attempt to identify the actual stone called after Aethelferth, but there 
is a large sarsen near the junction of the parishes of Overton, Avebury, and 
Winterbourne Monkton, which may have been the one so named. 

Lynches on Totterdown. A word more must be said about the 
lynches on the slopes of Totterdown. Along the slopes these rows of 
sarsens are arranged in an obviously artificial manner. So clear is this that 
it has even been noticed by the Ordnance Surveyors, as will be seen in 
Sheet 28 N.E. The sarsens follow the boundaries of the old fields both up 
and down the hillside and along it. I fancy that they may have been 
placed there partly as bound-marks, partly to clear the area within for 
cultivation. The edge of a field is still the natural place to deposit ob- 
structions to cultivation, both sarsens and large flints. But it is also pos- 
sible that a kind of retaining wall may have been constructed to prevent 
the soil from being washed down to the valley. Mr. Kendall tells me 
that at the foot of Winterbourne Monkton Down he observed a row of 
sarsens recently exposed by diggers, standing in a line and clearly placed 
there intentionally. Unfortunately they were all broken up. Similar rows 
of sarsens may still be seen along the lynches in Monkton Penning. This 
explanation would not, of course, account for those rows which run up and 
down the hill, where they can only have served the purpose of marking the 
limits of the field. Such sarsen "hedges" appear to have been in use in 
quite recent times; one such still exists a quarter of a mile north of 
Winterbourne Monkton Church, running from the Kennet to a track on 
the west. Another bounds the Pddgeway south of the Kennet crossing 
at East Kennet. The mountains of Merionethshire are covered with similar 
lines of boulders, much overgrown, and in one place closely connected with 
a hill- top camp (Pen Dinas). Here, too, there are good reasons for believing 
them to be the boundaries of a long-vanished system of enclosures. 

To the south of this trackway is another, less ancient, perhaps, but still 
of great antiquity. It ran from Avebury to Hockley and was called 
" herepath " in the tenth century bounds of Overton, already refered to. 
It can be followed throughout its course by numerous parallel hollow ways. 
South of the point where this " herepath " crosses the Bidgeway, 90 paces 
west of the N.W. corner of Parson's Penning, is a remarkable depression 
about 6 feet deep and 45 feet in diameter. Piound its margin are set six 

58 Notes on Field-work round Avehury, December, 1921. 

upright sarsens, about two to three feet high It seems to be later than a 
cultivation-bank of the Roman-British type, which it cuts across. It has, 
however, the appearance of considerable antiquity. Can it be the " Scrowes 
Pit" or the " Crundel" of the Overton bounds? The land on which it 
stands is called Ray Down on Smith's map. 

Old names of the Kennet and its Tributaries. Several names 
compounded with " bourne " suggest that in Saxon times the upper waters 
of the river Kennet had distinctive and alternative names. The main 
stream, rising at Quidhampton Barn, in Wroughton (Sheet 22 N.W.), is 
called Gadbourne in the tithe map of Wroughton ; the name survives in 
Gadbourne Bridge and Cottages. A draining ditch joining it north of 
Fiddler's Hill is called Jugginsbourne. The field-name Lamborne's Ground 
applied to the fields N.W. of Winterbourne Bassett, supplies a name for 
the " bourne " which flows occasionally down the valley north of the stone 
circle there, joining the main stream south of Rabson Farm. The names 
of the parishes of Winterbourne Monkton and Winterbourne Bassett suggest 
an alternative generic name for the whole of the Upper Kennet above 
Overton ; though it is always a puzzle to me why the term " winter " should 
be used to qualify streams which are invariably dry up to February or 
March and are highest in early summer. The stream flowing immediately 
south of the boundary between Winterbourne Monkton and Berwick Bassett 
west of the Kennet was probably called Gosbourne, the name of a field in 
Berwick Bassett on the parish boundary S.W. of the village and west of the 
Kennet. The name of the important tributary rising N.W. of Yatesbury and 
joining the Kennet at Avebury, is fortunately preserved in that of a field be- 
tween Horslip Bridge and Westbrook Farm (Bray Street), which is Sambourne 
Ground on the Avebury Tithe Map. Two meads higher up on the same 
stream are called Bournemead. Other instances of the same pre-Saxon 
river name occur near Warminster, between Calne and Chippenham ("bridge 
of Sambourne " in the perambulations of Chippenham Forest), at King's 
Somborne, Hants, and in the river Somme. That the name of the Kennet 
was also in use for the main stream at East Kennet is proved by its 
occurrence (spelt Cyneta) in the Overton'bounds. The traditional source 
of the Kennet is at Swaliowhead Springs, south of Silbury, and I do not 
know of any evidence of the name ever being applied to the river higher up or 
its tributaries except on the Ordnance Maps. The nameiitself is, of course, 
pre-Saxon, and connected with Cunetio (Mildenhall). That the name " Sam- 
bourne" may even have been an alternative name for the Kennet itself is 
suggested by its occurrence as a field-name immediately S. by W. of George 
Bridge, in West Overton. Is it possible that we have here evidence of 
linguistic stratification ? and that Sam (with its variant Som) is the pre- 
Celtic name of the stream called Cynet (or some such similar name) by 
the Celtic-speaking peoples, and adopted by the Romans and Saxons ? It 
would be interesting to know by what name the builders of Silbury called 
the stream which flowed at its foot. 

Names ending in -Bury. Such names nearly always refer to an 
earthwork or (rarely) to a barrow, and it may be useful to put on record 

By 0. G. S. Crawford, F.S.A. 59 

those in this district where no such remains are now known to exist, in the 
hope that it may lead to their discovery. 

Orbury, in Yatesbury (27 N.E ). ^Smith's name for field N. of Noland's 

FoxBURY. Smith's name for the field S. W. of the two barrows outside 
the village to the !S.E. [Perhaps this means only "foxes' burrow," just as 
Coneybury is an alternative of Coneygar (gar =garth) meaning " rabbit 
warren." Fosbury or Foxbury in the West Woods in West Overton is 
capable of a similar explanation.] 

Laxbury, in Preshute (28 S.E.). (Enclosure map of Manton Tithing, 
1792) : Lexbury (Tithe map of Preshute, 1847). The field on the south 
of theKennet, quarter mile S.E. of the Ailesbury Arms, Clatford. 

Long Barrows S.W. of A.vebury. The one described by Thurnam 
as " Bishop's Cannings " is probably Goddard's Bishops Cannings 76, 
which is clearly a long barrow. [This suggestion is made by Mrs-Cunnington 
in Goddard's list, but not in her own. The barrow is now easier to see as a 
whole than formerly, and Mrs. Cunnington tells me she is quite satisfied 
that it is a true long barrow.] It is marked on the Ordnance Map (Sheet 
27 S.E.) as a long mound orientated N.E —S.W., on the south side of the 
Beckhampton— Devizes Road, 1000 feet due east of the 6th milestone from 
Devizes. It was noticed independently by Mr. Passmore. 

Six hundred yards S.W. of the last long barrow, in a group of barrows 
on the north side of the road, is one marked as a round barrow (Goddard 
Bishops Cannings 23, W.A i/., xxxviii., 127). It is, however, prolonged 
into the ploughed field on the S. W., as a long low mound orientated N.E. — 
S.W., with a total length of 220 feet. The N.E. end is the highest and 
broadest, and has apparently never been ploughed ; it is crossed by an old 
boundary bank and ditch running N. and S., and probably the continuation 
of that marked further N. on the map. Three sarsens lie in the field to the 
south of the barrow. I strongly suspect this to be a long barrow. Can it 
be that referred to by Stukeley (Avebmy p. 45) as "to the S.W. from 
Bekhampton cut through with some later division dyke"? And is he 
referring again to this barrow as " a very long one in the valley from 
Bekhampton to Runway Hill"? (Runway Hill used to describe Morgan's 
Hill as well). 

The long barrow in Bromham shown on down south of Heddington 
Church by Hoare and marked as a round barrow on the Ordnance Map 
(Sheet 34 N.W.) probably owes its disappearance to quarrying rather than 
ploughing. The whole area is now under plough, but remains of an old 
chalk pit can be seen. 

Earthworks between Old Shepherd's Shore and the Roman 
B.oad. The remains at Old Shepherd's Shore are very confused. Amongst 
them is a square mound, later than the dyke and 7 yards long. It might 
be contemporary with the dyke. I know, from inspection, of four other 
examples of square mounds ; two are in Gloucestershire ; one of them, 
called "St. Paul's Epistle " (half-mile W. of Andoversford) was found on 
excavation to be be full of Roman coins. The third and fourth examples are 

60 Notes on Field-iuork round Avebury, December ^ 1921. 

the two mounds in Mr. Passmore's square camp on Sugar Hill. In York- 
shire they appear to be more common. In " The Rivers^ Mountains and 
Sea-coast of Yorkshire " (John Philips, F.G.S., London, 1853, p. 205), the 
author says : " All the tumuli at Skipwith and Thorganby are environed by 
square fossae, and one of those at Arras, near Weighton, has the same 

Close by on the S.E. is a small tump like the mound in a disc barrow. I 
cannot identify the "mounds" shown on the Ordnance Map with anything 
on the ground, which has been left in the usual state of untidiness by casual 
flint diggers. 

The barrow 700ft. N. W. of Old Shepherd's Shore marked on the Ordnance 
map (Sheet 34 N.E.) lies to the south of Wansdyke, and is partly covered 
on the north side by the bank of Wansdyke. Immediately west of this is 
another barrow (not marked on the map) also south of Wansdyke, whose 
bank has been partly obscured by Wansdyke. The first of these two bar- 
rows lies near to the east of Pitt-Kiver's first section (1899) across Wansdyke, 
which is now occasionally used as a trackway and which lies 840 feet south 
of another gap used by a track marked on the Map (Sheet 27 S.E.). 

From this spot there can be seen a most interesting earthwork (not 
hitherto noticed though marked on the old two-inch map) which can be 
followed as far as the Roman road. It consists of a double ditch, divided 
by a bank and flanked by two outer banks. It is earlier than Wansdyke 
and has been partly used by the makers thereof. From the north it joina 
the dyke where the dyke passes from Sheet 27 S.E. to Sheet 34 N.E. ; that 
is to say, it ends abruptly close to this point where the line it took was 
adopted (as I imagine) as that of the ditch of Wansdyke, Whether this be 
so or not, it is undoubtedly earlier than the dyke, as it re-appears again on 
the south side of the dyke, immediately west of the westernmost (un- 
marked) of the two barrows already described. It can be followed to the 
top of the hill where it has been destroyed by flint diggers. I did not 
attempt to follow it further south, but suggest that it may have joined the 
old herepath running N.W. — S.E. along the foot of the escarpment N. of 
Bishops Cannings, past Harepath Farm and close to the Iron Age village 
at All Cannings Cross. Northwards the track-way, as I believe it to be, 
can be followed continuously over the top of Morgan's Hill to the Roman 
road, whose line it crossed east of a track- way following a hedge to Calstone 
and 650 feet east of the wood marked Horsecombe Bottom (Sheet 27 S.E.). 
Here the causeway of the Roman Road consists of a shelf on the steep 
hillside ; and the material for the causeway has been dug away from the 
upper (south) side, forming a small cliff. This cliff cuts across the earth- 
work here described, proving that it is earlier than the Roman Road. On 
the top of Morgan's Hill the earthwork is obscured for a short distance by 
flint diggings, but it re-appears on the northern slope,its northernmost por- 
tion consisting of a single ditch between two low banks. Immediately 
south (100 paces) of an elder thicket growing in some old pits on the top of 
Morgan's Hill (near trig, point 847) on the east side of the earthwork, is an 
unopened round barrow. Also east of the earthwork, on the north slope of 
Morgan's Hill, 250 paces south of the Roman Road, and 12 paces east of the 

By 0. G, S. Crawford, F,S.A. 61 

•central bank of the earthwork, is a long low mound, 50 feet long (but not a 
long barrow) orientated due N. and S., with the highest end to the south. 
At this point the earthwork is 40 feet wide over all. 

O.S. Sheets 27 S.E. and 34 N.W. Miscellaneous. The combes 
beginning N.E. of King's Play Mill are covered with cultivation terraces 
(lynchets) of the mediaeval type. These appear, from the state of the grass, 
to have been still under plough not more than a century ago, and probably 
less. Similar terraces cover the combes S.W. of Oldbury Hill. The age of 
these latter can be proved from an old map at Bowood, showing each strip 
as under cultivation at the date it was made (18th century). Some of the 
names on this map are worth recording, as they are not easily read in the 
photograph of the map in the Society's Library, 'i'hey are : — Miping Stone 
Bottom, Henses Coomb, Snails Coomb, Bams Coomb, Chiding Hill, 
Nut Hill, Cat Linches, Long Linches, Hevend Hill, The Burning 
Path, Waden, Hut's Hill, Vacoomb, Nesset Hill, Aden Deal, 
Paten Hill, Adden Hill, White Hill, Shooters Blocks, You Coomb 
Book Coomb, Dun Goos. The field south of the Calne Boad, at Calstone, 
S.W. of the Manor Farm (Sheet 27 S.W.), is called Loncaster Furlong. 

Sheet 28 S.W. The fine disc-barrow from which Stukeley made his 
sketch (Tab. XXL) is not marked on the Ordnance Map (Sheet 28 S.W.), 
though shown by Colt Hoare and Stukeley (Goddard, Avebury 29a). It 
is 450 feet N.W. of Goddard Avebury 29. At the north end of Waden 
Hill (Windmill Boll), in the same sketch, he shows what appears from his 
drawing to be a long barrow, orientated N.N. W. — S.S.E. The remains of a 
mound are still visible in the grass field there ; there is nothing in the 
character of the mound inconsistent with its being the remains of a long 
barrow, but without further evidence it would be rash to say that it was 
such, in spite of the great and proven accuracy of Stukeley's drawings. 
[From the way it is drawn in some of the recently examined St. John MSS. 
I feel sure that it was only a round barrow.] 

No other remains of barrows can now be detected on Waden Hill, whose 
N. end was called " Windmill Boll." 

From Stukeley's drawings and descriptions we know of the existence of 
the following barrows : — 

[A.] Certain. A disc-barrow about 400 — 500 feet east of the 5th 
milestone from Marlborough, on the north side of the Bath Road. Mr. 
Passmore and I have both hunted for this without success. 

A disc-barrow and three other barrows (round ; Goddard Avebury 20a) 
on the N. end of W^aden Hill, above Avebury, close to the 600 foot contour 
line. (Tab, XXIII.) The two round ones are shown also in Tab. XXI. 
Only one— a round barrow — is now visible. 

A round barrow on the east slope of the hill, on the N.W. side of a hedge 
running N.E. from Silbury to the stone circle at Waden's Penning, about 
half-way between the 600 foot contour line and the Kennet Avenue. (I 
think the hedge here has been moved further N. since Stukeley's time). 
This has completely vanished. 

62 Notes on Field-work round Avehury, December, 1921. 

750 feet N.W. of the west end of the Kennet Long Barrow, is a round 
barrow in a ploughed field. This is shown in kStukeley's Tab. XXII. and 
XXIIl. as a high round barrow. This is still visible. 

Total of certain barrows, seven. 

[B ] Uncertain. Three humps on the skyline of the hill^are shown in 
Tab. XXL, S.E. of the hedge crossing the hill from S.W. to N.E. These 
may be barrows already under plough in Stukeley's time. One of them lay 
immediately S. of the hedge, and all were along the top of the hill. There 
is no other evidence of them, and there are now practically no traces on 
the ground. 

Two round barrows are marked about the same distance W.S.W. of the 
long barrow, on the old MS. Sin. O.S. map of 1815. There is not now 
the slightest trace of these. 

A quarter of a mile W.S.W. of E. Kennet Church is another round barrow 
faintly discernible in a ploughed field. It also is marked on the old O.S map. 

Between Smith's stone circle (half-a-mile S.W. of the West Kennet Long 
Barrow) and the sarsen stones in the bottom of the valley to the east is a 
small round barrow discovered by Mr. Passmore. It lies 120 paces S.E. of 
a round pond marked on Sheet 28 S.W. in a direct line with a barrow 
(Goddard Stanton St. Bernard 4) on the skyline south of a clump of 

Windmill Hills. There are so many hills round Avebury connected 
with windmills that a list of them may prevent confusion. 

1 . Windmill Hill (Sheet 28 N.W.) partly in Avebury parish, partly in the 
parish of Winterbourne Monkton. This is the most celebrated of all. Upon 
it are found innumerable flint implements, including "petits tranchets " 
(broad-edged arrowheads) and other implements made from polished axes. 
The flints have a characteristic white patina, and as the hill consists of 
Lower Chalk without flints, the raw flint must have been obtained from the 
district to the east or south-east. The hill is surrounded by a circular bank, 
and within a radius of half-a-mile of the top are twelve round barrows. 

2. Windmill House (Sheet 28 N.W.) in Winterbourne Monkton. In the 
garden is the base of the old windmill, built of large stones, standing about 
six feet high and used as a hen-house. It was in use apparently in 1815, as 
it is marked " Monkton Windmill " on the 1815 map. 

3. Milboro and Hackpen Field in Winterbourne Bassett, adjoining Mill 
Brow* in Berwick Bassett on the south (Sheet 22 S.W.). There is a round 
barrow (Goddard, Winterbourne Bassett I.d.) on the top, referred to 
by Sir Richard Colt tloare. 

4. Overton Mill (Sheet 28 S.E.) on the hill about a mile S.W. of West 
Overton Church, called " Windmill Hill " in Smith's map. It is shown in 
action on Stukeley's Tabs. XXIIL and XXIX. 

Bij 0, G, S. Craui/ord, F.S.A. 63 

5. Windmill Edge (Sheet 28 S.E.) in Preshute, N. of Barrow Cottages 
and the AJanton Barrow (name from Smith's map). 

6. Windmill Knowl (Sheet 34 N.W.) on Boundway Hill, the name of 
that part of the hill lying in Bishop's Cannings parish, E. of Roundway 
Hill Farm (name from old MS. 2in. O.S. map of 1811). 

7. Waden HiJ], in Avebury parish, south of the village, was formerly 
called Windmill Boll, and is frequently so described by Stukeley. I sus- 
pect that the name " boll " or " ball " had reference to one of the round 
barrows on the northern end of the hill, on the brow of the hill above the 



By Canon F. H. Manley. 

It is melancholy to have to report the loss of a valuable heritage of the 
past which made one of the Churches in N. Wilts notable. 

The oak screen which stood across the north or Bradfield Aisle of Hul- 
lavington Church, at about two-thirds of its length from the west end, was 
a precious relic of antiquity. The circumstances under which it was taken 
down show how possible it is even now for irreparable mischief to be done, 
despite the fact that all legal requirements have been carried out, when the 
subject matter is a portion of a parish Church. 

There can be no question that the ancient screen was urgently in need of 
repair, and the late Vicar, the Rev. J. C. Kamsay, was afraid that at any 
time in its worm-eaten and tottering condition it might collapse, possibly 
doing some considerable damage in its fall. Visitors to the Church, who had 
come especially to see the screen, had spoken to him of its value and of the 
possibility of its repair, recommending him to consult certain architects of 
repute before taking any action. The Vicar, however, seems to have made 
up his mind that the screen was beyond repair, and^ apparently he was 
supported in this view by his churchwardens. A proposal that the ancient 
screen should be replaced by a new one, erected in the Church as a memorial 
of the Hullavington men who had fallen in the war met with general 
approval and the necessary steps for carrying out this unfortunate idea were 
quickly taken. 

The well-known firm of Messrs. Jones & Willis were consulted and asked 
to furnish designs for a new screen. Their advice was not to take down the 
ancient screen, but, finding that this advice was not acceptable, they sup- 
plied the design for a low screen to be substituted for the ancient screen. 

A meeting of the parishioners was held 15th Sept., 1917, when a resolution 
was passed approving the removal of the ancient screen and the erection in 
its place of a new oak screen, according to the design of Messrs. Jones & 
Willis. The Vicar and churchwardens' petition for a faculty to carry out 
this work was duly presented to A. B. Ellicott, Vicar General of the 
Consistory Court of Bristol, a citation was issued by him, 26th Sept., 1917, 
and on the 30th Sept. affixed to the principal outer door of the said Parish 
Church of Hullavington. There for fifteen days it remained and no protest 
against this act of destruction was raised. Then on 16th November, 1917, 
the authority "duly weighing and considering the premises" sanctioned 
the removal of the old screen and erection of a dwarf new screen in its place, 
the faculty being signed, F. J. Press, Deputy- Registrar. 

All this legal procedure did nothing to protect this precious fabric of 
our forefathers and its doom was sealed ! 

How far the Rural Dean at the time, the late Canon Mac Millan, had 
been consulted we do not know, but certainly no representative of the Wilts 

The Destruction of the Ancient Screen at Hullavingtoii. 65 

Archaeological Society was asked for advice. Those interested in the 
preservation of our ancient monuments had no inkling of what was going 
■on. Thus it was left to those on the spot, who had no idea of the value of 
what they had in charge, to destroy what was the special glory of their 

Messrs. Jones & Willis removed the old screen with the greatest care, 
and the portions of it which they were able to preserve, viz., sixteen carved 
panels, 18in. by 9in., are now in the care of the present Vicar, Rev. E, G. 
Mortimer, who is anxious to utilise them so as best to show something of 
the beauty of what has been lost. He would be glad to receive suggestions 
upon this point, and, as the question of funds is a serious one, any donations 
towards the cost from those interested in the matter. 

We have to thank the Rev. F. R. P. Sumner (Hucknall, Notts) for the 
following full description of the ancient screen and also for the excellent 
photos, from which the two illustrations have been made, one viewing the 
screen from the east and the other from the west. 

The screen was one of remarkable interest, retaining, as it did, the old 
balcony-front to the rood-loft. Only two other examples of the balcony- front 
remain in the county, viz., those at Avebury and Edington, with which 
Hullavington should be compared. 

The Hullavington screen is mentioned by Cox {Church Furniture, p. 141) 
and Keyser {Mural and Painted Decorations^ \). xxviii., 139). The work 
bore every appearance of composite date. The lower part with doorway 
^nd bail-flower enrichments was of late thirteenth century or early fourteenth 
•century date, while the upper portion with balcony-front was of the fifteenth 

The screen was in a most dilapidated condition, but not beyond repair. 
All tracery of the lights and lower panels were gone and the two uprights 
of the central door alone upheld the tottering structure. Evident signs re- 
mained, however, of the enrichments of cornice and loft-front which once 
were there. 

The special features of the screen were the early date of the lower portion 
and the old balcony-front remaining still in situ. The former should have 
provided much interest to the archseologist on account of its remarkably 
early date for wooden screen-work. The latter was one of the few original 
balcony-fronts remaining out of those which were once the glory of our land. 

It consisted of eighteen open panels with tracery heads, divided into 
three compartments by four tabernacled niches. The carved tracery of the 
panels and niches had gone but the marks where they once stood remained, 
as the illustration shows. The pierced panels would have been enriched 
by applied ogee canopies, the heads of which extended to the handrail of 
the balcony-front (c/. Bennington, Suifolk). For that purpose the moulding 
at the head of the pierced panels was cut through. 

A curious feature of the screen was the pulpit line projection above the 
door on the western face of the screen. Similar projections westward are 
found on the screens at Sleaford and Cotes- by-Stow, Lines. Projections 
eastward are seen at Montgomery, Newark, Sutton-on-Trent (Notts), and 
Dunster (Som.). 


66 The Destruction of the Ancient Screen at Hullavington. 

The reason for such structural features is matter of conjecture. It is not 
unlikely that they were so constructed to provide additional space in the 
loft for an altar or an organ. In the case of the Hullavington screen, how- 
ever, the projection only formed part of the plan of the earlier screen, the 
gallery of which followed its line. The later gallery front (which was in 
situ) ignored the older line of projection and ran across continuously. v 

The illustration of the east side of the Hullavington screen reveals con- 
siderable remains of old colour decoration. But now the screen has gone 
and its glory, dim as it was, is no more. 

" He that hewed timber afore out of the thick trees was known to bring^ 
it to an excellent work. But now they break down all the carved work 
thereof with axes and hammers." Ps. Ixxiv., 6, 7, P.B. version. 

[The lamentable story disclosed in the above note, in which a Diocesan 
Chancellor is found aiding and abetting the destructive designs of Sector, 
churchwardens, and parishioners, in getting rid of what must have been 
one of the most interesting pieces of Church woodwork in the county, and 
issuing a faculty without the slightest effective enquiry, or reference to the 
Archdeacon, the Rural Dean, or anybody else who knew anything about the 
matter, points to the urgent necessity of the formation in every diocese of 
a committee which shall render such things impossible in the future. Sa 
far as Wiltshire is concerned, the dioceses concerned are those of Bristol 
and Salisbury, in neither of which at present is there any committee of the 
kind. Itis true that a committee has quite recently been formed to deal with 
proposed alterations or additions to the Cathedral of Salisbury, but this 
committee has nothing to do with the parish Churches. It is true alsO' 
that some 10 years ago the late Bishop Ridgeway nominated a small com- 
mittee, or rather two committees, for Wilts and Dorset, whom the Chan- 
cellor of the diocese might consult if he wished to do so in any question of 
issuing a faculty for alterations, &c., in Churches. So far as this county is- 
concerned no reference has ever been made to that committee by the Chan 
eel lor or anybody else, nor has it ever once met. What is wanted is that; 
schemes affecting the ancient fabrics or furniture of Churches shall in all 
cases be submitted not by the Chancellor, but before application is made 
to the Chancellor for the issue of a faculty, to a committee which shall con- 
tain at least a proportion of members nominated by bodies such as thei 
Wiltshire Archaeological Society, the Society of Antiquaries, and the like,.] 
commanding the confidence of those who have knowledge of ancient archi-l' 
tecture. iSuch committees are already working well in more than one 
diocese, and they ought to be formed in every diocese in England. Ed. H. 

^ At the moment of going to press I understand that such a committee i^ 
about to be set on foot for the Diocese of Bristol. — E. H. G. 



Brooches from Cold Kitchen Hill.i 

The brooches figured were all casual finds on the site of a " British 

Village " on Cold Kitchen Hill, Brixton Deverell, Wilts. From the evidence 

of pottery and other relics, the site seems to have been inhabited for several 

centuries, ranging from the early Iron Age to late Romano-British times. 

The brooch shown in Fig. 1 is of the rare type sometimes known as the 

involuted " or the " Beckley " type. The distinguishing features of the type 



This note and illustration is reprinted from Man, Sept 1921 p. 132 
\ with additions. 

F 2 

^8 Notes. 

are that the bow curves inwards instead of outwards as is usual, and that in 
place of a spring, or ordinary form of hinge, there are two rings, one revol- 
ving over the other. This specimen being of iron is much rusted, but the 
inner ring seems to have been grooved and to have formed the head of the 
bow ; while the outer ring was incomplete, or penannular, and formed the 
head'of the pin, and worked on the groove on the inner ring. Fig. 1a is 
drawn from a model made to show the working. [Since this note was 
written a second example of this brooch, also in iron, imperfect, has been 
found on the same site.] 

Less than half-a-dozen brooches of this type have as yet been recorded. 
One was found by Canon Greenwell in the early Iron Age burials known as 
the Danes' Graves in Yorkshire ; another mentioned by Canon Greenwell 
was found with the burial of a woman at Newnham, Cambridge ; and two 
have been found in Oxfordshire, one at Beckley, the other at Woodeaton.^ 
All these are of bronze, but the example from Cold Kitchen Hill is of iron. 
Sir Arthur Evans, in an interesting note on the Beckley brooch, suggests 
a date approaching 300 B.C., based on comparison of the brooches found in 
the Danes' Graves, for the introduction of this type into Britain. The 
form does not seem to be known on the Continent, but as suggested by Sir 
Arthur Evans, it is probably derived from a type of brooch found in Italy 
in the late Bronze and early Iron Age ^ 

In the brooch from the Danes' Graves the bow ends in what is practically 
an open-work catch plate cast in one piece with the bow. On that from 
Cold Kitchen Hill a small plate of metal has been added to the end of the 
bow and extended over and attached to the back of the bow ; the object 
being apparently that a larger surface for ornamentation could thus be 
obtained. The Beckley brooch appears to have a similar arrangement of a 
plate or false foot added to the bow, in that case the plate being circular 
and ornamented. In the Cold Kitchen Hill brooch the plate is now trian- 
gular, but is incomplete, and originally may have been lozenge-shaped. 

Sir Arthur Evans regards the Beckley brooch as a rather later evolution j 
of the type than that from the Danes' Graves. It seems that the Cold ! 
Kitchen Hill brooch is more nearly allied to the former than to the latter. 
Fig, 2 shows a fragment of a brooch of the type known as La Tene I. In 
the first volume of The Glastonbury Lake Village, p. 185, a list is given of 
the 36 brooches of this type then known to have been found in Britain ; of j 
these 14 were found in Wiltshire. The fragment consists of a part of the | 
bow with the turned back end, or foot, characteristic of the type. It is of 
iron, while apparently all the other known specimens are of bronze.^ j 

^ Archseologia, vol. 60, p. 267, Fig. 14; Journal of Eoman Studies, vol.] 

vii., Pt. 1., p. 112. 

^ ArchdRologia, vol. 66, p. 570. 

3 Since the above was written several more examples of this brooch, of; 

rare occurence, except in Wiltshire, have been found. The total numbsK 

recorded for this county now (Sept., 1922) reaches 21. This includes thej 

two perfect bronze specimens found by Capt. and Mrs. Cunnington in thej 

All Cannings Cross diggings, and the two also perfect found by them a< 

Cold Kitchen Hill, in addition to the fragment here figured, one being o^ 

Notes. 69 

The curious brooch shown in Fig. 3 is also of iron. The bow consists of 
a single strip of iron simply bent up at one end (the foot) to form a catch- 
plate, the other end (the head) beaten out into a flat loop, to which the pin 
is fastened by being simply bent over, the head of the bow and pin thus 
loosely linked together forming a rough kind of a hinge.^ 

Fig. 4 is a bronze brooch, very substantially made, of rather unusual 
type ; it has a hinge pin and probably dates well into the Roman period ; 
the cup-like hollows on the bow appear to have been filled with enamel; 
this is now green, but the colour may be due to staining from oxidation. I 
am indebted to the Kev. E. H. Goddard for the drawing of the brooches. 


Late Bronze Age Gold Bracelet from Clench Common. 

The sketch (by Mr. C. W. Pugh) is that of a gold bangle, or bracelet, 
found a few years ago on Levett's Farm, Clench Common, near 
Marlborough. The circumstances of the find are not known, but it was 
sold, presumably by the finder, to a jeweller at Swindon, and re-purchased 
by the writer in April, 1917. 

Mr. Reginald A.. Smith, of the British Museum, to whom the bracelet 
was sent for his opinion, kindly wrote as follows : — " Your gold bracelet 

. . is hard to match, but must belong to the last phase of the Bronze 
Age. One of metal (I can't say whether of gold or bronze) was found with 
a piece of ring-money strung on it at Beacon Hill, Leics., in 1858, associated 
with a bronze celt not otherwise described, but the loop is plain, not twisted ; 
a French specimen figured in L. Anthropologie, 1901, 619, Fig. 5, No. 2, has 
a hook and eye clasp, but the loop twisted like yours. ... I feel 
.confident that it belongs to the Late Bronze Age, and congratulate you on 
getting a rarity." 

■bronze, the other of iron. All these will find a home in the Society's 
Museum at Devizes. The total includes also a good bronze example found 
by Mr. White at Charnage {W.A.M., xL, 357), and recently deposited by 
him in the Salisbury Museum, and the bronze example found this year by 
Mr. R. S. Newall in his diggings at Hanging Langford Camp. This, a per- 
fect specimen, measures 2|in. in length, and, iike several of the others, has 
the spring broken and repaired with a piece of rolled sheet bronze roughly 
rivetted. It is (with the exception of the example found at Box, 1904, now 
in the British Museum, which is of a difi'erent type from all the others and 
is thought by Mr. Gray to have been imported from Gaul) the largest yet 
found in Wilts. For descriptions of those found before 1908 see ]V.A.3I., 
jxxxv., 398 — 402. Of examples recently found outside Wiltshire, I only 
know of two, both bronze. One, now in the Winchester Museum, was 
sfound at Twyford Down, near Winchester ; the other, an unusually large 
and fine specimen found at Shoddesdon Farm, VVeyhill, was seen by the 
Hev. G. H. Engleheart, but has been taken to Canada by its owner. I 
have been reminded of these by Mr. R. S. Newall. Ed. H. Goddard. 

^ Since the above was written a similar iron brooch, with the catch miss- 
ing has been found on the All Cannings Cross site. 

70 Notes. 

Dechelette describes a series of bracelets made of single pieces of twisted 
wire doubled, or more rarely trebled, as belonging to the Late Bronze Age 
(L'Age du Bronze iv.). In the example illustrated one of the terminals is 
bent back to form a hook which fastens into the other looped terminal. 
{Manuel, ii., Age du Bronze, 312, Fig. 120). See also Munro, Lake Dwellings 
of Europe, 101, b'ig. 21, No. 29. 

Our example is made from a single length of stout gold wire, twisted 
except just at the two looped terminals, which are left plain, and is of 
rounded section ; the ends of the wire are so skilfully welded together that 
the join is practically imperceptible, but it probably is at the junction of 
one of the terminals with the twisted stem, as the wire at this point is 
flattened, almost square in section, (the lower part of the loop on the left). 
The bracelet weighs 127 grains. It is slightly oval in form, the greater 
diameter being two and one-sixteenth inches. 

Late Bronze Age Bracelet of twisted g-old wire from Clench Common . -r- 

Three electrotype replicas were made of the bracelet^ in 1922 by Mr. 
Young, at the Ashmolean Museum ; one of these is now in the Society's 
Museum at Devizes, one in the Blackmore Museum at Salisbury, and the 
other in the Corporation Museum at Swindon. The original is now also 
in the possession of the Society, but will be placed on loan at the British 
Museum, together with the other Prehistoric gold ornaments belonging to 
the Society, M. E. Cunnington. 

The Eastward End of Wansdyke. 

In a study of *' Beowulf" by Mr. R. W. Chambers, published in 1920 by 
the Cambridge University Press, the author quotes among place-names 
which may have reference to the poem " Grendles mere," which appears in 

* In the Report of the Research Committee of the Soc. Ant. Lond., No. III., 
Excavations at Hengistbury Head, Hampshire, in 1911 — 12, by J. P. Bushe 
Foxe, 1915, is figured, Plate IX., Fig. 5, "A Gold Bracelet composed of two 
pairs of twisted strands forming a loop at one side, and merging into a 
solid loop at the other . . . Nothing exactly similar to this bracelet 
(and tore) appears to be recorded from the British sites . . . It is 
hazardous to suggest a date." 

Notes. 71 

^n A.S. charter of A.D. 931 among the bounds of lands at Ham, in Wilt- 
shire, granted by Athelstan to his thane Wulfgar. This, says the author, 
*' must have been a lonely mere among the hills under Inkpen Beacon." 

This passage seemed to confirm the suggestion in my paper on Wansdyke 
which appeared last December that when the dyke was constructed its 
eastern end probably rested on a marsh, or possibly a lake, occupying the 
low ground between the S. end of Inwood Copse, where the dyke appears 
to end, and the foot of the downs under Inkpen Beacon.^ But a reference 
to Mr. O, G. S. Crawford, F.S. A., showed the need for further investigation. 
He informed me that the A.S. grant was probably represented by the 
present parish of Ham, and, if so, there were four or five boundary marks 
named in the charter between " Grendles mere " and the foot of the downs, 
while " mere " in the charters appears generally to mean a pond. A refer- 
ence to Dr. G. B. Grundy, whose knowledge of the charters is unrivalled, 
confirmed this, and Dr. Grundy has most kindly favoured me still further 
with a translation of, and notes on, the charter in question. The bounds 
with which we are concerned begin : — 

" First on the east side to the Gate of Flax Lea, then to the middle 
of (one side of) Flax Lea, then straight south to the Stone Castle, and 
then from the Stone Castle to Pydd's Gate, then to Oswald's Barrow," 
and return from the north-west corner of the parish : — 

"to Fowl Pond to the Way, along the Way to Ott's Ford, then to the 
Pond of the Wood, then to the Rough Hedge, then to the Long Hanging 
Wood, then to the Pond of the Green Quarry (Grendles Mere of the 
charter), then to the Hidden Gate, then again to the Gate of Flax Lea." 
In August, 1922, I followed these bounds along the north of the parish. 
The stream at " Ott's Ford " of the charter is now represented by a slight 
•ditch along the middle of the boundary, which was quite dry when I was 
there. " Fowl Pond " and the " Pond of the Wood " have also disappeared, 
though I thought I could see their probable sites. But the " Pond of the 
•Green Quarry" is possibly still to be found in a pond at Lower Spray 
Farm, and Cowley's Copse just W. of it may be on the site of the " Long 
Hanging Wood." Wansdyke is not mentioned in the bounds, but I should 
take the "Hidden Gate" to be at the point where a green lane to Lower 
Spray Farm crosses the line of Wansdyke at the foot of Old Dike Lane at 
the iSr.E. corner of the parish, and the turn " on the east side " would then 
place the " Gate of Flax Lea " where Spray Road crosses the line of the 
dyke. Of the remaining bounds Mr. Crawford identifies the " Stone 
Castle " with a building probably Roman, the foundations of which have 
been found in a field to the S., while " Pydd's Gate " seems to be preserved 
in " Pidget," which he was told was the name of the field. " Oswald's 
Barrow " he identifies with a barrow on the downs near the S.E. corner of 
the parish. 

Although these bounds give no evidence that at the time of the charter 
there existed a marsh, or lake, at the foot of the downs, yet the presence of 
a stream considerable enough to be crossed by a named ford and of two 

Wilts. Arch. Mag., xli., 401, foot-note 5. 

72 Notes, 

ponds along the N. boundary of the parish, all of which have now dis- 
appeared, is further evidence of the well-known fact that the water level in 
the country stood much higher in the Roman and Saxon periods than now. 
This wetter condition must equally have applied to the country at the foot 
of the downs. The marsh theory is based on a careful study of the lie 
of the land, which showed that the whole drainage of this section 
of the Vale of Ham, (the valley enclosed between the downs and a 
chalk ridge branching from them on the N.,) must find its way along a 
depression just E. of the line of VVansdyke, narrowing towards the N"., with 
the neck of the gully opposite Inkpen Church. This neck must have under- 
gone considerable erosion during the last thirteen hundred years. It is 
still " frequently used by a wet-weather stream " ' and the Vicar of Inkpen,. 
the Rev. H. D. Butler, tells me that in wet winters the road below the 
Church and Vicarage is constantly flooded. The Vale of Ham is an inlier 
of Upper Gieensand ^ and springs would naturally break out between the 
Chalk and the Greensand, when the water level was higher. Rivar Copse, 
on the slope of the downs above Inwood Copse, shows traces of ancient 
water action of a very violent kind. 

We should have expected to find Wansdyke mentioned in the charter,, 
but it has to be remembered that this dates from some two hundred years 
after the very latest date to which the construction of Wansdyke can be 
assigned, while the actual date of the dyke may be two or three hundred 
years earlier, or more. The dyke seems to have fallen into disuse between 
Merril Down and Inkpen earlier than was the case with the more westerly 
portion, and it would waste very rapidly on the Greensand between th& 
downs and Old Dike Lane, especially when this land was brought under 
cultivation, probably in early Saxon times. Its line is now barely traceable^ 
here, and by the date of the charter may well have ceased to be noticeable. 

Albany F. Major. 

Broad Chalke Earthworks. 

Mr. Heywood Sumner, F.S.A., commenting on an entry in the " List of 
Prehistoric, &c.. Antiquities," Wilts Arch. Mag., xxxviii., 212, quoting: 
Hoare, An. Wilts^ I., 247, " On the western side of this vale (Church Bottom) 
the remains of another earthen enclosure similar in its construction {i.e., 
pentagonal) to the Soldier's lUng, near Damerham," writes (1914) " I suggest 
that ' similar in its construction ' may mean, in its alinement, and precise 
construction, not S'.e., pentagonal' The lateral combes running W. from 
Church Bottom are still down-land, but I can find no signs of such an 
earthwork, whereas in a lateral combe of Croucheston Bottom (the ad- 
joining E. bottom) there is an oblong four-sided pastoral enclosure, which, 
in alinement and precision of earthworking, does co'mpare with Soldiers' 
Rings {see Plan XXIT., Ancient Earthworks of Granhorne Chase). lam 
inclined to suppose that Hoare's reference to this site is at fault, as it might j 

^ The Geology of the Country around Hungerford and Newbury. 
Memoirs of the Geological Survey, 1907, p. 79. 

'' lb., p. 61. 

Notes. 7'S 

well be in pre-Ordnance Survey times — by one combe." As regards the 
entry on the same page under " Roman," of " British village with strong 
surrounding ditches just on S. side of Ox Drove or Kidgeway, close to Bower- 
chalke boundary W. of Ohickengrove," he writes, " This is not now a correct 
description of the entrenchment surrounding the British enclosure above 
Chickengrove Bottom, There is a single bank and ditch much wasted, 
and silted up, and ploughed in, that may now be traced round most of this 
site, but, at the same time, I agree that this entrenchment was originally 

Former White Horse at Ham. 

Mr. O. G. S. Crawford, F.S.A., wrote on July 10th, 1922 :— "On the old 
6in. map of 1877 of Ham Hill, Wilts (whole Sheet 6in. 37), in the parish of 
Ham, near Inkpen, there is marked a white horse on the escarpment. The 
exact position is 360 feet N.W. of a solitary round barrow on the county 
boundary and 130 feet from the western edge of Ball's Copse. This latter 
is a prominent landmark. I don't think this white horse has ever been 

The Kev. H. D. Butler, Rector of Inkpen, whom I asked for further 
information as to this horse, wrote " Somewhere at the end of the sixties a 
Mr. Wright bought the Ham Spray property of Mr. Henry Woodman and 
proceeded to cut a horse on the N. face of the downs opposite bis house. 
They simply peeled off the turf down to the chalk, and when Mr, H. 
Woodman bought back the property, after some years, it was allowed to 
grow out, and I do not think that there is the faintest trace of it visible 
now in the turf. It was of no interest, but when the survey was made in 
the seventies it was a comparatively new thing." 

The Dew Fond Makers of Imber. 

A valuable article by the Rev. Edgar Glanfield, Vicar of Imber, appeared 
in the Wiltshire Gazette^ Dec. 29th, 1922, in which he sets down in- 
formation as to the method of making these ponds, gained directly from 
living parishioners of Imber, who in past years carried on a regular and 
hereditary business of dew pond making — Charles Wise, aged 81, J oel Cruse, 
aged 79, both master dew pond makers, and Jabez Earley and Daniel 
Fearce, both nearly 80 years old, their assistants. A great deal has been 
written on the subject of the way in which dew ponds gain their water 
supply, but it is generally believed now that they are chiefly dependent 
on rain. Mr. Glanfield, however, is concerned only with their formation- 
*' Up to ten years ago the dew pond makers started upon their work about 
the 12th of September, and they toured the country for a period of six or 
seven months, making in sequence from six to fifteen ponds, according to 
size and conveniences, in a season of winter and spring . . . They 
travelled throughout Wiltshire and Hampshire, and occasionally into 
Somersetshire and Berkshire, and even into Kent." The dew pond maker 
with three assistants at 18s. a week, would require about four weeks to 
make a pond 22 yards, or one chain, square. Providing all his own tools and 
appliances he would charge about £40 for the work. " The work commenced 

V4 Notes. 

by the removal of the soil to the depth of eight feet. The laying of the 
floor is then proceeded with from the centre, called the crown, four or five 
yards in circumference, and to this each day a width of about two yards is 
added, and continued, course by course, until the sides of the basin attain 
to the normal level of the site. Only so much work with the layers of 
materials set in order, is undertaken in one day as can be finished at night, 
and this must be covered over with straw and steined. No layering may 
be done in frosty or inclement weather. And this is the method of con- 
struction : — seventy cart loads of clay are scattered over the area, suggested 
above. The clay is thoroughly puddled, trodden and beaten in flat with 
beaters, a coat of lime is spread, slaked, and lightly beaten until the surface 
is as smooth as a table, and it shines like glass. After it has been hammered 
in twice, a second coat of lime is applied, to the thickness of half-an-inch, 
which is wetted and faced to save the under face. A waggon load of straw 
is arranged and the final surface is covered with rough earth to the thickness 
of nine inches. The pond when finished affords a depth of water of seven 
feet." It is then fenced round to keep off cattle and horses, whose hoofs 
would break through the bed, and admit sheep only, for whose use the 
ponds are made. The durability of the dew pond is put at "perhaps 20 
years, though " there are ponds in good condition now which were made 
36 years ago, and which have never been known to fail to yield an adequate 
supply of water, even in this year of drought (1921). The decay of the 
industry is attributed partly to the greatly increased cost of the making of 
the ponds, and partly to the fact that they have been superseded by the 
windmill pumping water from wells. 

Mr. Edward Coward, of Devizes, had an excellent letter in t\\Q Spectator , 
January 14th, 1922, p. 47, on the method of making Dew Ponds in Wilt- 
shire. He says " the site is first excavated, and the soil taken out thrown 
up as a bank so as to lengthen the shore of the pond. A start is made from 
the centre. A layer of clay about three inches thick when loose, is strenuously 
and methodically rammed. Then lime is spread, and it is rammed again- 
Two more layers of clay and lime are treated in the same way. The work 
is built up from the centre, not sectionally up the sides. Each day's work 
is carefully covered with straw ; this, for the moment, is to prevent the 
puddle from drying and cracking. When the whole area is treated it is 
covered with a layer of straw more than a foot thick. This in turn is 
covered with nine inches of chalk rubble. The object of the straw is to 
protect the puddle from indentations which might be made by the rubble 
until it is properly set. A pond made in this way, thirty feet square at the 
edge of the puddle area, took seventy small cartloads of clay and about 
twelve tons of lime. I have heard, of course, of the straw being put under 
the clay, and am aware of the insulating theory involved. I cannot con- 
ceive, however, how a puddle could be made good on the top of a springy 
substance like straw. Firm ground to ram upon is the very essence of 
this method of construction." He regards rain as the most important factor 
in the filling of the ponds. " In my opinion the whole surface of the 
hollow in a pond which is used daily by sheep becomes puddled by the 

Notes. 75 

action of their hoofs, and with the exception of the first rainfall after a 
drought, practically the whole of the rain which falls finds its way to the 

Aldbourne. Bronze and Iron Antiquities. 

Mr. Passtnore has called my attention to vol. vii., p. 399, of the Archae- 
ological Journal, where it is recorded that the liev. Edwin Meyrick, of 
Chisiedon, exhibited (Dec, 6th, 1850) an armlet, fibula, and volsellse ; with 
some iron relics of later date, found at Hilwood Farm, Aldbourne, Wilts, 
and comprising a kind of glaive, a spear head, a well-preserved pheon and 
arrowhead, and other remains. These are not mentioned under Aldbourne 
in my "List of Prehistoric, &c., Remains "in Wilts Arch. Mag., xxxviii., 
156, but the iron objects appear to be undoubtedly those mentioned in a 
note in vol xl., 354, as being now in Coniston Museum, to which they were 
presented by the Rev. E. Meyrick. Ed. H. Goddard. 

Bronze Celt from Aniesbnry. 

Among the Rev. W. C Lukis's plans, notes, and drawings in the Lukis 
Museum in Guernsey, is a full size sketch of " Bronze celt found near 
8tonehenge, on farm of Little Amesbury (Mr. Rooke's), in the possession 
of Mr. Edwards, of Amesbury, 1881." It is 3iin. long, the width of the 
cutting edge being 2in. It is a straight sided flanged celt without stop ridge, 
the cutting edge being much expanded, of somewhat uncommon type, like 
Evans' Bro7ize Irtiplements (1881), Fig. 12, p. 52, but apparently flat. Mr. 
O. G. S. Crawford called my attention to the sketch, and a tracing of it has 
been placed in our Society's library. Mr. F. Stevens tells me that it is not 
amongst the objects of the Job Edwards collection which came to the 
Salisbury Museum in 1900, and that he has no record of it. 

Ed. H. Goddard. 

Bronze Palstave, Dinton Beeches. A bronze palstave, 5gin. long, 
found at Dinton Beeches, 1921, on newly-ploughed land, is in thecoUection 
of Dr. R. C. Clay, of Fovant Manor. A tracing is in the Society's collection. 

Hanging Stone. 1 mile S.W. of Alton Barnes Church, 100 >ards from 
the parish boundary, about J-mile from the Ridgeway (OS. 35 S.W.) is a 
standing stone in a field called " Hanging Stone Hurst." It is about 7ft. 
wide X 5ft. high X 3ft. thick. The local tradition as to the name is said 
to be that a man who had stolen a sheep, placed it on the stone to rest, the 
rope by which he was carrying it being round his neck ; the sheep slipped 
off the stone on the opposite side to that on which the man was standing, 
tightening the rope round his neck and so hanging him. Mr. O. G. S. 
Crawford, writing in Notes ayid Queries, 12 S., xi., July 15th, 1922, pp. 50, 
51, gives instances of "Hangman Stones" from twelve counties, many of 
which are at the meeting point of ancient tracks and parish boundaries. 
He suggests that they were originally boundary stones of parishes or hun- 
dreds, and when they were near the public gibbet the name " Hangman's 
Stone" became attached to them, 'i'he legend of the sheep seems to point 
to the time when men were hung for sheep stealing. In Charnwood Forest 

76 Notes. 

the sheep of the legend becomes a deer. Mr. Crawford notes that it is 
possible exactly to locate the gibbet of the Prior of Bradenstoke, in the 
Perambulation of Savernake Forest, A.D. 1259 (?) "Inde ad furcas Prioris 
de Bradenstok ad Wippeshull." This stood at the cross roads, 2200 feet 
N.E. of Wilcot Church, near Pewsey, at the boundary of the parishes of 
Wilcot and Pewsey. 

Woman married in her shift. As the story of a woman being 
married in her smock at Chitterne All Saints is again mentioned in Wilts 
Arch. Mag., xli., 432, it is quite time to authoritatively contradict it, unless 
evidence is forthcoming that is not at my disposal. The Rev. E. U. Nevill has 
evidently derived his information from Tyack's. Zore and Legend of the 
English Church (p. 186), as the man's name is there given as John Brid- 
more (not Bredmore as quoted in the Magazine). The Wilts Arch. Mag., 
xvi., 330, taking its information from Brand's Popular Antiquities, gives 
the name as John Prideaux. The whole story seems to be a fable, for 
there is no record in the parish registers of any such persons being married, 
either in Chitterne All Saints or Chitterne St. Mary, and there is certainly 
no such remark in the registers concerning anyone married there. The 
notoriety of the parish in this respect therefore vanishes. 

John T. Canner, Vicar. 

[I wrote to Canon E. R. Nevill, at Dunedin, N. Zealand, asking what 
his authority for the story was. He answered that in the absence of notes 
or references he could not at all remember. The story therefore must no 
doubt be finally buried. Ed. H. Goddard] 

The Bromham Mazer. The Mazer Bowl {dr. 1590) found in a cottage 
at Bromham about 1850, described and figured in Wilts Arch. Mag., xxv. 
205, was sold by its owner, Mr. W. Cunnington, at Sotheby's, in May, 1922, 
for £125. 

The Bradenstoke Virgin. For six months or more in 1920 and 1921 
a large picture was exhibited at Devizes Museum, on loan by Mr. J. A. A. 
Williams, who had recently bought Bradenstoke Abbey. This picture was 
mentioned in the Gentleman s Magazine, for Nov., 1833, in an account of the 
" Abbey" (Friory) thus : — "In this room (the large room at Bradenstoke), 
which seems nearly as it was left at the Dissolution, was preserved through 
many changes of owners a painting of the Virgin, now added to the collection 
of my friend, Paul Methuen, Esq., of Corsham Court." This picture, to- 
gether with a fine mantelpiece, which had also been taken to Corsham 
Court from Bradenstoke, passed into the possession of Mr. Williams in 
1920. Mr. Williams had intended to live at the Priory, but he changed his 
mind and in 1921 sold the property again, and at the same time disposed of 
the picture to Mr. Storey, of Malmesbury. The picture appears to have 
acquired the title of " The Black Virgin," for which there was no visible 
reason. Probably this name was only attached to it because early pictures 
of the Virgin to which special veneration has attached have in more than 
one instance been so called. Bowles, in his History of Bremhill (1828), p. 
121, speaking of this picture, says that it is a cartoon on paper, and that it 

Natural History Notes. 77 

was on his recommendation that it was removed from Bradenstoke to 
Corsham Court. The picture, however, is not on paper at all, but a large 
unframed oil painting on canvas. It consists of a large figure of the Virgin 
in the centre, with five small scenes at the corners and base, which were 
somewhat of a puzzle until Dr. G. S, A. Waylen explained them in the 
Wiltshire Gazette of Dec. 2nd, 1920, as illustrating the legend of the vision 
of "Our Lady of Guadeloupe." Shortly this ran thus : — In 1531 a Christian 
Indian named Diego, saw upon a hill near Mexico City a vision of the 
Blessed Virgin, who signified her desire that a Church should be built 
there and dedicated under the title of " Our Lady of Guadeloupe." The 
ecclesiastical authorities demanded more proof of the vision before acting. 
The Virgin then told Diego to go to the top of the hill and gather a bunch 
of flowers (there were, naturally, no flowers on the hill), and show them as 
a proof of the reality of the vision. Diego gathered a bunch of most 
beautiful flowers, and put them under his cloak, to take to the Bishop, but 
on opening the cloak found instead of flowers a most beautiful picture of 
the Madonna. The Church was accordingly built and the picture became 
famous. As explained by Dr. Waylen the scenes on the Bradenstoke 
picture represent (1) Diego crossing the hill accompanied by two angels, 
and the appearance of the Virgin. (2) Diego kneeling and receiving her 
commands. (3) Gathering the flowers. (4) Taking the flowers to the 
Bishop. (5) [That at the base in the centre] The Cathedral on the hill. 

The picture exhibited at Devizes had, however, no special merits as a 
painting, and had no appearance of being of Pre- Reformation date at all. 
The legend of its having belonged to Bradenstoke before the Dissolution 
must therefore be unfounded. 

Ed. H. Goddard. 

The Site of the " Golden Barrow " at Upton LoveL The Rev. F. 
G. Walker, Rector of Upton Lovel, writes that the barrow, of which 
nothing remains, was in a field called " Barrow Newtons," a part of the 
glebe until it was sold in 1920. " It is exactly |-in. east from the " arrow " 
of B.M. 283.4 on Ordnance Map 58 N.E." 

The Story Maskelyne Collection of Ancient Gems, the property 
of Mr. W. E. Arnold Foster, grandson of the late Mr. N. Story Maskelyne, 
F.R.S., by whom the collection was formed between 1860 and 1899, was sold 
at Sotheby's, on July 4th and 5th, 1921. It contained fine specimens of 
engraved gems of all periods from early Babylonian to late Roman and 
Sassanian, and was especially rich in Greek gems of the fourth and fifth 
centuries, B.C. Many were shown at the Burlington Fine Arts Club in 1903. 
For many years it had been preserved at Basset Down. 


Marsh Warbler nesting. Mr. G. W. Godman, of Wedhampton 
Cottage, writes : — " I first found the Marsh Warblers on June 10th, 1922, 
and watched them for some hours. They were building, and on the 15th 
the nest contained one egg. I took the nest and five eggs on June 22nd. 

78 Natural History Notes. 

This nest was built in the reeds at the side of a ditch with water in it. I 
looked later to see if they would have a second nest, and found it with 
three young on 26th July. This nest was built within ten yards of the 
first, but in meadowsweet. I knew the birds well, having found several 
nests some years ago near Taunton." My attention was called to this find 
by the Hev. J. Penrose, who saw the eggs and agrees in their identification. 
It seems advisable not to specify the exact locality beyond the fact that it 
is in the parish of Chirton, lest other " collectors" should descend on the 
spot. Ed. H. Goddard. 

Great Crested Grebe. Miss Elsie C. Scott, of the Old Rectory, 
North Bradley, records that this season (1922) a pair of Great Crested 
Grebe nested and brought off two young ones on a piece of water in the 
neighbourhood of Westbury. Three of these birds were shot on Coate 
Reservoir, near Swindon, early in 1922, bat their deaths will not have been 
in vain if the Swindon Corporation are able to carry out their plan of es- 
tablishing a small bird sanctuary at the end of the reservoir to encourage 
water birds to breed there. On another piece of water in N. Wilts a 
correspondent, Mr. George Simpkins, writing in April, 1921, says that he 
saw a pair there in 1920, and in 1921 saw as many as nine of these birds on 
the water at the same time. If only they could be protected from the man 
with the gun, it is evident that these beautiful birds would soon establish 
themselves as regular inhabitants of the county. ^ Ed. H. Goddard. 

Iiittle Owl. The Rev. Edgar Glanfield, Vicar of Imber, reported in 
Wiltshire Gazette, Feb. 9th, 1922, the shooting by a keeper of a Little Owl 
which bad long lived in the Vicarage garden. He examined its crop and 
found that it contained only the wing cases of a small black beetle. Mr. 
F. W. Frohawk, writing in Country Life of the same week (Feb. 11th, 
p. 187), quotes Dr. Collinges as having examined the stomachs of 194 of 
these birds and proved their harmless nature. All three of these writers 
contend that the bad character given to the Little Owl is entirely undeserved 
and based on no evidence at all. 

*• Snowblunts." The Rev. C. V. Goddard, Rector of Baverstock, 
writes that the old Clerk there tells him that Chaffinches used to be called 
" Chilfinches," there, and that " Snowblunts," a small bird with white streaks 
about it, used to come in the winter. This apparently can only refer to the 
Snow Bunting {Flectrophanes nivalis) as " Snowflake " is a recognised name 
for thftse birds in the north, and "Snowblunt" is Wiltshire for a slight 
snowstorm. The fact is worth recording as Smith only mentions the 
occasional occurrence of the bird in Wilts, and all his references are from 
the southern half of the county. 

' A Local Fund has been opened at Swindon to assist in providing a 
proper fence for the " Little Reservoir " at Coate, which is to serve the 
purpose of a " Sanctuary." Up to October 1922, this fund amounted to 
about £'37. Anyone interested in Bird Life in Wilts might do worse than 
send a small subscription to the Hon. Secretary of the N. Wilts Field and 
Camera Club, 22, Farringdon Street, Swindon. 

Natural History Notes. 79 

White and Pied Birds. I saw, in company with Capt. Medlicott in 
the garden at 8andfield, Potterne, this summer (1922) a hen Robin with 
white feathers in both wings and in the tail, looking quite unlil^e a robin 
when in flight. It apparently had a nest close by, as it was being fed bv 
the cock bird. 

In the Wiltshire Gazette, Sept. 7th, 1922, Captain Hrodrick, of Avebrick 
±arm, near Pewsey, reports the presence there of a pair of White Swallows 
which he was carefully protecting. 

A male entirely white Woodcock was shot by Mr. Frank Cundell Nov 
29th, 1921, at Ohisbury Wood, Bedwyn, and was illustrated in Country Life 
March 18th, 1922. '^ ^ ' 

Dr. Pv. C. Clay, of the Manor House, Fovant, writes :— " On 30th July 
1922 I saw a semi-albinistic variety of the Common Wheatear 
on Wylye Down. I observed the bird through prismatics at a 
distance of 30 yards for 10 or 15 minutes. Its head, back, tail, and wings 
were of a umform cream colour, except for the pure white patch at the base 
ot the tail. The neck, breast, and underparts were pure white The tail 
and primary wing feathers were tipped with black on the underside A 
pair of old Wheatears and two fully-fledged young ones-all with normal 
plumage-were close by." ^^ H. Goddahd. 

nl^7^^ ^y^^ ^^'''^^- ^^^' ^"^- ^- ^^- F. Addison, writing from 
Chaplains Quarters, Bulford Camp, says ;-" On Dec. 26th, 1921 in the 
afternoon, I saw a Great Grey Shrike near Sling Camp, two miles east of 
iiulford village. 

Hen Harrier. _ Dr. R. C. Clay, writing Sept. 22nd, 1922, says :-" I saw 
a female Hen Harrier at Fifield (Bavant) a week ago." 

Bittern Mr. R. S. Newall writes :-" A Bittern was killed in Codford 
water meadow on Jan. 4th, 1918, in mistake for a Heron." 

Snowy Owl. The Rev. F. G. Walker, Rector of Upton Lovel, writes 
April 8th, 1922:- 'There have been at least two 'Snowy Owls' in this 
village this winter. One was here at the end of October, hovering over our 
garden and paddock and round about. My wife and I and several other 
people saw it. At the end of March another was seen by my son and others 
The retired farmer, a keen witted and keen eyed old man, who was with 
imy wife and myself when we saw it, said that he had seen the bird several 
times in his life, which has been spent mostly in Little Langford and 
-recognised it at once. It was seen that afternoon by several of the villagers 
Iwho remarked that they had never noticed a bird like it before We^'saw 
It about 3^30 p m. I have been a bird observer all my life in many parts 
of Eng and and I am quite positive about it." [This is a matter of con- 
siderable interest. The Snowy Owl {Surnia nyctea) is a bird of northern 
jregions and only an occasional visitor to Southern Britain. The J{ev A C 
:Smith, in h:xs Wiltshire Birds, gives no instance of its occurrence in this 
county. E. H. G.] 

80 Natural History Notes. 

Polecat at Marston Meysey. Mr. Alfred Williams, of South Marston, 
in his recently published book, Round about the Upper Thames, p. 208, 
wrote : — "In a corner of the field, in which a large pileof loose thorn bushes 
has been stacked, I chanced upon a Polecat with a small bird in its mouth." 
In view of the fact that only one instance of the occurrence of the Polecat 
in Wilts has been recorded since 1885, that at Fisherton Delamere in 1921 
{W.A.M. xli., 429), I wrote to Mr. Williams and asked him to give me par- 
ticulars. He answered : — " The Polecat I saw during the late winter of 
1913 — 14 near xMarston Meysey, and I was close to it. It is the first I ever 
saw in nature, and I asked several people about it and gathered that in a 
wood lying between Marston Meysey and Fairford, there are, or were, (1914 
— 1915) several Polecats at least." This is interesting, though there is, per- 
haps, the possibility that it may have been a " Polecat- Ferret" run wild. 

Ed. H. Goddard. 

Plant Notes. Mrs. Herbert Richardson, of Wilton, writing Aug. 18th, 
1922, notes the occurrence of Inula helenium on Windmill Common, near 
Clouds (Knoyle), and of a large patch of Gera^iium striatum^ and a smaller 
one of Antennaria mergaritacea, together with Saponaria officinalis (Soap- 
wort), double and single, at Chilmark Quarries. No doubt all the three 
fest are escapes from Quarrymen's Cottages, though the Soap wort and the 
Geranium seem to have established themselves in some quantity. 

Mr. C. Thorold, of Bromham Rectory, sent, Aug. 21, 1922, a specimen 
(the only one found) from the foot of the downs above Netherstreet, which 
certainly appears to be Cnicus tuberosus. This is a new locality for this 
rare plant. The Rev. H. G. O. Kendall also tells me that he found a few 
plants of it in 1919 at the foot of Golden Ball Hill in Rewsey Vale. 

The Rev. C. V. Goddard notes Papaver hybridum in the Rectory garden 
at Baverstock (1922). Senecio erucifolius has been identified at Clyffe 
Pypard (1922). Mr. R. G. Gwatkin writes: — "I found a specimen of 
Lepidium latifolium growing here (Potterne) by the side of the road last 
autumn and flowered it in a pot. How a marsh plant could have got into 
such a situation I do not know." 

Ed. H. Goddard. 

Insects of the Highworth District. I should like to add High - 
worth to the list of localities in North Wilts where the Comma Butterfly 
has appeared in the last few years. The first specimens seen here to my 
knowledge were a pair in September, 1919, and I saw two the next Septem- 
ber, and three in September, 1921, all on Michaelmas Daisies. They all 
seemed fond of flying to rotten " windfall " apples, apparently for moisture. 

A colony of the Marbled White exists to the north of the town, 
in the water-meadows of Bydemill Brook. 1'he Green Forester also 

In September, 1915, a specimen of the rare variety of the Small Copper 
{Chrysophanus phlaeas, var. schmidtii) which has the usual markings on 
a silvery white ground, was taken by my brother between here and South 

Natural History Notes. 81 

Vespa arhorea nested in 1920 in a young Austrian Pine a few yards from 
my window, and in 1921 a nest was started suspended from the roof inside 
a pigstye. Vespa crabro, the Hornet, is practically absent from the dis- 
trict ; the only specimen I have seen was one which flew in at a window 
some six years ago. 

The only true Horse Fly which occurs in large numbers is Haematopota 
pluvialis, locally called " Stouts." Therioplectes tropicus and Chrysops 
caecutiens are less numerous. The males of the latter are attracted by 

The only true Robber Fly I have noticed is Machimus atricapillus, but 
there are two species of Dioctria besides the universal D. rufipes, namely 
D. atricapilla and D. haumhaueri. 

I have seen Horse Bot Flies {Gastrophilus equi) attacking horses both 
here and at Kingsdown, but neither this nor the Ox Warble Fly {Hypoderma 
lineata) is common enough to be a serious danger. 

The disused Wilts and Berks Canal near here has become a breeding 
ground of the rather rare aquatic fly Odontomyia ornata. With it occur 
0. tigrina and Stratiomys furcata. 

Other flies worth recording, which I have caught in the neighbourhood, 
dixe Sti^atiomys potamida, Bombylius canescens (VerraAVs, nearest record is 
Wyre Forest, Worcester), Sargus flavipes, Zodion cinerewnt, Volucella 
pellucens, and Chiysotoxurti hicinctum. Bonihylius cane^cens was hovering 
over an old sand quarry, and also near the burrows of solitary bees between 
the stones of a crazy pavement in the garden. W. J. Akkell. 

The Clouded Yellow {Colias edusa). A single specimen was seen in 
the garden of Clyffe Vicarage, two were taken and others seen at Avebury 
in August, 1922, by the son of the Rev. H. G. O. Kendall, and J. S. Puck- 
ridge, writing from Milton Lilbourne Vicarage, in Wiltshire Gazette, Sept. 
7th, notes that four specimens had been captured, and one of the var. 
Helice seen there. These butterflies have also occurred this year elsewhere 
in N. Wilts. Ed. H. Goddard. 

The Comma {V. c. album). Mrs. Herbert Richardson, of the Red 
House, Wilton, reports one seen in the garden there on October 18th, 1921, 
I and in the Wiltshire Gazette^ September 7th, 1922, J. S. Puckridge notes 
^ that he had taken two specimens in the past month at Milton Lilbourne. I 
myself sa>v a specimen in the Vicarage garden at Clyfi'e Pypard on April 
i 21st, 1922, and two at Winterbourne Monkton in August. Mr. R. G. 
!^ Gwatkin writes that he had never seen the butterfly in Wilts before 1921, 
j when he took several specimens in the Manor House garden at Potterne, 
I and that (Japt. Jones, of Seend, had taken two in his garden there in 1920, 
I and had also taken specimens at "Inwoods," or "Daniel's Wood," near 
i Lacock. Ed. H. Goddard. 



Bishop Huyshe Wolcott Yeatman-Bigr^s, F.S.A., died 

April Hth, 1922, aged 77. Buried at Stockton. B. 1845, younger s. of 
Harry Farr Yeatman, of Marston House, Dorset, and Emma, d. of 
Harry Biggs, of Stockton House. Educated at Winchester and 
Emmanuel Coll., Camb. (Dixie Scholar). B.A. 1867, M.A. 1871, D.D. 
1891. Hon. Fellow 1905. Deacon 1869 ; priest 1870 (Salisbury). 
Curate of St. Edmunds, Salisbury, 1869—77; Chaplain to Bp. Moberly 
1875-85; Vicar of Netherbury with ^Coles Ash, Dorset, 1877—79 ; 
St. Bartholomew's, Sydenham, 1879—91 ; Examining Chaplain to Bp. 
of Winchester 1891 ; Hon. Canon of Rochester 1884—1905 ; Proctor, 
Diocese of Rochester, 1891—1905; Warden of St. Saviour's Coll., 
South wark, 1894; Sub-Dean, 1898—1905; Select Preacher, Oxford, 
1894; Cambridge, |: 1905, 1909, 1913. In 1891 he was consecrated 
Suffragan Bishop of Southwark, in Rochester Diocese, where he was 
specially engaged in preparing for the formation of the new diocese, 
and organising the Church of St. Saviour's as the future Cathedral. 
He also' founded] the " Greyladies," a body of voluntary Church 
workers. In 1905 he became Bishop of Worcester, where he once 
more prepared the way for the constitution of a new diocese by raising 
funds and organising St. Michael's, Coventry, as a Collegiate Church, 
with voluntary canons, and in 1918, when the Diocese of Coventry was 
established, he left Worcester and became the first Bishop of Coventry 
at the age of 73, He only resigned the see in March, 1922, a month 
before his death. Of his work at Worcester the Times remarks : — 
" The Bishop's tastes were those of a country gentleman, and the most 
valuable part of his diocesan work was his care for the country parishes 
. . . he thoroughly understood the difficulties of the country clergy 
and recognized the importance of their work ... As the owner of 
considerable estates his sympathies were with the landed gentry of 
England, and his strong conservatism was shown when he dissociated 
himself from the other bishops to join the little body of ' diehards' in 
their opposition to the Parliament Act in the House of Lords." "The 
Bishop possessed great charm of manner and dispensed a gracious 
hospitality at Hartlebury Castle. Without any claim to deep erudition, 
he had a real love for learning and his'knowledge of antiquarian matters 
was exceptionally thorough, he took a personal interest in questions of 
Church architecture, and was watchful to veto any proposals for Church 
restoration which involved the sacrifice of historical associations." " He 
laboured earnestly to bring the leading laity of the diocese in touch 
with diocesan affairs." He added the name of Biggs to his; family 
name when in 1898 he inherited the Biggs estate at Stockton from his 
elder brother, Gen. Yeatman Biggs, the restorer of Stockton Mouse,! 
and he had purchased the Yeatman family property at Stock Gaylardj 
(Dorset) from a near relative. He had recently sold Stockton House 

Wilts Obituary. 83 

and estate, retaining only the residence of Long Hall, near the Church. 
He married in 1875 Lady Barbara Caroline Legge, sixth daughter of 
the fourth Earl of Dartmouth, who died in 1909. Two sons and one 
daughter survive him. 

Long obit, notice, Times, K])vi\ 17th ; Wiltshire Gazette, April 20th; 
Salisbury Journal, April 2 1st, 1922. 

Ldmiral Sir Walter James Hunt-G-rubbe, G-.C.B., 

died at Devizes, April 11th, 1922, aged 89. Cremated and buried at 
Sea View, I. of Wight. Born Feb. 23rd, 1833, s. of the Kev. James 
Andrew Hunt-Grubbe, at Chitterne S. Mary, the home of his grand- 
father, Rev. William Richards. Naval Cadet on H.M. Sloop King- 
fisher, 1845—47 ; Midshipman, 1848 ; Mate, 1851—53 ; Lieutenant, 
H. M.S. Scourge, received thanks of Governor of Gold Coast for good 
work against a native attack at Accra, 1854 ; Lieutenant and Com- 
mander H.M. Steam Vessel Teazeron W. Coast of Africa ; promoted 
Commander, 1861, for gallant service against natives in the Gambia 
River ; Captain of H.M.S. Flora and Captain in charge of Ascension 
Island, 1866; Captain of H.M.S. Tamar, 1872; severely wounded in 
the left hand whilst commanding Naval Brigade at Amoaful, near 
Coomassie in the Ashanti War ; C.B., 1874 ; Captain of hi. M.S. Sultan 
at bombardment of Alexandria, 20th April, 1882, specially mentioned 
in despatches ; K.C.B., Rear-Admiral, 1884; Commander-in-Chief on 
the Cape and West Coast of Africa Station, 1885 — 1888 ; Admiral 
, Superintendent of Devonport Dockyard, 1888 ; Vice- Admiral 1890 ; 
President of Royal Naval College, Greenwich, 1894 ; Admiral, 
1895; G.C.B., 1899. He married, 1867, Mary Ann, d. of Will. Cod- 
rington, of Wroughton ; she died 1908. He had two sons and two 

Obit, notices, Times and Wiltshii^e Gazette (with detailed notice of 
services), April 13th. Portraits, Times, April 13th ; Daily Sketch, 
April 15th, 1921. 

■ord Ernest St. Maur, died May 21st, 1922, aged 75, at Wilcot 
xManor. Buried at Maiden Bradley. Born Nov. 11th, 1847, 3rd s. of 
14th Duke of Somerset and Horatia Isabella Harriet (Morier). Edu- 
cated at Harrow and Trinity Hall, Camb. Married, 1907, Dora, d. of 
Rev. John Constable, Rector of Marston Biggott, Som. He leaves no 
children. He bought Wilcot Manor House about two years ago. Be- 
fore that he lived at Burton Hall, Loughborough. By his death Brig.- 
Gen. Sir Edward Hamilton Seymour becomes heir to the Dukedom. 
Obit, notices, Times, May 28rd ; Wilts Gazette, May 25th, 1922. 

fiarles J. Hungerford Pollen, died April 8th, 1922. For 
many years he did much work for discharged prisoners in London, and 
was on the House Committee of St. George's Hospital. During the 
war he worked hard for service men at Victoria and Paddington 
Stations. Latterly he had lived at Hodbourne and was for a time 
CJiairman of the Malmesbury Bench of Magistrates. 
Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, April 20th, 1922. 

G 2 

84 JVilts Obituary. 

XaOrd IVEaUtOIl, killed whilst hunting with the Warwickshire hounds 
on March 13th, 1922. Buried at Offchurch (Warw.). As Mr. Joseph 
Watson he owned until a few years ago one of the largest soap works 
in the country at Leeds, and at Selby a large oil cake factory. Having 
disposed of these interests, he bought land largely, owning at the time 
of his death 30,000 acres, including the Compton Verney estate in 
Warwickshire, which he bought from Lord Willoughby de Broke, much 
land in Suffolk, and the Manton estate and training establishment, 
which he bought from Mr. Alec Taylor. It was from this that he took 
his title of Lord Manton, when raised to the peerage shortly before his 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette^ March 16th, 1922. 

Col. William Vilett Kolleston, died Nov., 1921. Buried atl 
Blunsdon St. Andrew. Son of George RoUeston, of the Isle of Wight, 
he inherited the fortune of his uncle, Col. Vilett, and lived in the Old! 
Manor House, in the Market Square, Swindon. The Rolleston estate 
comprised the land in what is now the heart of New Swindon, Com- 
mercial Koad, Rolleston Street, Victoria Road, &c., and was let out on 
building leases by him. About 20 years ago he went to live at Salt-j 
ford, near Bath, where he died. He had held commissions in the I7th[ 
Regt. and 2nd West Indian Regt., and was Lt.-Col. commanding the 
5th (Militia) Batt. of the Middlesex Regt. in S. Africa in 1902. Since 'k 
1903 he had been Hon. Col. of the Battalion. At Saltford he was active 
in Local Government work. He was a fellow of the Zoological and 
Royal Botanical Societies. He married, 1864, Martha Florence, d of 
Joseph Morris, of Hill House, Notts, and leaves two sons, S. V. Rolles- 
ton, barrister, and Capt George Rolleston, of the Shropshire Light 
Infantry, and three daughters. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Dec. 1st, 1921. 

Sdg^ar Cli£ford Arundell, 14th Baron Arundell 

Wardour, Count of the Holy Roman Empire, died December 15th 
1921. Buried at Downside. Born, Dec. 20th, 1859, s. of Theodon 
Arundell. Succeeded his cousin in the title 1907. Married, 1895 
Ellen, widow of J. Melbourne Evans. He left no children, and ii 
succeeded by his brother, Gerald Arthur Arundel], b. 1861, marriec 
1906, Ivy, d. of Capt. W. F. Segrave. 

Rev. Robert Henry Codrington, Died Sept., 1922, aged 91 

Fellow of Wadham College, Oxon., B.A. 1852, M.A. 1857, Hon. D.D 
1885. Deacon 1855, priest 1857 (Oxon). Hon. Fellow of Wadhan 
College 1901. Preb. of Chichester 1888—1895. Curate of St. Peter', 
in the East, Oxford. Missionary in Melanesia till 1887. Vicar 
Wadhurst 1887—93. Commissary for Diocese of Melanesia 1888— 9t 
Examining Chaplain to Bp. of Chichester 1894—1902. 

7'he Times, in an obit, notice, says :— " He lives as the Apostle of th 
Pacific, the great missionary teacher of Melanesia. He wrote th 
grammars and vocabularies of thirty-four languages ; he also recorde 


Wilis Obituary. 85 

the folk lore of the Melanesians and translated the Bible into their 

Amongst his works were : — 
'" Melauesian Languages." 1885. 
"The Melanesians." 1891. 
" Dictionary of the Mota Language." 1896. 

Obit, notice, Guardian, Sept. 10th, 1922. 

!ate D'Oyley Medlicott, died suddenly March 7th, 1922, aged 
69, at Sandfieid, Potterne. Buried at Potterne. Widow of Henry E. 
Medlicott (died 1916), whom she married 1874, and mother of Mrs, 
Rogers, who died a year ago. No family was ever more intimately 
connected with the welfare of their parish and neighbourhood or more 
aflfectionately respected therein. As her husband had been " The Father 
of the Parishioners," and her daughter one of the best known and 
most popular figures in Central Wiltshire—so she herself was "The 
Mother of the Parishioners, who enjoyed the confidence and affection 
of all, one of whom none ever spoke unkindly." 

Obit, notices and appreciations, Wilts Gazette, March 9th and 16th, 

largaret Ewart, died March 2nd, 1922, aged 87. Buried at 
Ewhurst, Surrey. Daughter of William Ewart, of Broadleas, Potterne. 
On her father's death in 1869 she bought Broadleas and lived there 
until her death. A woman of much intellectual power, and of great 
independence of thought and judgment, of wide reading and many 
interests, (politics, gardening, and painting among them,) ever ready to 
assist in any good work or to give a helping hand wherever it was 
needed, she filled in former years a large place in the Devizes and 
Potterne neighbourhood. She retained to the last the activity of mind 
that had always been hers, and died truly regretted by rich and poor 

Long obit, notice and appreciation, Wiltshire Gazette, March 9th and 
16th, 1922. 

" The Passing of a Victorian," by Wilfred Ewart, an article in 
Country Life, reprinted in Wiltshire Gazette, April 20th, 1922, 
though no names are mentioned, obviously describes Broadleas, and 
its late owner. Miss Ewart, all rather from the 20th Century point 
of view. 

ictoria Florence de Burgh Gibtas, died March, 1920, d. 

of Walter and Lady Doreen Long, of Rood Ashton. Married, 1901, 
George Abraham Gibbs, eldest s. of Anthony Gibbs, of Tyntesfield, 
near Bristol. " She had been at the head of every good movement in 
the City of Bristol, and more especially during the war." " Via. Gibbs : 
a Memoir," by Madeline Alston (Constable, 18s. net), is noticed in The 
Times, July 7th, 1921. 

86 Wilts OUtuary. 

William Bolland Treacher, died June 25th, 1922, aged 8L 

Cremated and buried at Bath. B. in London, Sept. 2nd, 1 841. Betiring 
from business in London he lived first at Bath, then at Baynton House, 
Coulston, for some years, afterwards at Blacklands House, Calne, and 
for a good many years before his death at Northfield House, Calne. 
J.P. for Wilts, member of Calne Town Council 1914, Mayor, 1916, igiY, 
and 1918, during the years of the war, and Chairman of the Tribunal. 
He took a prominent part in the public business of Calne. A strong 
Churchman and Conservative. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, June 29th, 1922. 

John Rowan Hamilton O'Regan, died suddenly June SOth, 
1922. B. at Dublin, educated at Clifton and Ball. Coll., Oxford. Had 
been a master at Marlborough College for twenty-eight years. Had 
been an Irish hockey international, and had played for Wiltshire. 
Popular both in college and town. Edited for the Oxford University 
Press " The German War of 1914." He leaves a widow and three 
Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, July 6th, 1922. 

Capt. Vere Benett Stanford, M.C., s. of Major J.M.Benett 

Stanford, died at Hatch House, May 30th, aged 38. Buried at Norton 
Bavant. B. April 3rd, 1894. 

.^Ifred IiOndon, died May 3rd, 1922, aged 81. Buried at DeviZea 
Cemetery. Born at Ross-on-Wye. Educated at Winchester Training 
College. Headmaster of Southbroom School for over 30 years. Served 
in the old " Dismounted Yeomanry," and afterwards as sergeant in the 
2nd Wilts Volunteer Batt. Well-known and widely respected in 

Long obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, May 4th, 1922. ' 

Alfred Wheeler, died May, 1922, aged 76. Coming from Bridgnorth in 
1874 as headmaster of St. Edmund's School, he remained there till 1911,: 
when he retired. He held many offices in Salisbury, representing the 
teachers on the County Education Committee and the Board o^ 
Education, was local secretary of the Church Teachers' Benevolent} 
Institution, and president of the Salisbury Teachers' Associationi I 
Very widely respected in Salisbury, and more especially in connectiom 
with St. Edmund's parish. 

Obit, notices, Salisbury Journal, April 28th ; Wiltshire Gazette, May 
4th, 1922. 

William Oliver, died Nov. eth, 1921. Buried at Minety. Grandjr^ 
son of Dr. Oliver, of Bath, of " Oliver's Biscuits " fame. Borrl at j 
Newton Abbot, Devon, married Elizabeth, widow of Major Dicken'soEj | ' 
and daughter of Rev. John Griffith, Rector of Merthyr. He leaves si i 
son and daughter. Owned property round Minety and at Yearscombel ' 

^ Wilts Obituary. 87 

(Som.). Lived at The Mansells, Minety, and was well-known as a 
hunting man. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette^ Nov. 17th, 1921. 

William Welch GifFard, died Oct. 28th, 1921, aged 63. Buried 
at Blackford (Som.). H'ormerly at the Wilts and Dorset Bank, Salis- 
bury. An authority in the matter of bells. Possessed rubbings and 
and casts of inscriptions and founders' marks from ancient bells all 
over the country, particularly in Wilts, Dorset, and Somerset. A noted 
change-ringer, who took part in a large number of long peals all over 
England. Formerly head of St. Martin's ringers, Salisbury. He gave 
the second bell there when the peal was augmented from six to eight, 
in 1886. Member of the Ancient Society of College Youths. Muffled 
peals in his memory were rung at all the Salisbury Churches. 

Arthur Nuth, died Jan. 7th, 1922. Buried at Everley. S. of Ben- 
jamin Nuth, of Somerset. Cajne in 1871, with his father, to Everley 
(Lower House and Lower Everley Farm), where he continued to farm 
after his father's death, until the estate was broken up and sold, when 
in 1918, he retired to live at the Manor House, Beechingstoke. He 
married a daughter of John Banks, of Bromham, who survives him. 
He had no children. He acted as Guardian and District Councillor 
for about 40 years, latterly as vice-chairman, and then as chairman, of 
the Pewsey District Council. He represented Collingbourne on the 
County Council, and was a member of several important committees. 
Well-known as an agriculturist, and much esteemed at Everley, where 
he held many public offices. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette^ Jan. 12th, 1922. 

IRev, Henry Westenra Walsh, died Feb. 22nd, 1922. Buried ; 

at Bollestone. S. of Henry Walsh, judge, of Jamaica. Chichester 
Theological College, 1872 ; Deacon, 1874; Priest, 1876 (Salisbury); 
Curate of Winterslow, 1874 — 77 ; Chaplain to the Earl of Huntingdon, 
1875 ; Ptector of Rollestone, 1877, until his death. 
Obit, notice, Salisbury Diocesan Gazette, April, 1922. 

lEdward HarCOUrt Skrine, died Jan., 1922, aged 71. Buried at 
Colombo. B. 1849, fourth s. of Henry Duncan Skrine, D.L., of 
Claverton Manor, Bath, and Stubbings (Berks). Married, 1889, Mary, 
d. of Mr. Mitchell, of Dublin. Lived for many years at Inwoods, 
Bradford-on-Avon. He leaves two daughters. 
Obit, notice, Wiltshire Times, Feb. 4th, 1922. 

William Henry Hillier, d. at Hastings, Jan., 1922, aged 82. 
B. at Burbage, of a farming family. At 15 he went to London and 
obtained a situation as learner at Messrs. Wisdom, Mart, & Co., of 
Wood Street, London, wholesale hosiery and underwear firm, gradually 
working his way up until, in 1902, he became general manager, refusing 
apartnership. He resigned, after fifty-five years' service, in 1910. He 

88 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles, 

had lived at Hastings since 1882, where he took a prominent part in 
the public life of the place, and was greatly respected. 

Obit, notices^ Hastings Observer^ and Wiltshire Gazette, Feb. 9th, 1922. 

Kev. Richard Edward Coles, died Aug. 5th, 1922, aged 82. 

Buried at Bladon. Pemb. Coll., Oxon., B.A. 1862. Deacon 1863, 
Priest 1864 (Winchester). Curate of Petersfield, 1863—68 ; Chaplain 
of Petersfield Union, 1863—71 ; Curate of Sheet, 1868—71 ; Berk- 
hampsted St. Peter, 1871—72 ; Loughton, 1872—76 ; Vicar of Halsetown 
(Corn.), 1876—86; Hector of Corsley, 1886— 1902, when he retired to 
Woodstock. Examiner at St. Boniface Coll., Warminster, and a 
Diocesan Lecturer on Church History. He organised Botany classes 
in the elementary schools, and continued the work after he had left 
the diocese. Author of a series of Hymns on the Church Catechism, 
with an introduction by Bp. Wordsworth, 1894. 

Obit, notices, Salisbury Diocesan Gazette, Aug. and Sept., 1922; 
Wiltshire Times, Aug. 19th, 1922. 


[N.B. — This list does not claim to be in any way exhaustive. The Editor 
appeals to all authors and publishers of pamphlets, books, or views in 
any way connected with the county, to send him copies of their works, 
and to editors of papers, and members of the Society generally, to send 
him copies of articles, views, or portraits, appearing in the newspapers.] 

The Age of Stonehenge. A series of letters appeared in the 
Wiltshire Gazette, Sept. 15th, 22nd, 29th, and Oct. 13th, 1921, from 
Mr. E. H. Stone and the Uev. G. H. Engleheart respectively, the former 
upholding the astronomical theory of Sir Norman Lockyer, the latter 
attacking it. 

The Age of Stonehenge, deduced from the Orien- 
tation of its Axis. By E. H. Stone. The Nineteenth Century, 
Jan., 1922. 105—115. 

" This paper is intended as an appreciation of the good work done in 
this connection by that distinguished astronomer. Sir Norman Lockyer, 
work which has been much misrepresented by persons who have not 
taken the trouble to understand it." This foreword exactly defines the 
object and contents of the paper. It is meant to be a counter-blast to 

Wiltshire Boohs, Pamphlets, and Articles. 89 

the vigorous onslaught on the astronomical theory by the Rev. G. H. 
Engleheart, during the Warminster Meeting of the Society in 1921, and 
subsequently in the pages of the Wiltshire Gazette, and on the similar 
criticisms of Rice Holmes in his Ancient Britain^ which are especially 
referred to in the article. Mr. Stone sets out in full detail the grounds 
on which Lockyer based his calculations, explains what those calculations 
were, and how the resulting date, computed by Stockwell's Tables, of 
about 1680 B.C., was arrived at. Then, working himself from the 
tables computed by Simon Newcomb, given in the 1 1th edition of the 
Encyclopoedia Britamiica, Vol. VIII., p. 895, more recent and accurate 
than those of Stockwell, he brings the date of erection to 1840 B.C., 
with as Ijockyer held, a possible error of about 200 years on either side. 
Me sums up Lockyer's statements thus : — 

^^ First. The point on the horizon at which Midsummer sunrise 
occurs was at one time in line with the axis of Stonehenge. It 
has since shifted by a measurable angle towards the east. 
"Second. The rate per century at which this change in sunrise 
position has taken place is dependent on the change in the obliquity 
of the Ecliptic, the rate for which is approximately known. 
" Third. Hence, the azimuth of the Stonehenge Axis having been 
ascertained, the date at which Midsummer sunrise took place at 
that position can be determined approximately by any competent 
" These statements are not ' Theories,' They are absolute and 
incontrovertible truths depending on the physical constitution of 
the solar system." 
But archaeologists do not doubt the accuracy of the calculations. 
What they find it so difficult to accept is the necessary assmption that 
the people who lived on Salisbury Plain when the avenue of Stonehenge 
was constructed, were at the same time so advanced in culture as to be 
able to direct their axis intentionally towards the point of sunrise at 
one particular day in the year with extraordinary and minute accuracy, 
and yet were satisfied with a building of the extremely rude character 
of Stonehenge Is there any evidence of a like accuracy in planning 
among any of the existing backward races of the world, even in the 
case of peoples presumably in a considerably more advanced stage of 
civilisation than any that could have existed in Britain in 1840 B.C. ? 
It is this basal assumption that is the difficulty. If the people of that 
age were capable of conceptions and of work of this type, why have 
they left nothing but the rude implements of the later Stone or earlier 
Bronze Ages which synchronise with the date arrived at 1 That con- 
sideration naturally seems of no account to the astronomer or the 
mathematician — it is not his business — but it is very much the business 
of the archaeologist. 

Mr. Stone incidentally dwells on a point often overlooked or forgotten, 
namely, that the point of the Heel Stone is not in the line of the axis 
of Stonehenge, but some 6ft. to the east of it, and that the sun has 
never yet risen over it, and will not do so for more than 1000 years 
to come. 

90 ; Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets/ cCnd Articles^ ■ 

The Age of Stouehenge, Deduced from Archseologi- 

Cal Considerations. By E. Herbert stone. A series of 
articles in the Wiltshire Gazette, March 2nd, 9th, 16th, 23rd, 30th, April 
6th, 1922, dealing with the whole problem at considerable length, 
and marshalling the opinion of writers who have dealt with the sub- 
ject, under the following heads :— " Some Notes on Chronology," 
"Distribution of Population," " Stonehenge and the Barrows," "The 
Four Stations," " Stone Circles," " The Design of Stonehenge," " The 
Results of Excavation," " Opinions regarding Date," " Summary and 
Conclusion." Mr. Stone sets forth the evidence relied upon by the 
various writers, whose opinions he quotes very fairly and in some de- 
tail. He then sums up the value of that evidence as it appears to him- 
self, and concludes against the Bronze Age date of the structure, that 
the evidence of the surrounding Barrows proves nothing either as to 
the age or the purpose of Stonehenge, that the two mounds within the 
earth circle have been proved not to be l^ound Barrows at all, that 
Stonehenge cannot be considered as on a par with other Rude Stone 
Circles in Britain, that the presence of the copper stain cannot be 
relied on to prove a Bronze Age date, and that the w^ork of shaping 
the stones was executed entirely with stone tools. 

" The evidence available at present appears therefore against a date 
in the Bronze Age and in favour of a date in the Neolithic Period. 
The style of the architectural design and the engineering ability dis- 
played in the execution of the work, would appear to indicate the end 
of that period. This might be about 20U0 B.C." 

In the issues of April 6th and 13th were letters by the Rev. E. H. 
Goddard expressing doubt as to the value of the "bronze stain" as 
evidence of age, and arguing that the "Hammer Stones" and large 
" Mauls," which he regards as essentially of the same character as the 
common sarsen " Hammerstones " or " Mullers," and presumably used 
in the same way for pounding and rubbing sarsen surfaces, may well 
be of any age down to Late Celtic or Romano- British times, just as the 
common " hammerstones " certainly are, and so cannot be taken as 
evidence of Neolithic date. In the issue of April 13th the Rev. G. H. 
Engleheart had a long letter arguing on the other hand that the flint 
and stone implements are strong evidence for a Neolithic date, whilst 
the bronze stain he agrees is of very slight weight as evidence of a 
Bronze Age date. He goes on to disagree with Mr. Stone as to 
the purpose of Stonehenge, holding strongly that its origin was sepul- 
chral, and that it ivas connected with the Barrows round it, an idea 
which Mr. Stone had strongly repudiated. To these letters Mr. Stone 
replied on April 20th. M r. Passmore also had letters on April 13th 
and 27th. 

Stonehenge: concerning the four stations. By E. H. 

Stone. Nature, April 1st, 1922. The " stations" are the two mounds 
and the two stones just within the earth circle. Photographs of the 
two stones are given with a plan showing the position of the 

WiUshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 91 

"stations" in relation to the circle and the avenue Hoare opened 
both mounds but only found a burnt interment in the northern mound. 
In consequence both mounds have been taken to be barrows of the 
Bronze Age, and it has been argued that the ditch and bank of the 
earth circle are of the Bronze Age or later because they appear to in- 
fringe on one of these " barrows." Mr. Stone follows Flinders Petrie 
in drawing attention to the fact that these stones and mounds are 
placed symmetrically, at the same distance from the centre of Stone- 
henge, and exactly opposite each other. The conclusion he draws is 
that they cannot have been so placed by accident, but are parts of the 
general scheme of the monument. He thinks there was originally a 
stone where each mound now stands, and that they are not barrows, 
but that the burnt interment found by Hoare is later than the original 
stone or mound. 

Stonehenge. Notes on the Midsummer Sunrise. 

By E. Herbert Stone. Man, August, 1922, pp. 114—118. These notes 
are really a supplement to the article on the age of Stonehenge, by 
the same author, in the Nineteenth Century for January, 1922, and 
contain three very accurately drawn diagrams illustrating the gradual 
decrease in the obliquity of the Ecliptic upon which the idea of the 
possibility of dating the erection of Stonehenge by astronomical means 
is based. According to these calculations midsummer sunrise took 
place on the axis of Stonehenge about 1840 B.C. It has never yet 
taken place over the peak of the Heel Stone, and will not take place 
in this position until about 3200 A.D. Sir Norman Lockyer put the 
date of erection at 1680 B.C., but more recent and accurate calculations 
by Simon Newcomb, the American astronomer, the results of which are 
given in Mr. Stone's diagrams, put back the date to 1840 B.C. 

** The Shadow Almanack of Stonehenge." Dr. Alfred 

Eddowes, in a letter to the Morning Post of June 17th, 1922, recapitu- 
lates shortly the theory propounded at the meeting of the British 
Association in 1899, that Stonehenge is a sundial, that the grooved 
bluestone held a high pole held in place by two withes (of which he 
says the marks can be plainly discerned on the back of the stone), and 
that the line of small holes across the corner of the slaughter stone 
was made, or at least utilised, to mark the progress of the shadow. 

Stonehenge. " When, why, and by whom it was erected. Some 
account of the straightening and re-erecting of the Trilithons and Im- 
posts." A long article in Wiltshire Times, Dec. 31st, 1921, apparently 
by Harold J. Shepstone, and reprinted from the Wi7idsor Mcmazine, 
with 8 photo blocks showing the process of straightening the stones, 
all, with one exception, exceedingly ill-printed. The article is 
practically an abstract of Col. Hawley's paper read at Warminster, and 
his account of the ditch and his conclusion that this is earlier than the 
existing structure of Stonehenge is given. 

>2 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

rhe Mystery of Stoneheng^e, By a special Investigator. 
Two articles in The Times, June 8th and 9th, 1921, with the headings 
" Magic Lore of the Builders'— Old Bones and New Theories," and 
"Temple and Trading Centre. A Prehistoric Racecourse." The 
"Aubrey Holes " were the original sites of the foreign stones, a pre- 
Celtic, probably Neolithic, circle which existed before the erection of 
the present Stonehenge. This the Bronze Age people incorporated in 
their subsequent and greater Stonehenge, removing the foreign stones 
to the interior of their temple, the removal being celebrated by human 
sacrifices, of which the cremated bones found in the Aubrey holes 
are the remains. These sacrifices are imagined in detail by the writer. 
He suggests that Stonehenge, " in its day the greatest of all religious 
buildings, would also become a centre of secular importance." "Ex- 
cavations have brought to light a multitude of objects whose presence 
can only be accounted for on the assumption that the neighbourhood 
of Stonehenge was used either for dwelling or trading purposes. 
There are no traces whatever of dwellings near Stonehenge, and these 
finds can, therefore, be accepted as proof that the temple ultimately 
came to be used as a primitive exchange." " Flint implements, glazed 
pottery of a domestic type . . . beads, bronze ornaments and the 
remains of animals." This, v^e are told, " establishes the contention 
that Stonehenge was an intertribal meeting place for the bartering of 
goods," and a picture is drawn of rafts on the Avon, chariots of the 
chieftains, tribesmen from the north with furs, processions of slaves, 
and all the rest of it, all founded on a few fragments of pottery, an 
object which may perhaps be a bronze bead, and a bronze ring which 
may be of any age ! " The cursus was used for chariot racing and for 
nothing else." "The hard beaten ground at one end of the cursus 
reveals even now the magnitude of the crowds which once collected 
there " ! "A General View of Stonehenge " accompanies these 
imaginative articles, which were apparently written by J. E. Gurdon, 
who signs one short article in the Illustrated London News, iVlay 13th, 
1922, which is an obvious abstract of the articles in The Times^ accom- 
panying a double-page bird's-eye view of Stonehenge Bestored and the 
surrounding neighbourhood, entitled "A New Theory of Stonehenge : 
the Temple in its perfect form, with the cursus (chariot race course) in 
the left background, and a former backwater of the Avon, with a landing 
stage for traders (right foreground), a reconstruction drawing, under 
the title " Was Stonehenge a Megalithic Epsom and Royal Exchange? " 
The Illustrated London News, April 15th, 1922, has an admirable 
photograph from an aeroplane showing twenty-three of the "Aubrey 
holes" and the excavation of a portion of the ditch and one of the 
" barrows " within the earth circle. A small ground plan, and a key 
plan to the photograph are also given. A few notes by A. E. Lee 
disagree with with the ideas set forth in the articles in The Times on 
"The Mystery of Stonehenge." 

A short editorial article in The Times, June 10th, 1921, on the age 
of Stonehenge with reference to the two articles noticed above, 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, ajid Articles. 93 

concludes that there is no certain evidence for any date between the 
extremes of 1800 B.C. and 500 A.D., while the issue of June 13th, 1921, 
contains a letter by A. E. Lee arguing that the existing circle and 
horseshoe of *' Foreign " stones occupy their original position and are 
not concentric with the sarsen circle and horseshoe, but are the remains 
of an earlier circle. He adopts the basis of Sir Norman Lockyer's 
calculations for the date of erection, and does not believe that the cursus 
was a racecourse ; as to the number of flint flakes he very rightly 
attributes them to the making of the flint tools with which the stones 
were faced. In the same issue W. J. Perry writes an interesting letter, 
in which he gives many authenticated instances of stones for megalithic 
structures in various parts of the world which have certainly been 
transported considerable distances, in some cases by sea. He thinks 
that Avebury and Stonehenge were centres of manufacture of flint 
implements which were exported to all parts of the country, and that 
other regions occupied by megaliths are mining regions, and that the 
megaliths were erected not by the indigenous tribes, but by " foreigners 
from the Mediterranean bent on exploiting the wealth of Britain." 

The Wiltshire Gazette of June yth and 16th, 1921, has a series of 
ironical notes on " The Stonehenge Stunt," poking fun at The Times 

The Ancient Highways and Tracks of Wiltshire, 
Berkshire, & Hampshire, and the Saxon Battle- 
fields of Wiltshire. By G. B. Grundy, D. Litt., Archaeological 
Journal, vol. Ixxv., pp. 69—194 (Wilts portions 69— 1 18, 175—194). 

This is a bulky and important paper, based primarily on the evidence 
of the 95 Saxon Charters, which are largely concerned with the 
possessions of the Abbeys of Malmesbury, Wilton, and Shaftesbury, in 
the neighbourhood of Malmesbury, Swindon, the Kennet basin, l^ewsey 
Vale, and in the south the valleys of the Wylye, Nadder, and Ebble, 
with some in the S.W. of the county. 

Dr. Grundy classes early roads as follows :— 

Pee-Koman.— (1) Jiidgeways{iiaxon Hrycgweg, or sometimes Here- 
path), are through roads along the watershed. 
(2) Summerways (Saxon Herepath). Dr. Grundy 
maintains that " nearly every one of the great 
Ridgeways has its accompanying Summer- 
way," running along the sides or bottom of the 
escarpments of the Downs, more or less parallel 
with the Ridgeways on the top, as the "Ich- 
nield Way " runs along beneath the UfKngton 
White Horse, with the " Ridgeway " running 
above it — the latter for winter, the former for 
summer use. This idea, as well as the name, 
seems to be due entirely to Dr. Grundy. 
Romano-British.— (1) Roman Roads (Saxon Straet, rarely Here- 

^4 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

('2) Romanised Roads, earlier roads with evidence of 
some alteration in Roman times. 

Saxon. — (l) New through tracks {Herepath=-W\g\\v^3iy). 

(2) Weg, any kind of road or track, generally purely local. 

Hetakes the county in sections and discusses the line of the various 
roads mentioned in the charters, " Kingway " in Norton, Broken- 
borough, &c. ; " Via ilegia " and " Broadway," in Crudwell ; The 
Ridgeway from Malmesbury to Brinkworth and Swindon ; and that 
from Furton to VVootton Bassett and Clyffe Pypard ; " Broadway" in 
Moredon. Of the name Ermine Street given to the Roman road from 
Wanborough to Speen, no trace is to be found in the charters, and he 
regards it as a modern invention. The Roman road from V\'anborough 
to Cunetio is called " Brokene Strate " in Liddington and Badbury. 
The Berkshire Portway is called " Icenhilde Weg " at Little Hinton 
as also in the Berkshire charters. The Ridgeway above does not bear 
this name. This road is traced with the tumuli, camps, &c., on its 
course from Bishopstone on the north, across Pewsey Vale to meet the 
Ridgeway running E. and W. on Wilsford Hill. A Ridgeway is traced 
from Marlborough to Barbury Camp, Uflfcot and Salthrop ; and an 
ancient highway from Dauntsey to Christian Malford, Foxham, and 
Bremhill, called " Rigweye " at Swallet Gate, and " Elde Street "at 
Foxham, where it branches, the modern names of " Friday Street "and 
" Harestreet "being evidence of a certain Romanisation of the track ; it 
probably went on via Studley, Sandy Lane, and Verlucio, to Beacon 
Hill. The course of the Roman roads from Cunetio to Spina is dis- 
cussed. Dr. Grundy makes the point that where earlier roads passed 
through districts afforested in post-Conquest times their traces are 
generally lost, as rights of way were naturally not encouraged under 
Forest Laws. Among other roads mentioned are the Herepath, Law- 
path, or Legalis Semita from Collingbourne Ducis by Everley to Old 
Sarum ; the Herepath from Burbage to Pewsey and Manningford 
Bruce ; the Ridgeway from Manningford to Marlborough ; the Bishops 
Cannings Harepath or Harpit Way ; the Ridgeway from Imber by 
John-a-Gore's Cross to Casterley Camp, and its accompanying summer- 
way f romx Easterton through Erchfont to Rushall ; and the Ridgeways 
on each side of the Imber Valley. Of the Roman road from Old 
Sarum to Winchester Dr. Grundy notes that it is called Ykerteldestrete 
in a perambulation of the J'orest of Clarendon temp. Ed. IIL As to 
the supposed Roman road through Groveley by Dinton Beeches and 
Lower Pertwood to the lead mines on Mendip, as traced by Hoareand 
by others in modern days, Dr. Grundy does not believe in its existence 
as a genuine Roman road and suggests that it is possible to get from 
the Mendips to Old Sarum by a Ridgeway only a few miles longer 
than the suggested course of the Roman road. This Ridgeway went 
from Wilton by Ditphampton, Groveley, where stood the " Powten 
Stone" (Piintes Stan', Poltenstan, Poulting stone), Stockton Earth- 
works, Pertwood, White Sheet Hill, Kilmington, Druley, Uptt)n Noble, 
Doulting, to the lead mines and the mouth of the Axe. Many local 

, Wiltshii^e Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 95 

roads are noted in the Wylye and Nadder valleys. The line of a 
Ridgeway is traced from Harnham Bridge, by Harnham Hill, Bur- 
combe, Compton, Chiselbury Camp, Fovant, and White Sheet Hill. 
Several local roads are mentioned in Tisbury and the neighbourhood. 
The Roman road S.W. from Old Sarum is called in the charters Seuenes- 
trete (Sevenna's Street) in the S.W. of Bower Chalke parish. The 
probable course of the Ridgeway on the S. watershed of the Ebble is 
by Matrimony Farm, Great Yews, Stratford Tony, the Ox Drove, 
Woodminton Down, and Win Green. The Great Pddgeway of W. 
Wilts runs from Kilmington to Maiden Bradley, Baycliff Farm, 
Horningsham, Cley Hill Camp, Chapmanslade, Lambsgate Farm, St. 
George's Cross, Beckington, Bradford-on-Avon, Maplecroft, Farleigh 
Wick, Hatt House, Rudloe, Hartham Park, Biddestone, Yatton Keynell, 
and Grittleton, to the Fosse. Dr. Grundy suggests that the sites of 
Old Sarum, Vlarlborough (Cunetio), Malmesbury, Wootton Bassett, 
and Wilton, were all determined by the fact that they are at the centres 
of the network of Prehistoric Ridgeways in the county. In his 
itineraries of the Ridgeways he notes the camps and the barrows that 
lie so plentifully along their course, the latter " illustrating that 
tendency common among early peoples to bury the illustrious dead be- 
side frequented highways." Dr. Grundy's work will probably be 
challenged considerably in detail by anyone who walks over the lines 
suggested on the ground itself, for he has written almost entirely by 
the light of the Ordnance Maps, and does not claim to have gone over 
the course of the roads himself, but as a general conspectus of the 
ancient roads of the county, his work fills a gap which badly wanted 

As regards the Saxon battlefields, the Wodnesbeorh of the two 
battles of A D 592 and 715 has been commonly identified with Wan- 
borough, but on the Saxon charters Wanborough is spelt Wenbeorh, 
the name of a barrow which has now disappeared. Dr. Grundy 
agrees with Ekblom and Stevenson that Wanborough cannot be de- 
rived from Wodnesbeorh and must therefore be given up as the site 
of the battles. But a charter of Alton Priors, speaks of the spring 
called Broad well, and the Herepath to the west of Woden's Barrow 
(Wodnes Beorh), and he concludes that these points are certainly the 
Ridgeway, and the Long Barrow, Adam's Grave, on the W. side of it, 
and here he, following Stevenson, very reasonably places the site of 
the battles. 

As to Ethandune, that perennial subject for argument, he holds by 
the VViltshire Edington, but places the PetraAegbryhta near Willoughby 
Hedge, N.N.E. of W. Knoyle village, a meeting place of ridgeways, and 
Igleah at Eastleigh Wood. 

Of Ellandune he argues from the charters against Canon Jones, Mrs. 
Story Maskelyne, and others, that it did not include the high down S. 
of Wroughton, but must have included parts of both the Lydiards as 
well as the N. part only of Wroughton, and that the battle took place 
nearer the boundary of Purton and not on the downs to the south. It 

... ■ilm'ij / i!.; ... 

% Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

is really a question as to the weight to be assigned to apparently con- 
flicting evidence, and Mrs. Story JVlaskelyne has strong ground in the 
fact that the "EUandune" property, belonging to Winchester, did in 
later times extend right up to the lUdgeway below Barbury. 

The site of the Battle of " Meretun," or " Maeredun," A.D. 871, has 
been placed at Marden, which Ekblorn derives from "iMeorh" " Horse." 
But a Beechingstoke charter calls this valley " Mearcdenu," " boundary 
dean," doubtless the original of Marden, which could never have been 
"Meretun." Dr. Grundy therefore identified the site of the battle as 
Marten, near Bedwyn, but does not seem to know that he has been 
anticipated in this identification by Mr. W. M. Adams {W.A.M., xli., 
312). Cynete, the site of a defeat of the Danes in 1006 A.D., has been 
placed at Kintbury (Berks). Dr. Grundy suggests East Kennet as 
more likely. 

Wiltshire Essays. By Maurice Hewlett. Oxford 
University Press, 1921. Cloth, ejin. x 4iin., pp. 234. 

6s. ed. net. 

A Wiltshireman now by virtue of many years' residence at Broad- 
chalke, the author calls his latest volume, containing thirty-three 
essays, reprinted from various periodicals and papers, "Wiltshire 
Essays," because, as he explains, they were all written at Broadchalke, 
and some of them are directly concerned with Wiltshire matters. His 
attitude towards the county and its people is best shown in "Our 
First and Last," in which he sets forth his belief that the peasantry, the 
labouring folk, that is, of Wiltshire and the counties to the south and 
west of it, represent still the aboriginal stock of Neolithic times com- 
paratively unmixed with the blood of the many waves of conquerors, 
Saxons, Danes, Scandinavians, Normans, who have successively swept 
over the country and have very largely affected the blood of the 
Midlands and the North and East of England. He makes the point 
that the labouring folk of Wiltshire and the West are, and always have 
been through the ages, largely a race apart, with their own weaknesses 
and their own strength. He has learned by personal contact with them 
what their weak and their strong points are, he sums up their mental 
and moral characteristics with singular fairness and penetration, and 
the deliberate conclusion that he comes to is, that they are the soundest 
class in the nation, and that if the evil days of poverty and a largely- 
reduced population come upon us in the future, as he prophesies, the 
agricultural peasantry will become again what they were before the 
industrialization of England, the backbone of the country. 

Reviewed, Wiltshire Gazette, Feb. 16th ; Wiltshire Times, Feb. 18th, 
1922 (by H. G. Woodford); and in article, "Maurice Hewlett as a 
Looking Glass," in Country Life, April 15th, 1922. 

Wanderings in Wessex. An Exploration of the 
. Southern Realm from Itchen to Otter. Byi 
Edric Holmes. I.ondon. R. Scott. [1922.]| 

Cr. 8vo, pp. 380. " The English Countryside " Series. 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles, 97 

This book covers Hampshire, Dorset, East Devon, South Wilts 
and part of Somerset and Berks. The Wiltshire "portion is contained 
in two chapters, " Salisbury and the Rivers," and " Stonehenge and 
the Plain," and a portion of the chapter on the " Berkshire Border," 
pp. 243 — 343. A very pleasantly written book designed to give some 
general sort of idea of the district covered by five counties to the 
traveller on foot or by motor or cycle, who likes to know the roads 
that will give him the best views, and to have ready to hand a page or 
two to tell him what kings and other well-known folk have lived in or 
visited the places he passes through. It is not a guide book, except 
to the chief roads of the district. The Churches are generally only 
mentioned in the shortest possible way, though what is said about them 
is generally correct so far as it goes. The literary and historical 
.a,ssociations of the places seem to be the point that most appeals to the 
author himself. The show places, however, are treated in greater 
detail. The account of Stonehenge and the various theories as to its 
origin and purpose is, within its limits, very good, and, moreover, up 
to date, for it mentions the "Aubrey holes." Salisbury Cathedralis 
pleasantly described, Old Sarum less adequately, for he does not seem 
to know that the foundations of the old Cathedral have been uncovered 
and planned. Avebury is less satisfactorily dealt with, and the WTiter 
does not seem to know of the recent excavations. Devizes, Avebury, 
Marlborough, and Ramsbury are the mostnortherly points touched on., 
There are quite a number of misprints which might have been avoided 
by a more careful reading of the proofs,and most of them are religiously 
reproduced in the index ! E. and W. Towell (Stowell), Morton Bavant 
(Norton), Langbridge and Buxton Deverill (Longbridge and Brixton), 
Gervus (Cervus) in the inscription on the old Potterne Font, Burford 
(Barford) near Downton, Honnington (Homington). Besides these 
there are a certain number of downright mistakes. Edmond Wyndham 
"Tempest's" (Tennant) memorial in the Cathedral is noticed, and Bishop 
*' Wayte " is credited with certain work there. The Battle of Ellandune 
was fought in all probability not at Wilton but at Wroughton. Fonthill 
House is not built on the site of Beckford's "Abbey." The Wooden 
Peg Tankard at Wardour is not a chalice. Of the twenty-five small 
sketches by the author in the text in the Wiltshire portion of the 
book, Salisbury Market Place, and High St. Gate, Ludgershall Church, 
Boyton Manor, Potterne I'orch House, St. John's, Devizes, and Bishop's 
Cannings Church are quite nice. The four full-page drawings by 
another hand are less interesting. 

A Memoir of Brigadier-Creneral Walter Iioug*, 
C.M.G., D.S,0. With portraits. Printed for 
private circulation, London. John Murray. 

Cloth, S^in. X 5|in., pp. vii. + 77. Ten portraits and view of his 
grave. This biography consists of a short " Foreword " of 3 pp. by Field- 
Marshal Earl French ; Reminiscences of his schooldays at Harrow and 

9;8 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

after, by Bishop Weldon, then Headmaster, pp. 4 — 26 ; A Memoir by 
his Father (Ld. Long, of Wraxall), pp. 27—49; Eood Ashton War 
Memorial, unveiling ceremony by Lord French, and dedication by the 
Primate of All Ireland, with Lord French's speech and the Primate's 
sermon ; and the account, reprinted from the Wiltshire Times, of Lord 
French's visit to Rood Ashton and the unveiling of the Tablets and 
Memorial Window, pp. 51 — 75. 

Lord French, under whom he served, both in the Boer War and in 
France, heads his short preface with the text, " Whom the Gods love 
die young," and sums up his character thus : — " Like Marshal Ney he 
can justly be described as 'The Bravest of the Brave.' . . . His 
leading characteristics were great strength of character, remarkable 
fixity of mind and purpose, and above all an inflexible appreciation of 
his duty and an iron determination to carry it out at all costs. . . . 
Such qualities were combined with a disposition so simple, gentle, and 
sweet tempered as to give him an unusual and wonderful power over 
those who were placed under his command." To his father he wrote : — 
*' Your only consolation, and it is a great one, lies in the atmosphere 
of glory in which dear Toby lived and died. What a record to convey 
to the other side ! " And Sir Bobert Borden, Prime Minister of Canada, 
who had known him well as A.D.C. to the Duke of Connaught, bore 
testimony to his remarkable power of winning the affection of those 
about him. " It is not too much for me to say that all who knew him 
there not only respected but loved him as well." A fellow-officer of the 
Scots Greys again writes : — " My poor pen can do no justice to his 
character, the finest character I have ever met or ever shall, and if you 
were to ask any of his multitudes of friends what they thought of him 
they would all say ' The bravest man, both morally and physically, and 
the greatest gentleman they ever met.' " From a boy he had set his 
heart upon serving in the Scots Greys, and in the Scots Greys he served,' 
both in the Boer War and in France, until he felt it his duty to leave 
the regiment to command the 6th Wilts in the trenches. As an athlete 
he just missed playing for Harrow at Lords, he was the champion light 
weight boxer of the army, and was a notable horseman, both on the 
polo ground and in the hunting field. His father says of him : — '* To 
me it has always seemed that he exemplified probably more than any 
man I have ever known the real spirit of the happy warrior." A 
charming memoir of one who deserved to be had in remembrance. 

Some Old Houses of Bevizes. By Ed. Kite. No. 10. 

GreystOne House. Wiltshire Gazette, Oct. 27th, 1921. 


The initials LA. for James and Ann Sutton, and the date show that 
the house was built on the marriage of their only son and heir, Prince 
Sutton, as his residence, in the year when Mr. Sutton was Mayor. It 
is of one date and uniform throughout, except for some earlier Jacobean 
panelling used in one of the upper rooms. The fine oak staircase rises 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 99 

in a square well from the ground floor to the roof, with an elaborate 
plaster ceiling, a military trophy in high relief in the centre. There 
are also good plaster ceilings throughout the house, and oak panelling 
in many of the rooms. There was an earlier house on the site occupied 
in 1616 by Kichard Flower, who was Mayor in 1604, 1611, and 1629, 
and married Margery, d. of Thomas Hunt, gent. His father was 
Stephen Flower, a Devizes draper. His brothers, Thomas and Robert, 
left bequests to the poor of Devizes. Margery, d. of Kichard Flower, 
married, as his second wife, Thomas, s. of Thomas Long, of Little 
Cheverell, sheriff in 1653, nephew of Richard Long, of Collingbourne 
Kingston, ancestor of the Rood Ashton Longs. Richard Long, b. 1617, 
died in 1671, aged 54. A tablet to his memory exists in St. John's 
Church. Thomas Long's third son, Richard, of Salisbury, was the 
ancestor of Long, of Salisbury, and Preshaw, Hants. His daughter, 
■ Elizabeth, married 1690, John Locke, a Devizes attorney, the ancestor 
of Locke of Seend and Rowdeford. Thomas, the eldest son, married 
Elizabeth Seeley, of Newbury, 1676, and in 1714 their daughters Mary 
and Eleanor, conveyed the site of Greystone House to James Sutton 
clothier. Thomas Kent, s. of John Kent, M. P. (who died 1630) also 
occupied the earlier house. The Suttons were Devizes clothiers. Thomas, 
born 1653, became Master of the Drapers' Company in 1686, and was 
several times Mayor. His son, James, born 1678, was Mayor in 1697, as 
his name on the 6th bell of St. John's peal testifies. He bought the 
property, pulled down the old house, and built the present Greystone 
House. He was Mayor 1730, and died 1733, aged 55. Prince Sutton, 
clothier, his only son, born 1701, lived in the house until his death. He 
married Mary, a daughter of George Willy, a mercer of Devizes, was 
' Mayor in 1744, Sheriff 1762, dying in 1779, aged 78. He bought the 
Manor of Manningford Bruce from the Nicholas family. Willy, s. of 
Prince Sutton, b. 1732, was tried for the murder of " that unfortunate 
young lady. Miss Bell, otherwise Sharpe," at Marylebone on Oct. 4th, 
1760, but was acquitted. He died 1775, and his younger brother, James 
Sutton, inheriting the Roundway estate, built the present mansion. 
His daughter, Mrs. Estcourt, sold Greystone House to the Rev. Charles 
Lucas, b. at Daventry, Curate successively of Avebury and Devizes. 
He lived in Greystone House until his death in 1854, aged 84. He 
married Sarah Anne, d. of the Rev. Henry Williams, Perpetual Curate 
of Heytesbury. His children all died unmarried. His portrait hangs 
in the Council Chamber, Devizes. His executors sold Greystone 
House to William Gifford Everett, M.D., s. of Will. Everett, of Devizes, 
grocer, in 1862. He sold it to Henry Hale Hulbert, solicitor. The 
present tenant, Mr. Herbert Sainsbury, has done much towards pre- 
serving the fine features of the interior. 

|Some Old Houses of Devizes. [No. 11,] New Park 

' and the Sutton Family, Wiltshire Gazette, Nov. 24th, 1921. 

On the death of Willy, eldest s. of Prince Sutton, 1775, New Park 

passed to his younger brother, James Sutton, M.P. for Devizes, 1765 

H 2 

100 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

— 1780, and Mayor, 1769. He married, 1771, Eleanor, d. of Anthony 
Addington, M.D., of Reading, and sister of the Rt. Hon. Hen. Addington, 
Speaker of the House of Commons (Lord Sidmouth), M.P. for Devizes, 
who erected the Market Cross, and gave the colours to the Devizes 
Loyal Volunteers in 1799, the presentation being made by Mrs. Sutton 
on Roundway Hill, with much ceremony, the afternoon being spent 
*' with the utmost conviviality." These colours now hang in St. John's 
Church. James Sutton was Sherifif in 1785, and died in 1801. His 
daughter, Eleanor, married Thomas Grimston Rucknall Estcourt, of 
Estcourt House, Tetbury, who resided at New Park and was succeeded 
there by his son, the Rt. Hon. T. H. S. Sotheron Estcourt, who, on re- 
moving to Estcourt, sold New Park to Mr. Holford, of Weston Birt, from 
whose trustees it passed to the Colston family, its name being changed 
to Roundway Park. The house (New Park) was built 1780—1792, 
James Wyatt being the architect. 

In the same issue of the Gazette is an article on " Some Earlier 
History of the "New Park," or " Little Park." In a charter of K. 
Henry in 1149 two hides in Roundway (Rindweiam) were reserved to 
the Crown, and were apparently soon after imparked and became " The 
New Park," the tenants holding under the Crown, whilst the rest of 
the tenants in Roundway, including the Nicholas family, held under 
the Bishop, as Lord of the Manor of Bishops Cannings. Certain parcels 
of land in the park anciently belonged to the Chapel of St. Mary, 
Devizes, one named Bascombe, and four acres " on the hill of the 
Parklands " (138 1 ) and four acres " under the same hill." " Surbatt's " 
Charity property belonging to the alms house in St. John's Churchyard, 
was somewhere near the present house. These lands were exchanged 
by the Sutton family for others outside the park. Catherine Parr was 
the last of a long line of Queens who held Devizes Castle and the two 
parks as part of their dower, Philip, 4th Earl of Pembroke, Sir Peter 
Vanlore, Sen. and Jun., Henry Alexander, Earl of Stirling, Edward 
Hope, George Willy, Sen. and Jun., and Prince Sutton were successive 

" Quakers' Walk," the avenue leading from Devizes to the park, is 
only a corruption of the old name, " The Keeper's Walk." 


Some Old Houses of Devizes. [No, 12] Th( 

Weavers' Hall. Wiltshire Gazette, Feb. 23rd, 1922. 

This stood on the north side of Wine Street, on the site of th^ 
present Nos. 5 and 6. Nothing remains of the old building. It bej 
longed to the Mayor and Burgesses, by whom it was appropriated 
the use of the Guild, who were responsible for its maintenance. ThJ 
Guild actually used the upper storey, the ground floor being underlet 
Edward Hope, jun. (1668), Nath. Drew (1671), Phil. Painter and Ricl 
p:scott (1679), Walter Seager (1702), Mr. Bernard (1712), were tenant^ 
The Hall was used for the meetings of the Guild until 1769, afte 
which they met in the Sessions Hall. A private chapel, perhaps tl 
Chapel of St. Thomas, mentioned in 1516, was attached to the Hall 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 101 

The history of the rise of the Merchant Guilds is touched on and the 
cut of the arms of the Devizes Guild confirmed by the Heralds in 1565 
and 1623 is given. The Guild confirmed by the Charter of 1605 was 
remodelled in 1614 and included the Drapers', Mercers', and Leather- 
sellers' companies, each of which included in turn several different 
trades. Strangers paid heavy fines before they were allowed to exer- 
cise their trade in the borough. John Mayo, goldsmith, paid a silver 
bowl to the Drapers' Company in 1673, as also did Thomas Johnson 
(1628), and James Hughes (1665) to the Mercers'. Richard Greenland, 
" pipemaker," is mentioned in 1688. The bye-laws of the Guild having 
gradually ceased to prevent unauthorised trading it was finally dissolved 
in 1770. 

Some Old Houses of Devizes. No. 13. St. John's 
Court (No. 4) and the Almshouses adjoining^. By 

Ed, Kite. Wiltshire Gazette, May 25th, 1922. 

This was the house of Thomas Coventre, Mayor 1429, died 1451, 
founder of the Almshouse in St. John's Churchyard. This endowment 
was augmented by the bequest of William Coventre, apparently his 
brother, who endowed a charity in St. Mary's Church with a yearly 
payment to the four women inmates of the Almshouse. This Alms- 
house was a half-timbered structure with overhanging upper storey, 
and was pulled down and rebuilt about 1842. Norman stones were 
then found in the foundations and walls with mouldings identical with 
those of St. John's Church, evidently part of the Norman walls of the 
Church, removed when the early 15th century aisles were built. 

The whole of the building in St. John's Court from the entrance 
southwards was originally a hall 18ft. X 15ft., open to the timber roof 
which still remains, with a carved oak cornice at the springing of the 
roof, portions of which also exist, with a large fireplace, now built up 
in the W. wall, and a narrow doorway. This is now converted into a 
dwelling house of two storeys. Its date is apparently cir. 1430. Mr. 
Kite gives many notes of the Coventre family. John Coventre appears 
in 1336 ; Nicholas a chaplain in 1399, was Rector of Upton Lovel 
in 1409 ; John Coventre appears in 1414, and was Mayor in 1420. In 
1433 he received a commission " to arrest and take the carpenters, 
stone cutters, tilers, labourers, and other workmen required for the re- 
pairs of the Castle of Devizes and for the enclosure of the Park of 
Devizes — also to provide all things necessary." John and William 
Coventry, sons of Will Coventre, sen., and brothers of Thomas, founder 
of the almshouse, appear amongst Wilts gentry in 1433 ; Henry was 
instituted to Atworth Chapel, 1439 ; and John, of Devizes, was one of 
the feoffees of the Manor of Lydiard Tregoze, 1445. Three chantries 
in St. Mary's Church were founded by John, Sen,, William, and John, 
Jun., who died 1472 and left a daughter, Joan, w. of Thomas Bayley, of 
the Bayley s of Baldham, in Keevil, several of whom Mr. Kite mentions. 
An account is given of the " Coventre's Dole, bequeathed by a poor 
weaver who received a loaf of bread from a baker when destitute in 

102 Wiltshire Boohs, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

Devizes, and in return at his death left money to distribute to every 
person in Devizes a small loaf on a particular day. The date of the 
bequest is not known. The income was derived from lands at Bed- 
borough known as " The Dolemead," the sum distributed varying from 
£4 to £12 13s in 1786, when for some unexplained reason the Charity 
ceased, though it is mentioned in the council books on 6th Januarys 
1802, but was not distributed. 

Some Old Houses of Devizes. [No. 14] Bluett's 

Court and SouthbrOOm House. Wiltshire Gazette, Sept. 
7th, 1922. 

Bluett's Court in Southbroom, mentioned in a deed of 1447, was 
then owned by Richard and Margaret Gilbert. John Gilbert gave 
eight acres of land in the New Park to St. Mary's Church, in 1381. In 
1545 Will. Page owned three cottages called " Blewetts," apparently the 
"Bluett Court" of the previous century, and leased them to Robert 
Truslowe. This lease later on was held by James Yate, of Upham, in 
Aldbourne, and in 1570 by William Taylor, of Horton. John Drew, or 
Trewe (I.), married Maud, d. of Richard Cuffe, Mayor of Devizes, 1502, 
and in 1504 held leases of Rangeborn, where he built the two mills 
known as Drew's Pond Mills, taken down only a few years ago. He 
also held leases of lands in the tithings of Wick and Nursteed. Robert 
Drew (I.), s. of John (I.), married the sister of Will. Beade, M.P. for 
Devizes, 1553. His son, John (II.), married Elinor, d. of Will. Cooke, 
of La cock. He bought Rangeborne Manor, and perhaps constructed 
the great pond known as Drew's Pond. He was buried at St. John's, 
1614, bequeathing IBs. yearly to the poor as a charge on " Bell Close," 
in Southbroom. His son, Robert (II.), born 1574, M.P. for Devizes, 
married Jane, d. of John Jackman, Sheriff of London. His son, John 
(III.), married Eliz. d. of Sir Humphrey Lynd, of Cobham. His house 
at Southbroom, "a stately place," was destroyed in the CivilJVar. 
His son, John (IV,), married Eliz. Mitchell, of Calstone. In 1680 the 
Southbroom property was sold to (Sir) John Eyles, Ld. Mayor. His 
son, John Eyles (IL), died 1752. His daughter, Maria, married, 1724, 
Geo. Heathcote, of Erlestoke, afterwards Ld. Mayor of London, 1742. 
He lived at Southbroom and was buried at St. John's. Edward Eyles, 
s. of John IL, built the present Southbroom House in 1773, on 
an entirely new site, the Road Act of 1755 establishing the present 
highway from the corner of Southbroom Park to the turnpike at 
Nursteed, having brought the road, which formerly ran from the east 
of St. James' Church along Brickley Lane and through Nursteed village, 
too near the old house. Josiali Eyles Heathcote, nephew to Edward 
Eyles, succeeded to the property, and to him in the History of Devizes 
the building of the house is wrongly ascribed. On his death in 1811. 
unmarried, the Southbroom property was bought by Will. Salmon, 
Town Clerk of Devizes, who married Miss Mortimer, of No. 1, Little 
Brittox, where at the baker's and pastrycook's shop the famous Devizes 
" Simnel Cakes " were made. He died 1826, and was succeeded by his 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles, 103 

son, Will. Wroughton Salmon, who about 1840 sold the property to the 
trustees of Geo. Watson Taylor, of Erlestoke Park, under whom Robert 
Parry Nisbet, M.P. for Chippenham, 1856—9, and Sherifif 1849, held 
the tenancy for forty-two years. Robert Henryson Caird bought the 
estate, made considerable additions to the house, and sold it in 1913 
to Sir Horace Westropp McMahon, who sold it in 1919 to Capt. Charles 
Gascoigne, who has sold it this year (1922) to Messrs. W. E. Chivers & 
Sons, of Devizes. 

Bevizes Congregational Church. Its 150 years of 

History. The Wiltshire Gazette, June 1st, 1922, contains notes on 
the history of the Congregational Chapel. It was founded as an 
organised congregation in 1772, Robert Sloper being its pastor for the 
first forty years. Hichard Elliott, his successor from 1803 to 1853, was 
the most notable of its ministers. William Kingsland, Robert Dawson, 
Daniel Anthony, Walter Jones, William Darwent, T. Owen Prosser, 
William Kingsland, and Arthur Axe bring down the succession to the 
present day. 

Woollen Trade in the West of England. Daniel Defoe's 

description of the dimensions of the woollen trade in the West of 
England in " The Complete English Tradesman," in which he reckons 
the numbers employed directly in the trade at over a million, is quoted 
in the Wiltshire Times, May 20th, 1922, which also prints a letter from 
"Englishman," Westbury, Feb. 28th, 1738, calling Lord Harrington's 
attention to the miserable condition of the weavers in Wiltshire, and 
the tyranny (as he asserts) of the clothiers, their masters. 

Prom an Old Devizes Manuscript Book. A Method- 
ical Tradesman of the 18th Century. His Record 
of Business, Iiocal and National Events. Wiltshire 

Gazette, March 30th, April 6th, 13th, 20th, 27th, May 4th, 11th, I8th, 

Capt. B. H. Cunnington has transcribed the most interesting items 
contained in the Day Book of George Sloper, begun in 1753 and ending 
in 1802. It is a book of 260 pages, 16^in. X 6jin., now in the possession 
of Mr. Marler Sloper, of Devizes. The writer was a baker living in 
the house now occupied by the New Era Laundry (recently by Messrs. 
Chivers), at the corner of Sheep Street and Hare and Hounds Street. 
He gives the value of the bread he baked every day, amounting to 
£98,446 19s. Qd. in the 491 years. The notes refer to matters of general 
interest as well as family and local events. He quotes several instances 
of criminals being hanged in chains near the site of their crimes. On 
July 8th, 1773, occurs the following : — "Thursday night John Acorman 
of Pattney the baker and miller was robbed on Etchilhampton Hill 
j above ye Monument a little a crose the old road and on Fryday James 

Sloper and Wm. Coombs was taken up on susspision of ye above 

104 Wiltshire Boohs, Pam'phlets, and Articles. 

Eobery and was committed by Charles Garth Esq. to Prison for the 
same but both declared themselves perfectly innocent. Tryed at 
Salisbury Aug. 3 and by the Jury was declared to be guilty and on 
Aug. 17th they was both hanged and dyed very penitent but both 
declared they was inocent of the crime for which was agoing to die for, 
and I sincerely and verily believe with all my Hart and Soul they was 

" Mem. Since it has been found by the Words of Rob. Franklin 
that his brothers Thomas and John was the men that robed Acorman.'^ 

In 1773 he notes " Edward Eyles Esqr. (ye Govener) pulled down 
the Great House in ye Green and built a new one." (Southbroom House). 
On May 25th, 1774, " The Rev. Mr. Edward Innes took procession round 
the Town as Rector May 25 Wensday and I gave them cake and ale 
over the pales at ye end of the garden." 

Oct. 31st, 1776. "Silsbury Hill opened in expectation to find some 
great Curiosity but nothing was found."' June 4th, 5th, 6th, 1777. 
"Assisted Mr. James Sutton (executor to the late Mr. Thomas Thurman, 
who died on March 27th) in giving away to the second poor of this 
town one thousand pounds . . . and Mr. Sutton according to Mr. 
Thurman's will gave the residue of his estate and effects (after all 
debts and legacies was paid) two thousand pounds and upwards to 
poor Tradesmen of this Town. . . . Mem. took a list of more than 
1500 poor in St. Mary's Parish that received part of the £1000 at 10s. Qd. 
each." April 4th, 1780. " James Sutton of New Park Esq. began 
building a New House at New Park about this time." A manservant 
of that same house having drowned himself was buried on Sunday 
evening, Sept. 21st, 1783, " in the cross road on the left hand as you 
goes out between Horton and Roundway to B. Canings field," but most 
suicides were buried at Gallows Ditch. 

On Dec. 12th, 1783, Smugglers to the number of 40 or more came 
to Devizes, between 11 and 12 o'clock at night and retook a large 
quantity of tea from Mr. Wood the supervisor. 

It is noted that " There was not a single Katt-Key to be found on any 
Ash Tree in the Kingdom of the growth of last year 1794, so it was in 
many papers advertized a large premium this spring 1795 to any person 
who could produce one single bunch of the growth of 1794, but there 
was not one found as was ever heard of." 

It is worth noting, too, that Tan Hill Fair is called St. Ann's Hill 
Fair in 1799. 

Official Guide to Devizes. Published by Vickery, Kyrle, & Co., 
Ltd., 4, Great Marlborough Street, London, W. 1 [1922]. 

Sewn, cr. 8vo, pp. 48. Good photo-process views of The Castle; St. 
John's Church, N. Side, Interior, Tower Arches, and Chancel ; Market 
Place ; the Brittox ; Quakers' Walk ; Avon Vale Hunt ; Canal and 
Locks below Devizes; St. James' Church and Crammer Pond. Very 
short but well written accounts of Castle, Churches, Museum, walks 
and excursions, and many advertisements. 

•Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles, 105 

A Short Outline Gruide to the Archseologlcal Periods, 
as illustrated by the Exhibits in the Museum, 
Devizes. Compiled by B. Howard Cunnington 
(Hon. Curator) and Mrs. M.E. Cunnington [1922]. 

Pamphlet, e^in. X 4in., pp. 11. Price 3c?. 

Intended primarily for classes of children visiting the Museum, this 
little guide will also be useful to adult visitors who are not expert 
archaeologists, many of whom no doubt will be glad of its simple 
statements of " What is meant by Archaeology," of " Man's gradual 
advance in knowledge and improvement in mode of Life," of " The 
Divisions of Prehistoric Times," and the " Summary of the Prehistoric 
Periods in Wiltshire as represented by Exhibits in the Museum," with 
very short references to the cases in which examples of objects of the 
successive ages from Palaeolithic to Pagan Saxon times are to be seen. 

The Actts of the Baptists in the Borrow of Devizes. 

An article giving a concise history of the Devizes Baptists by H. Tull 
is printed in Wiltshire Gazette, August 31st, 1922. The first Devizes 
meeting was set up by a woman named Freame and her husband in 
1645, who probably lived at No. 22 in the Brittoxj behind which stands 
the remains of the old " Meeting House " which was used for worship 
until 1780, Sir John " Isles " having presented to the " Meeting" the 
lease of a house in 1673 (renewed in 1772), doubtless this same house. 
James Webb, the minister, took a prominent part in the first General 
Assembly in 1689. The first "Church Book" is dated 1704, when 
there were 59 members and John Filkes was the pastor. Among the 
benefactors were Sarah and James Wright. The new chapel in Mary- 
port Street was built in 1780. The secession of the New Baptist con- 
gregation took place in 1792. 

The Passing of Devizes Prison. The Wiltshire Gazette, 

Sept. 21st, 1922, had an article with two large and good photo illustra- 
tions, " Exterior of the Prison showing entrance gateway and part of 
the surrounding wall," and "Interior of the Prison, taken from the 
Gatehouse, showing the Governor's House and some of the ranges of 
cells." Built in 1810 as a county gaol, and after the disuse of Fisher- 
ton Goal in 1870, became the only gaol in the county. Its architect 
was Richard Ingleman. Polygonal in outline, with the governor's 
house in the centre, it contained 11 wards and 210 cells, those for men 
being 10ft. high, 7ft. Sin. wide, and 8ft. Sin. long. The women's cells 
were 7ft. high, 5ft. wide, 7ft. 5in. long. From 1912 to 1914 it was used 
only for accused persons under remand, and on the outbreak of war in 
1914 it became until March, 1920, a Detention Barracks (^.e., a military 
Prison). Since then it has been entirely unused until it was sold by 
auction Sept. 14th, 1922, and was bought as it stands by Messrs. W. E. 
Chivers & Sons, of Devizes, for £2,.550, including the old Officers' 
Quarters outside, now known as Park View and let out as fiats. The 
most notable of the executions from 1824, when the first took place, to 

106 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

1903, the date of the last, are recalled, and a list of the " Governors " or 
" Chief Warders in Charge " is given. Whether the buildings will be 
pulled down or adapted to residential uses remains to be seen. 

The Church of All Saints at Westbury under the 

Plain. By the Rev. H. C. Brooks. Wiltshire Gazette, Nov. 10th, 
17th, Dec. 1st, 8th, 15th, 1921. 

Westbury Church is taken by the author as a text enabling him to 
dwell discursively on the place which the Parish Church filled in 
mediaeval days in the life of the people and the teaching of which it 
was the symbol. The history of the English Church, and the growth of 
its architecture as expressive of its history, are enlarged on at consider- 
able length in connection with the various features of the building. 
Its probable appearance in succeeding ages is described and the reasons 
for, and meaning of, successive alterations in style, and plan, and 
fabric are suggested in detail, together with descriptions of mediaeval 
ritual and ceremonial in connection with the fabric or furniture of the 
Church. After the Church the writer deals in the same way with the 
Manor as a text for a discussion on manorial tenure generally. One 
of the smaller Manors at Westbury was the Chantry Manor — the Par- 
sonage Farm in Church Street was the Farm of the Chantry Manor, 
held until recently by the Bourne family ; hence Bourne's Walk and 
Bourne's Barton. The Chantry was the official residence of the 
Chantor or Precentor of Salisbury Cathedral, for whose maintenance 
the " Church of Westbury " was assigned by Ed. I., who also gave the 
Priory Manor to the Black Monks of Steventon, Berks. The Court 
Baron of this Manor was held in the Priory Barn in Church Street. 
The descent of the Manor of Broke is traced through the Paveley, 
Cheney, Willoughby, and Blount families. The name, " The Park," 
still attached to one of the fields at Brook shows where the Park 
surrounding the great house built by Robert, Lord Willoughby de 
Broke, was situated. Charles Blount, Lord Mountjoy, of Broke, was 
the pupil and friend of Erasmus. 

The next section, "The Manor and its Lords," contains most useful 
material. The family history of the Paveleys, Cheneys, Willoughbys 
de Broke, and the Blounts of Broke, Mauduitsand Phippsof Chalcote, 
House and Ley of Heywood, is given at some length. James Blount, 
6th Lord Mountjoy, succeeding his father 1545, married Katherine, d. 
of Thomas Leigh, of St. Oswald, Devon, 1557, and died 1581. His 
second son, Charles, b. 1563, succeeding as 7th Lord Mountjoy, was 
wounded at the battle of Zutphen, was made K.G. 1597, and in the 
same year became Lord Deputy in Ireland. Landing in 1600 he 
directed operations against Tyrone and the Irish rebels. In 1603 he 
became Lord Lieutenant of Ireland, and was created Earl of Devon- 
shire. He died 1605, being buried in Westminster Abbey. He never 
resided at Broke, which he first let to the Bonhams, and in 1599 sold 
the estate to William Jones, of Edington, for i'3,500. He died 1620. 
Sefton, s. of Will Jones, married Mary Still, d. of the Bp. of Bath and 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 107 

Wells. His son, Sefton Jun., married Hester White. The co-heiresses 
of Sefton, Jun., Anne Whaley and Elizabeth Longe sold the estate in 
1651 to Nicholas Greene. His son, Nicholas Jun., married Mary Read 
and died 1688, when his son, Kichard Greene, sold Brook House to 
Edward Lisle 1689, who again sold it in 1693 to Stephen Blatch. The 
present owner is Arthur Ernest Maby. 

The Mauduits held the Manor of Leigh in the 12th century. Hen. 
II. granted the Manor of Warminster to Hobert, 4th Lord Mauduit. 
In the 13th century one branch of the Mauduits continued to hold the 
Manor of Leigh. Thomas Mauduit, s. of Warine, Lord of Warminster, 
held Lordship in the Manor of Westbury under Ed, II. He was 
executed after the battle of Boroughbridge, 1322. His estates were 
restored to his younger son, John, whose heiress, Matilda, married Sir 
Henry Greene, who thus became possessed of Chalcote and Leigh, and 
was executed in 1399. This branch of the Mauduits ended in Matilda, 
but the family continued at Warminster and built a chantry chapel in 
the Church there 1485—1509. Under Hen. VIII. Nicholas Fhipps 
held the Manor of Chalcote, dying in 1615. His son, Nicholas (II.), 
who died 1656, was also Lord of Leigh. He left Broke to his son John, 
and Leigh to Thomas. Chalcote is still held by the Phipps family. 
Hey wood was bought by Matthew, s. of Henry Ley, of Teffont Evias. 
Matthew was M.P. for Westbury and gave the Borough Seal in 1597. 
James Ley, Matthew's youngest brother, b. at Teffont Evias 1552 was 
M.P. for Westbury, Sergeant-at-Law 1603, Lord Chief Justice of 
Ireland, 1605, Knighted 1609, Baronet 1620, married, first, Mary Pettey, 
who died 1613 ; secondly, Mary Bower. Lord Chief Justice of the 
King's Bench 1621, he presided at the trial of Sir Francis Bacon. Lord 
High Treasurer, and Baron Ley 1624, Earl of Marlborough 1626. 
Married, thirdly, Jane, d. of Lord Butler of Bramfield. Died 1629, 
buried in the Paveley Chapel in Westbury Church. Henry, b. 1595, 
his eldest son, 2nd Earl of Marlborough, died 1638. James, s, of 
Henry, 3rd Earl, fought at sea on the King's side in the Civil War, 
became Lord Admiral at Dartmouth at the Restoration and was killed 
in the action off the Texell against the Dutch in 166o. His uncle 
William succeeded and dying in 1679, the title of Earl of Marlborough 
became extinct. Hey wood House became the residence of William 
Phipps, Governor of Bombay, and afterwards of theGibbsand Ludlow 

The story of the Acorn Cup and of its adventures is told at length 
down to 1918. A list of Vicars and Rectors from 1342 is given, and it 
is noted that an oil portrait of the Rev. Thomas Cooke, Vicar 1813, is 
preserved in the Parish Room. The writer then returns to the Church, 
and after a chapter on Church Symbolism, a good deal of it much 
strained, he gives a full account of the windows and their inscriptions, 
the tablets recording restoration work in 1847 and 1903, the charitable 
benefactions, &c., and the tombs and monumental inscriptions through- 
out the Church. 

The Inventory of Church Plate in 1750 is printed in full. In 

108 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

addition to the " Acorn Cup " it mentions the following pieces, none of 
them now existing at Westbury : — 

" Two gilt cups and two covers pretty near of a size. One cup has 

these words and letters on it : 'Westbury R. E. T. M. Church- 

wardens,1630 ' ; the other cup and cover neither letter nor mark." 

" One silver waiter with these words : — ' This plate is given for 

the Glory of God to Westbury Church 1750 ' on the other side 

the Bayley coat of arms. The silver waiter, the present Mrs. 

Sarah Bayley in the Lane gave to Westbury Church 1750, and 

at her desire Mr. Hewitt got Mr. Thos. Burroughs, Silversmith 

in the Devizes, to engrave the above words upon the back side 

of it." 

" A Pewter Salver, in the middle of which is our Saviour on the 

Cross with these words : ' What have we got that we have not 

received of the Lord ? 169—.' " 

" One Pewter Dish ; two Pewter Flagons marked E.B. ; one Bowl ; 

three Napkins, one of which is marked W.P." 

With the alteration of the floor in the chancel in 1913 three stone 

coffins were found under the altar and a number of ledger stones under 

the pavement. The inscriptions on all that were then exposed are 

given in full here, including that of Mrs. Eliz. Ivie, wife of James 

Ivie, Vicar, and the curious note thereon in the registers by the Rev. Hewitt, Vicar, who buried his son in the same grave having 

first "brushed up and placed in the corner of the grave " Mrs. Ivie's 

" remains." 

The tower, the later part of which was built about 1500, consists of 
the Ringing Chamber, the Bell Chamber, and a room above the bells 
with a large fireplace. The author suggests that this may have been 
the room of the night watchman keeping guard over the town in case 
of fires. Its floor was removed in 192L The bell frame, also removed 
in 1921, was erected by William Francis and William Andrews in 3316. 
In 1921 two new bells were added to the original six which were all 
recast, the inscriptions being reproduced on the new bells. The " cur- 
few" or " Angelus" is still rung at Westbury. The writer identifies 
the site occupied now by the Church Institute, at the entrance to the 
churchyard from the Market Place, built in place of old cottages pulled 
down in living memory, as that of the Church House. A memorandum 
by Thomas Hewitt (Vicar) reads "1764 Mr. Ivie was the last Vicar 
who asserted his right to the houses built in Westbury churchyard 
next the Mill Pond, and sued for in Chancery, which were delivered up 
to me 29th September, 1759." 

Indentures of the lease of Church House are dated 1564 and 1581. 
It is described as the house and garden adjoining to the back of 
the house and brewhouse belonging to the Lord Abingdon Arms (now 
the Lopes Arms). Mr. Hewitt appears to have turned it into cottages 
in 1770, his initials T. H. are inserted in the wall of the adjoining 
A useful condensation of this paper so far as it is concerned with the 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, ayid Articles. 109 

Church was printed and published by A. E. & H. Holloway,Westbury, 
1921, under the same title, as a pamphlet, 8vo., pp. 22. 

The Restoration of Woodlands Manor House. 

A long and valuable account of Woodlands, its history, its architecture, 
and its recent restoration, appeared in the Wiltshire Gazette^ Sept. 
22nd and 29th, 1921. The descent of the manor {see Wilts Arch. Mag. y 
xxix., 251) is traced to its present owner, the Rev. F. Meyrick Jones, 
who in 1917 bought the property from the Bankes family. He is not 
connected with the previous Meyrick owners. The architecture of the 
chapel and of the hall is carefully described, and the various accounts 
of it which have been published, by Hoare {Mod, Wilts) ; Parker {Do- 
mestic Architecture iii^ZZ'l) ; Elyard {Some Old Wiltshire Homes) \C H. 
Talbot {Wilts Arch. Mag., xvii., 352) ; and 0. E. Ponting {Ibid., xxix., 
253) are well discussed and co-ordinated. Parker seems to have regarded 
the whole house as of the 15th century with the square-headed windows 
with flowing tracery in the upper story of the chapel inserted from an 
older building. (J. H. Talbot says that the original building of the 
chapel was of the 14th century, but that the east window with its arch 
of that date had been filled with 15thcentury tracery, and another 15th 
century window inserted. C. E. Ponting, on the other hand, maintains 
that the chapel is an example of the transition from Decorated to 
Perpendicular, of which Edington Church is the classic instance ; the 
characteristics of the two styles being mixed, the east window, for 
instance, having Decorated mouldings with Perpendicular tracery. Mr. 
Talbot, again, regards the circular external chimnies of the chapel as 
of the 14th century, whereas Mr. Ponting declares from close exami- 
nation that they are of the same date as the Elizabethan fireplaces. 
Elyard apparently adopts Talbot's view without independent exami- 
nation. In 1888 the chapel most narrowly escaped practical destruction. 
Mrs. Jupe, the then tenant, found it draughty and complained. The 
agent of the trustees of Mr. Meyrick Bankes, the then owners, proposed 
to mend matters by taking out the mullions of the windows and putting 
in wooden casements, and replacing the fine plaster ceiling of the 
lower room and the chapel roof with plain flat ceilings. A local builder 
had actually sent a tender for the work, when the Rev. E. G. Wyld, 
Vicar of Mere, drew the atention of the Hon. Secretaries of the Wilts 
Arch. Society to the matter. They wrote a judicious letter to Mrs. 
Bankes, who passed it on to the Agent, Mr. R. M. Gamier, who 
acknowledged that " ignorance of the great historical value of the old 
building prevented any thought for the preservation of decaying plaster 
and stonework being entertained," and expressed himself as " grateful 
to Mr. Medlicott for having saved me from an unwitting act of van- 
dalism." Mr. Wyld and Mr. Ponting then visited the building, and 
the latter drew up a careful recommendation as to what ought to be 
done. This was practically accepted by Mr. Gamier, and the work 
carried out accordingly. Mr. Garnier's letter is printed in full in the 
Gazette an example to all who are responsible for the repairs to ancient 
buildings. The recent work of repair to the chapel by the Rev. F. 

110 Wiltshire BookSy Pamphlets ^ and Articles. 

Meyrick Jones is described in detail. The door of the upper story, 
originally giving access from an outside stair, long removed, has been 
opened as a balcony, an old door fitted to its archway, and a number 
of 13th century tiles from Stavordale Priory laid in the floor at the 
entrance. For an iron tie rod, which crossed the barrel vaulted roof, a 
carved beam of the exact length required, bought at Newbury, has 
been substituted, masking new strong iron tie rods. The plaster of the 
roof has been renewed, with an early boss added to it. A recess in the 
west wall on the left side of the mantelpiece, possibly a window or 
opening into some room formerly existing beyond this wall, has been 
opened, and partly filled with wood tracery said to have come from 
Exeter Cathedral. The Gothic handle of the S. door came from 
Norwich. In the room below, the Elizabethan fireplace was fully 
opened and repaired, the blocked doorway on the N. side (Elizabethan 1) 
opened, and an ancient door frame and door fitted into it. About one- 
third of the plaster work of the ceiling and the frieze all round the 
room has been restored. An old door has also been hung in the doorway 
on the S. side, on which has been fixed a remarkable lock from Mere. 

XTpper TTpham House. The Seat of Lady Currie.^ 

By Christopher Hussey. Country Life, July 1st, 1922, pp. 
888—895. Twelve illustrations :— North Entrance Front ; S. Fagade, 
showing new wing beyond (full page) ; From the S. ; S. Front ; Looking 
Eastward from Garden Door ; Garden Front ; Great Hall and Dais ; 
Great Hall, Fireplace ; Solar or Drawing Room ; Dining Room Chim- 
neypiece ; Staircase, cir. 1700 ; Plan. 

It is a pity that the writer in tracing the history of the house, and of 
the family whose home it was, follows Richard Jeflferies^ in connecting 
the Goddards of N. Wilts with the earlier Godervilles, or Godardvilles, 
one of whom was castellan of Devizes, 1231, for that connection is in 
all probability mythical. Also speaking of Standen Hussey as aJaome 
of the family he calls it " Stanton " Hussey. The house bears above 
its S. entrance the initials T. G. and A. G., for Thomas and Anne 
(Giflford) Goddard, and also R. G. and E. G. for Richard and Elizabeth 
(Walrond) Goddard, and the date 1599. Mr. Hussey supposes that 
Thomas, second s. of John Goddard, of Aldbourne, succeeding to Upham 
on his father's death in 1545, rebuilt the house, casing the old timber- 
framed walls in some cases with flint and stone (as appeared during 
the recent restorations), but that the work not being entirely completed 
when he died in 1597, his son Richard added the carved arched doorway 
of the S, front, to his father's work and added his own and his wife's 
initials, with the date 1599. 

Mr. Hussey suggests that the fine chimneypiece of the " solar " or 
" Withdrawing Room," above the hall, supported by caryatids, together, 
perhaps, with that of the hall itself, were added by Richard at this time. 

^ The house was well described and figured by Mr. H, Brakspearin Wilts 
Arch. Mag., xxviii., 84 (1895). 

^ A Memoir of the Goddards of North Wilts, p. 8, 9. 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. Ill 

The property passed out of the possession of the doddards when 
on the death of the grandson of Kichard and Elizabeth Goddard 
in 1641, without issue, it passed to his sister, married to John 
Yate, of Charney (Bucks), and the house in 1870 had sunk to the 
condition of a farm store and cottage, when it was purchased by 
Ambrose L. Goddard, M.P., of Swindon. Nothing, however, was done 
to the building until in 1909 it was sold to Lady Currie, who transformed 
it into the large house at present existing. The old house of the 
Goddards, so far as its main S. front is concerned, presents the same 
appearance as it did when Mr. Brakspear drew it, except that the 
Dormer windows on each side have given place to curved gables 
similar to that in the centre, and that a stone parapet has been added 
along the whole front. Stone tiles have also been replaced on the roof. 
It was found necessary during the work of restoration, owing to the 
unsafe state of the walls, to take down a great part of this south front. 
The stones were carefully numbered, laid out on the ground, and re- 
built in their original positions. The back of this block has been more 
restored. The three gables which had disappeared have been replaced, 
and a front door added, over which the royal arms of Elizabeth, which 
were over the chimneypiece of the hall, have been placed. The new 
work by Mr. Biddulph Pinchard includes an entirely new wing to the 
W. of the old house, with a courtyard, gatehouse, and offices behind it, 
the alterations to the N. front of the old building, already mentioned, 
the ceiling, panelling, and screens in the hall, the formal garden, to 
the east, and the two gazebos at the corners of the forecourt on the 
S. side. The new wing has been so contrived that whilst it continues 
the line of the old south front, it is kept back sufficiently far behind 
it to allow the old building to stand forward and preserve its original 
character and appearance. 

In addition to the mantelpieces illustrated in this article two others 
were found built up during the alterations, one of them bearing the 
crests of Goddard and Walrond. The traditional site of the House of 
John of Gaunt is situated some distance to the N. of the present house, 
on rather higher ground, near the farm buildings, where remains of 
banks and irregularities of surface exist over a considerable space of 
ground, and worked (chalk) stones have recently been dug up. 

The present house, standing as it does at an elevation of nearly 900ft., 
claims to be the highest house, of any size, S. of the Trent, and affords 
a view over successive ranges of the Downs of Wilts and Berks that is 
probably unrivalled in either county. 

Longford Castle and the Bouverle Family, Wiltshire 

Gazette^ Dec. 29th, 1922, is an abstract of a lecture given by Mr. Frank 
Stevens, at Salisbury. 

The Servingtons held Longford manor from 1329 to 1572. The last 
of the family- gambled away the property to John Webb, of Salisbury, 
who sold it to Sir Thomas Gorges. He married Helena Snachenberg, 
widow of the Marquis of Northampton, and a favourite of Q. Elizabeth. 

112 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

The building of the Castle begun in 1578 was due to her. It was 
partly paid for by loot from a wrecked Spanish galleon falling to Sir 
Thomas when he was Governor of Hurst Castle. Sir Thomas' grand- 
son sold the property to Hugh, Lord Coleraine, in 1641, and his grand- 
son sold it to Sir Edward Des Bouveries in 1717. The Des Bouveries 
were a French-speaking Belgian family. Laurens, founder of the 
existing family, a Protestant, born near Lille, fled to Frankfort, be- 
came accountant to a merchant there and married his daughter. At 
the age of 32 he settled in Canterbury and 36 years later moved to 
London. His son, Edward, died 1625. The family established in 
London as Turkey merchants, became rich. Sir Edward was a great 
benefactor to hospitals. His silver christening cup, called " Fortune's 
Boat," is still used at Longford to give the family toast " Health and 
Prosperity, Peace and Posterity. Long Life and Fellowship and the 
Joys of Eternity." 

Sir William, knighted in 1713, became a baronet in 1714. His son, 
Sir Edward, bought Longford of the Coleraine family in 1717, and 
dying childless Longford passed to his brother Jacob, who married 
Mary Clarke, an heiress, had a family of 13, was M.P. and Recorder of 
Salisbury and Baron Longford and Viscount Folkestone. His son 
William, 2nd Viscount, and M.P. and Recorder of Salisbury, married, 
first, Harriet Pleydell, heiress of Coleshill, and secondly Rebecca 
Alleyne, a Barbados heiress. He became first Earl of Radnor in 1761. 
His son, Jacob, built the Council Chamber at Salisbury at a cost of 
^10,000, when the old building was burnt in 1782. 

Broadleas, Potterne, by Ed. Kite, an article in Wiltshire Gazette, 
March 9th, 1922, following on the death of Miss Margaret Ewart. 

John Tylee, brewer and banker, of Devizes, who lived in what is now 
tho White Hart Inn, New Park Street, married 1774, Ann Reed, of 
Bristol, who died 1783, aged 38. He died 1812, and was buried, Jan. 
31st in the Quakers' Burial Ground at Hillworth, Devizes. His eldest 
son, John ,Tylee, soon afterwards built the house at Broadleas, and 
lived there till 1841. He married Mary Ann, d. of Samuel Napper, by 
whom he had ten children. He died in London, Oct. 28th, 1862. In 
1841 he sold Broadleas to the Rev. William Maskell, the author of 
Monumenta Ritualia and other works, who lived there until 1847 
when he took the living of St. Mary's Church, Devon, and soon after 
joined the Church of Rom€i in 1850. In 1852 the estate was bought by 
William Ewart, M.P. for Dumfries, on whose death in 1869 it became 
the property of his younger daughter, Margaret, from whom it now 
passes to her nephew, Mr. Lee Ewart. 

Of William Ewart, the purchaser of Broadleas in 1852, Liberal 
politician and philanthropist, the Wiltshire Gazette reprints a long 
obituary notice which appeared in its columns at his death. He wasj 
the [son of William, a Liverpool merchant, who was the son of 
Andrew Ewart, minister of Troqueer in the 18th century. Born, 
1798 in Liverpool, educated at Eton and Christ Church, B.A. 1821, 

Wiltshire Books, Pam'phlets, and Articles, 113 

called to the Bar 1827, xM.P. for Bletchingley 1828, M.P. for Liverpool 
1830, 1831, and 1833 to 1837, M.P. for Wigan, and from 1841 to 1868 
for Dumfries, died, aged 70, Jan. 23rd, 1869. Buried at Bishops 
Cannings. The act establishing Public Libraries was brought in by 
him in 1850, and he was largely instrumental in the passing of several 
other measures. 

Iford Manor, the property of Mr. H. A. Peto. By H. 

Avray Tipping. Country Life, Aug. 26th and Sept. 2nd, 1922, pp. 
242—248,272—277. Twenty-one photo illustrations. The House from 
S.E., The Hall, In the Garden Hall, From Garden Hall to Hall, The 
Loggia, The Fountain Recess, Well-head and Casita, In the Casita, 
Western End of Terrace, The Patio, The Bridge, The Cloister from 
without. The Cloister from within, S. View as seen from Cloister 
Garth, Entrance to Cloister, E. Walk of Cloister, N. Walk of Cloister, 
Ascent from Lily Pool to Terrace, Eastern Half of Terrace, On the 
Terrace, A Philsopher in Marble. 

The original house seems to have been a late 15th century building 
erected by the Hortons, who held it under the Hungerfords until it 
was bought in 1700 by William Chanler, Salter, of Bradford, who 
' apparently built on the present classic front. The fine 15th century fire- 
place and doorway now in the Hall were found by Mr. Peto built up in 
the wall as well as a window now in the " Garden Hall." 

Mr. Peto is well known as a designer of Formal Gardens, and much 
of his work has been illustrated in the pages of Country Life. His 
own garden here illustrated is full of architectural features, flights of 
steps, terraces, stone seats, the " Casita," the " Cloisters," and the 
" Patio," wherein are arranged a wonderful collection of spoils from 
Italy and elsewhere. A capital from the destroyed Church of St. 
Andrew of the Goths at Ravenna, built by Theodoric, Byzantine and 
later Italian columns, a fine Greek Sarcophagus of the 3rd century 
B.C., Great Oil Jars, and numberless architectural fragments from 
Roman and Byzantine days downwards. Amongst the most precious 
are two 14th century lions of red Verona marble, once part of the 
faQade of the Casa d' Oro in Venice, and a beautiful 14th century 
figure of the Virgin and Child which may have come from Rheims 

rhe Grubbe Family and Eastwell House, Potterne, 

jBy Ed. Kite. Article in Wiltshire Gazette, April 20th, 1922. 

The first member of the family settled in Devizes was Henry Grubbe, 
glover and gauntlet maker, whose children were baptised at St. John's 

I in 1560. He was Mayor in 1568 and M.P. in 1577, and died 1582. The 
particulars of his will are here given. His surviving son, Thomas, was 
in 1598 appointed one of the surveyors of the Manors of Agnes, 
Marchioness of Winchester, in 1612 was one of the feoffees of St. 
Mary's Church lands, and in 1615 lessee of the Manor and Prebend of 
Potterne from the Bishop. He married Susan, d. of John Hart, alder- 
man of Bristol. His eldest son, John, b. 1588, succeeded as tenant of 

114 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

Potterne Manor and Prebend, the rent paid quarterly being tendered 
first at the Manor House, then on the Dole stone in the churchyard, 
near the north Porch, and lastly at the Village Pound, as typifying the 
authority of the Bishop both ecclesiastical and civil within the parish. 
John married Jenever, d. of Thomas Baskerville, of Pichardston, in 
Winterbourne Bassett, and was Sheriff 1638. His will was proved 1649. 
His elder son, Thomas, married Thomazine, d. of Walter Bourchier, of 
Barnesley, Glos. His eldest son Walter, b. 1655, married Rebecca 
Brereton, and was M.P. for Devizes and died 1715 without issue, when 
his sister Mary, wife of Thomas Hunt, of West Lavington, became the 
heir and conveyed the Grubbe property into the family of Hunt, and 
her only son, William, of West Lavington, took the surname of Grubbe, 
marrying first, 1729, Margaret, d. of Thomas Smith, of Shaw House, 
Melksham, and secondly, Ann, d. of Roger Dorchester of Etchilhamp- 
ton. Their eldest son, Thomas Hunt Grubbe, of Eastwell, married 
Dorothy Mary, d. of Rev. Andrew Milnes, D.D., of Newark, Notts, 
and died 1820. Of their children the eldest son, William Hunt Grubbe, 
died 1813, aged 23 ; Thomas Hunt Grubbe, of Eastwell, Capt. 63rd 
Foot, died 1868^ aged 76. His eldest son, Walter Heneage, died in his 
father's lifetime, and Eastwell passed to the younger son, Henry George 
Hunt Grubbe, whose widow is its present occupant. Eastwell House, 
built apparently about 1570, was modernised in 1760. A brick wall on ' 
the terrace has the date 1658. 

Chippenham. An ancient Saxon Town, its Sur- 1 
roun dings and Associations. By J. Lee Osboru.l | 

Illustrated. Price Is. 6c?. Cirencester, "Wilts and Gloucestershire 
Standard " Printing Works. 1921. 

Pamphet, 8vo, pp. 40. This excellent eighteen-penny worth, which j ) 
the author intends " to fill a gap between the larger History and the 
smaller local Guide," consists of four articles published in the Wilts 
and Gloucestershire Standard, reprinted almost in their original form, 
with an introduction in which the principles of "Restoration," of 
Church or house alike, are severely laid down. Chippenham itself is 
first dealt with, a short sketch of its history, a good architectural! 
account of the CJiurch, the curious charity left by Robert Gale in 1628,| 
and other matters are well touched on. Then come the " Surroundings"' 
of Chippenham — stretched in this case to include " Draycot Cerne and 
Sutton Benger," " Bremhill and Stanley Abbey," "Langley Burrelr \ 
and Maud Heath's Causeway, Tytherton and Christian Malford." Inj | 
all these cases it happens, doubtless not by accident, that the Churches' » 
have not been adequately described before, and Mr. Lee Osborn is tc 
be thanked for filling the gap. In his account of Bremhill Church he 
speaks of the restoration of 1850, as being " of particular atrocity," ir 
that it swept away a fine screen, pulled down and rebuilt the Early 
English arcading, with lengthened columns,and destroyed an interesting 
polished cross slab on the chancel floor, and what he says is no doubt 
true, but alas ! if he himself had been in Archdeacon Drury's place h 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 115 

would probably have committed precisely similar atrocities, for in 1850 
nobody understood the principles of restoration as he rightly impresses 
them on us to-day. The men who were somewhat in advance of their 
time, as Archdeacon Drury was, did not do what they did merely out 
of pure cussedness. Mr. Lee Osborn gives us many little bits of in- 
formation not commonly known. His account of the curious Moravian 
settlement, founded originally by John Cennick in 1742, at East 
Tytherton, consisting of chapel, with minister's house, girls' school, 
and the sisters' house, known at first as "Lamb's Acre," is most in- 
teresting. He corrects Aubrey on a curious point. Aubrey says that 
the manor of Draycot was held in Petty Serjeanty by performing the 
office of marshal at the King's coronation, Jackson says the Petty 
Serjeanty was the rendering every year a wand for the Third Officer 
of the King's Marshalsea, Mr. Lee Osborn remarks that the per- 
formance of the office of Marshal is a service of Grand Serjeanty (the 
performance of some ceremonial office), and not of Petty Serjeanty (the 
presentation of some trifling instrument). At Bremhill he notices the 
peculiar position of the Vicar as owner of rectorial tithes, a result of a 
mediaeval accommodation between the Bishop of Salisbury and the 
Abbot of Malmesbury. There are photos of Chippenham Bridge, Old 
Town Hall and Church ; a drawing of old Draycot House (from 
Aubrey) ; Sutton Benger Church ; and Sisters' House, and Minister's 
House, Chapel, and School at the Moravian Settlement at Tytherton. 

liucy's Official Borough Gruide to Marlborough, with 
a short account of Places of Interest in the 
Neighbourhood and an Appendix on the Pre- 
historic Antiquities and Natural History of the 
District Marlborough, Iiucy & Co. 1922. 
[Price Is. 6^.] 

Cr. 8vo, stiff covers, pp. 85. Illustrations from photos, Grand Avenue, 
Ailesbury Arms Hotel, Marlborough from Granham Hill, Castle Inn 
C. House, High Street (2) looking W. and E., St. Mary's Ch. W. Door, 
Old Barn Wulfhall, Aldbourne Church and Cross, Devil's Den, Avebury 
— Stone of Outer Circle, Avebury Church, and two Maps of roads and 
paths in Savernake Forest, and West Woods. 

The appearance and printing of this " Guide " hardly does credit to 
its really excellent contents. The reader expects a popular " Guide 
Book " and finds something very superior to the ordinary run of such 
publications. Its author, Mr. H. C. Brentnall, is to be congratulated 
on the amount of accurate Historical and Topographical information 
as to the Town and Neighbourhood which he has managed to include 
in these 85 pages, information which can be relied upon, whilst much 
of it is first hand and has not been printed over and over again. The 
ordinary visitor, or even resident, will find here everything that he 
wants to know about the place, and what is more he will find it served 
up in such an extremely readable form that he will find himself reading 
it as a book, instead of merely consulting it as a guide. 

I 2 

116 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

After an informing Introduction on the characteristeristics of the 
country round, geological, climatic, and historical, the question of the 
origin of the Castle M ound is discussed, the finding of Koman coins in 
1650 and of deer horn picks in 1892 and 1912 suggesting the possibility 
of a Neolithic origin. A good outline of the history of the Castle is 
given, and it is suggested that the tradition attaching to the font in 
Preshute Church, which is supposed to have come from the Chapel of 
St. Nicholas, in the Castle, the foundations of which have been recently 
found at the foot of the mound, may well be so far true, that one or 
more of King John's children may have been christened in it. Certainly 
he married his first wife, Alice of Gloucester, here. The Castle, more 
or less ruined when Leland saw it in 1541, was still inhabited by members 
of the Seymour Family in 1642, and was fit to receive Charles II. twenty 
• years later. Before 1700, however, all that was left of it was swept 
away and replaced by the two end wings of " C. House" from the 
designs of Webb, the east wing being the earliest. In early Georgian 
days the existing central block was built between the two wings, and 
in 1792 the north portico, removed fom Mildenhall Woodlands House, 
was added. The College and its buildings are, of course, fully described, 
but less easily discovered points of interest in the town are not forgotten, 
such as the fine Elizabethan oak staircase, panelled room, and stone 
fireplace behind Messrs. Lucy's shop, with the curious sundial in stained 
glass in the window ; the oak staircase in Cavendish House ; and the 
panelled room at Mr. Mundy's. Mr. Brentnall suggests that the 
earthworks at the top of Kingsbury Street, on the Common, though 
traditionally connected with the siege of 1642, may really be a portion 
of a Roman Camp. Savernake Forest is, of course, fully dealt with, its 
ancient bounds and its modern paths, and other points of interest. 

" The Column " was originally erected by George Bubb Dodington, 
Lord Melcombe, in 1761, in the grounds of Brandenburgh House, 
Hammersmith, in memory of his wife, whose heart was said to be 
enclosed in the urn that crowns it. His cousin and heir, the Earl of 
Ailesbury, removed and re-erected it in 1781 as it now stands. The 
panels of glass discovered in 1880 in the existing farmhouse at Wulfhall, 
consisting of the imperial crown, the badge of Jane Seymour, the Prince 
of Wales' feathers, and the Tudor rose, dating apparently between 
1537 and 1547, were, in 1905 removed to a window in the chancel of Great 
Bedwyn Church over the tomb of Sir John Seymour. 

The neighbouring villages are of course more lightly touched on than 
Marlborough itself, but sufficiently and with knowledge— Chisbury and 
Knowle Chapels, the " Knowle Gloss," the new additions to Upham 
House, the " Templars' Bath " sarsen, the recent work of securing the 
Devil's Den, are all mentioned. 

It is a little misleading to say that two of the circular Saxon clerestory 
windows in Avebury Church " were found in the Churchyard " in 1880. 
It is true that they were so found, but only because an ignorant 
architect had just pulled them out of their original place in the wall. 
Again, at Ramsbury the font, which is amateur work of 1842, is spoken. 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 117 

of with too much respect, and at Great Bedwyn the remains of the 
screen surely now adorn S. Kensington Museum, and no longer appear 
in the S. aisle. There are notes on Prehistory, and Natural History, 
and a sufficient index. Everyone visiting Marlborough should arm 
themselves with this guide on arrival. 

Devizes Town Hall. Portraits of Mayors, The Wilt- 
shire Gazette of Nov. 3rd, 1921, gives a list and some account of the 43 
enlarged photographs of the Mayors who have held office during the 
last 70 years from 1850, which have recently been hung in the vestibule 
of the Town Hall. The collection is complete except in five or six 
cases, the actual number of photographs being 43, as some of the 
Mayors held office four or even five times. 

** Market Thursday. A Scene in Wessex." Article in 

The Times, June 24th, 1921, describing Devizes Market, with the 
Bear Hotel, and the Ruth Fierce monument. 

Devizes Castle. " Castrum ad Divlsas.'' By W. H. 

Butcher. Jour. Brit. Arch. Assoc, xxiv., 1918, pp. 129 — 163. 1 Fig. 

Keport of the Marlborough Coll. Nat. Hist. Soc. for 
the year 1921. No. 70. Svo. pp 6i. 

The nesting of Girl Bunting, Great Crested Grebe, Snipe, and Red- 
shank within the ten mile radius of Marlborough is recorded. The 
steady recovery of Gold Crests and Long-tailed Tits from the terrible 
winter of 1917 is noted, with the increase of Goldfinches and Kestrels. 
Senecio squalidus, Senecio integrifolius, Hellehorine purpurata (near 
Chilton Foliot), Hellehorine longifolia, Potamogeton polygonifolius 
(near Folly Farm), and Polygonum maculatum, var., iiicanum 
(near Burridge Heath, Bedwyn), are amongst new or uncommon 
flowering plants noticed.. Limenitis sihylla (White Admiral) has been 
again recorded, as also is Lycxna hellargus (Clifden Blue). 

An abstract of Mrs. Cunnington's paper in the Antiquaries' Journal^ 
Jan., 1922, on the Early Iron village site at All Cannings Cross Farm 
as well as an abstract of Mr. Passmore's report on the " Underpinning 
of the Devil's Den," with five illustrations of the work, an account of 
" A Geological Expedition to Arran and Skye," and notes of new species 
of Mosses, Hepatics, Lichens, Rust Fungi, Plant Galls, and MoUusca 
from the Bedwyn neighbourhood, are given. It is noted that in June, 
1921, the Kennet was dry at Lockeridge, and by December as far down 
as " Treacle Bolly," 14 miles from its source. The last time it was dry 
at Clatford is said to have been in 1855. The condition of the Avells in 
the neighbourhood during the drought is noted. It is, on the other 
hand noted that no signs of the streets of Cunetio, which are said to 
appear in dry weather, in Black Field, at Mildenhall, were visible. 
The total rainfall for the year was 18"34 inches, against an average of 
32 inches. An interesting number of the Report. 

118 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

A Villag-e Site of the Hallstatt Period in Wiltshire^ 

By Mrs. M. E. Cunniugton. The Antiquaries' Journal, 
Jan., 1922, Vol. II., No. 2, pp. 13 — 19. Two plates and two figs, in text. 
This is a short but excellent account of the chief results of the excava- 
tions carried out at All Cannings Cross Farm in 1 91 1 and 1 920, of the for- 
mer of which some description was given in Wilts Ayxh. Mag.^ xxxvii., 
526. It will be remembered that attention was first drawn to the site by 
the extraordinary number of " mullers," or " Hammerstones," scattered 
over several acres of an arable field just below Rybury Camp. Mrs. 
Cunnington says that " No evidence has been found to show what the 
hammerstones of flint and sarsen were used for ; it seems that they 
must have been used in dressing stone for some purpose, perhaps in 
making querns and mealing stones out of the sarsen boulders that 
occur naturally on these downs " (as has been suggested by Mr. A. D, 
Passmore, from the use of precisely similar hammerstones for this^ 
purpose in the Soudan to-day). " The site has yielded a great quantity 
of pottery ; fragments representing not far short of a thousand pots 
have been found ; a good many bone implements, such as pins, needles, 
combs, scoops, etc. ; spindle whorls, loom weights, bronze and iron slag, 
fragments of crucibles, and a large number of bones of animals that 
had been used for food. The chief interest and importance of the site 
lies in the fact that the pottery as a whole seems to belong to the 
Halstatt period and to be throughout of Halstatt type." From the 
fragments found Mrs. Cunnington has reconstructed twenty-nine com- 
plete vessels. The commonest type, that apparently in everyday 
domestic use, so closely resembles in shape, material, and ornament, 
some of the cinerary urns from the barrows believed to be of the Late 
Bronze Age, that it would no doubt have been assigned to that age if 
it had been found alone. The only ornamentation on these vessels is a 
row of finger-tip impresions round the shoulder. These suggest that 
the date of the settlement was not far removed from the end of the 
Bronze Age. On the other hand the presence of a variety of iron 
objects, as well as an abundance of superior and peculiar types of 
pottery show that the settlement must date from the Early Iron Age. 
The whole of the pottery seems to be of one period, not a single frag- 
ment of Romano- British ware occurred, and Mrs. Cunnington believes 
that the life of the settlement could only have covered two or three 
centuries, and that it marks the invasion of a new people who had not 
been here in the Bronze Age. The presence of brooches of " La Tene I." 
type both in bronze and iron, which are generally dated in France from 
400 to 250 B.C., shows that the settlement existed until after 400 B.C. 
On the other hand the flowing scrolls so typical of the " Late Celtic" 
culture of Glastonbury Lake Village, Hunsbury Camp, &c., is entirely 
absent, and All Cannings is clearly earlier than these well-known sites. 
Pottery similar to that of All Cannings has been found at Hengistbury 
(Hants), and was assigned to the Halstatt period, but was there 
mixed with pottery of other ages. All Cannings at present is the only 
site known in England where the remains are exclusively of the 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 119 

Halstatt — La Tene I. period, which may perhaps be dated between 700 
and 350 B.C. The full results of the All Cannings diggings are to be 
published separately. 

It is curious that the same number of the Antiquaries' Journal 
contains a paper by Mr. O. G. S. Crawford, " A Prehistoric Invasion 
of England," contending that the "finger-tip ornament" on pottery 
marks the advent of a fresh wave of invaders, at the end of the Bronze 
Age, somewhere about 800 B.C., and giving good reasons for his 

KammerstOnes. By A. D. Passmore. A short paper in Proc. of the 
Prehistoric Soc. of East Anglia, read Oct. 18th, 1920, pp. 4, sets forth 
the writer's claim to have solved the question of the use of the globular 
" mullers," or " hammerstones," which occur in such numbers on ancient 
sites on the Downs, especially at All Cannings Cross. He quotes the 
statements of two travellers, one in the Sudan and the other on the 
Victoria Nyanza, describing in precisely similar terms the use of 
"hammerstones" as Mr. Passmore himself has seen them used in the 
Sudan. "Saddle Querns" are still commonly used for grinding corn 
in Africa exactly as they were in prehistoric days in Wiltshire. Mr. 
Kobertson describes the making of a new saddle quern. A woman " was 
kneeling on the ground and before her was a large slab of coarse-grained 
hard greenstone, the surface of which was slightly convex. To answer 
the purpose required it should be concave. To move the necessary 
amount of unrequired surface she held a round pebble of about three 
inches in diameter in her right hand and dropped it on the stone from a 
height of about nine inches, and catching it on the rebound continued the 
process till tired . . . each blow fractured a small part of the sur- 
face, the resultant sand and scaly pieces beingfrom time to time swept 
away. This process was observed for an hour, when quite an appreciable 
amount of the surface had been removed. I then examined the pebble 
and found it to be exactly like an English hammerstone in every 
respect. Alongside the stone was a pebble with ground edges exactly 
as Class 3 (the flatter sarsen mullers with keeled edges, so often found 
with the globular " hammerstones "), which the woman informed me 
was for the final smoothing of the corn stone, and gave me an illustration 
of how it was used by rubbing with sand and water." Mr. R. H. 
Walker describes the use of hammerstones thus : — "These stones be- 
come absolutely spherical from constant use, being turned about in the 
hand and dropped on the rock. They are just the size of a cricket 
ball. They keep the surface of the saddle quern rough by dropping 
the stones on it from a height of about ten inches, in time the quern 
gets worn into holes or basins by this constant process of preparing the 
surface, and the hammerstone, which at first may be shapeless, soon 
becomes smooth and spherical." Thus it appears that the spherical 
hammerstones are used both in making and roughening the surface of 
the saddle querns, and the keeled stones in rubbing the surface down 
level when too rough, This seems obviously the true explanation of 
the use of these two classes of Wiltshire " Mullers," or " Hammerstone s , 

120 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

Excavations on Hackpen Hill, Wilts, By the Rev. 

H. Cr. O. Kendall. Proc, Soc. Ant Xowd, 2nd S., XXVIII., 

pp. 26 — 48. Map, Plan, Section, and 24 figures of flints. 

These excavations- were made in 1912 in the gravel and clay on 
Hackpen Hill, above Winterbourne Bassett, at a height of 8V5ft, near 
Glory Ann Barn, to determine the age and character of the worked 
flints occurring there. The writer claims that the ruder of these flints 
show distinctly human work, and that they closely resemble many of 
the ruder worked flints from Knowle Farm Pit of the Chelles period, 
whilst typical Palaeolithic implements have been found on this spot, at 
Liddington Castle, on Martinsell, and on Milk Hill (954ft.)- He con- 
tends that the so-called Eoliths are in some cases certainly, and in others 
probably, the minor tools of Early Palaeolithic industries, and that the 
plateau tools are really Palseoliths. A typical Palseolith from Whyr 
Farm, Winterbourne Bassett, is illustrated, as well as an abraded 
specimen of sarsen. 

Holiths. Their Origin and Age. Presidential 
Address, by the Rev. H. G-. O. Kendall, F.S.A. 

Reprinted from Proceedings of the Prehistoric Soc. of East Anglia for 
1920—21. 8vo, pp. 20, 9 plates. 

In this paper Mr. Kendall develops his belief that the rude edge 
trimmed flints, commonly known as " Eoliths," for the most part cannot 
be regarded as earlier than the well-formed implements of Palseolithic 
times. He regards them as "minor tools," which may be practically 
of any Palseolithic age, or even much later. The Alderbury Pits 
produce these "Eoliths" abundantly, and no Palseolithic implements 
have yet been found there, but both in the case of these, and of the 
Plateau flints of rude Eolithic character found on Hackpen Hill, at 
Winterbourne Bassett, Avebury, &c., identical, as they are apparently, 
with the Plateau " Eoliths " of Kent, he claims that their patina and 
other characteristics prove that the earliest of them are no earlier than 
the oldest Palseoliths of Knowle and very many are not so old. He 
claims that the dark brown flints in Wilts are the oldest, and that a 
sequence of patinas follows in regular order of age, and that sometimes 
the oldest patina on a Palseolithic implement is broken through by ] 
subsequent " Eolithic " chipping. On the top of Hackpen, at a height [ 
of 875ft., from which numbers of "Eoliths" have come, he claims to J 
have found in all some two dozen Palseoliths, in precisely the same I 
conditions as the "Eoliths," and therefore of the same age. In short 
he contends that if the term " Eolith " is retained it must not be 
understood to denote an earlier age, but simply a ruder form of work, 
than that seen on the ordinary Palseolithic implement. A great number 
of flints, the majority from North Wilts, are admirably illustrated in 
the plates. 

A Fragment of "Blue Stone " [Micaceous Sand- 
stone] near Avebury and its accompaniments. 

By Rev. H. G. O. Kendall. Man, April, 1918, pp. 54—55, 1 Fig. 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 121 

Old Sarum. Report of Excavations in 1915. Proc. 

Sac. Ant Land. XXVIII., 1915—16, pp. 174—184, 4 Figs. 

The Avebury Ditch. By A. D. Passmore. A7itiquaries' Journal, 
April, 1922, Vol. II., pp. 109—111. The writer suggests that the object 
of the great depth of the ditch on the S. side, 30ft., alongside the 
entrance causeway, was to obtain a level bottom all the way round, the 
ground being higher on the south than on the north side of the circle, 
and that this was done to facilitate the flooding of the whole ditch from 
the lowground leading from thelli verKennet towards the present church- 
yard, near the foot bridge leading to Trusloe Manor. There would 
be no difficulty about this, he says, as the water level was no doubt 
higher in Prehistoric days, and even now the original bottom of the 
ditch at the entrance of the Kennet Avenue is only 5ft. Sin. above the 
level of the Kennet at the bridge on the Beckhampton Road, 520 yards 
away. He suggests that as the ground level on the N. side is some 17ft. 
lower than it is on the south, the ditch on the N. side need only be 20ft. 
deep instead of 30ft. A. table of levels taken specially for Mr. Passmore 
is printed. This enticing suggestion, however, has these considerations 
against it :— the bottom of the ditch was not level, Mr. Gray's recent 
(1922) excavations showed a rise in the bottom of 6ft. from the lowest 
point nearest the causeway, in the 20ft. length of ditch excavated, and 
it was quite evident- that there was no fine silting or mud on the 
bottom of the ditch, as surely there would have been had the ditch 
ever held water for any length of time. Moreover, it has to be re- 
membered that if the ditch was ever to be kept open to anything like 
its original depth, the vast amount of chalk rubble falling from the 
exceedingly steep sides must have been very frequently cleared out, 
and this could not have been done with water in the ditch. 

Spye Park. The Wiltshire Gazette, June 15tli, 1922, reprints from The 
Sporting Magazine^ Nov., 18Q8, a detailed account copied from the 
York Herald, of the astonishing " Progress" of Colonel Thornton from 
his old home at Falcower's Hall, Yorks, to ISpye Park, a distance of 
200 miles. Packs of Staghounds, Foxhounds, Otterhounds, and 
Beagles, T'erriers, and Greyhounds, Horses, a Falconer and Falcons, 
waggon loads of Deer, Wild Boars, Fishing Cormorants, Ichneumons 
and Ferrets, and White Muscovy Ducks, and nine waggon loads of the 
finest old wines in the kingdom were some of the items in the procession, 
which, after causing a great sensation at York, eventually arrived at 
Spye Park "without the least injury." 

Roundway Park. The Old and New Mansions. 

An interesting note by H. Ivobinson appears in Wiltshire Gazette, May 
4th, 1922, describing the old house of the Willey family, of red brick 
with stone dressings, now the N. side of the quadrangle of the present 
house. The new mansion was built by James Wyatt, the architect, for 
James Sutton. The original oak staircase and plaster ceiling of the 
old entrance hall still remains in the servants' quarters. 

122 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

Wardour Castle, the Home of the Arundells. Wilt- 
shire Times, Jan. 21st, 1922. The story of the defence of the Castle by 
Lady Blanche against Sir Edward Hungerford in the Civil War is told 
at length, with photos of the exterior and interior of the Castle. 

The Old Town Hall and Blind House at Chippenham. 

There appeared in the Wiltshire Gazette, Dec. 8th, 1921, a letter from 
George A. H. White protesting against a proposal which had been 
brought forward in the Chippenham Town Council to convert the old 
Blind House beneath the Old Town Hall into a " Public Convenience." 
This protest was supported by the Editor of the Wiltshire Gazette and 
others. In the issue of the Gazette for Dec. 22nd an article was printed 
giving the history of the Old Town Hall and a very interesting repro- 
duction of a water colour drawing by W. W. W., in Mr. White's 
possession showing the building as it was before the passage along its 
side from the Shambles to the street was built up in 1865, or the clock 
removed from the gable in 1858, together with a modern photo showing 
its present position crowded in between higher buildings. 

IiOngleat, the most magnificent Country House in England. An article 
reprinted from Country Life in Wiltshire Times^ July 1st, 1922, with 
photo of the house from the air. 

Oxen at the Plough. Wiltshire Times, Jan. 14th, 1922. Quite a 
good article on the use of Oxen on the Wiltshire Downlands, in former 
times almost universal, but now practically extinct. The names of 
several farmers who continued to use them longest in the Wylye, 
La vington, Bratton, and Imber neighbourhoods, are given. Herefords, 
Shorthorns, and Devons were used in Wilts, the latter having an 
advantage over the two former, that coming from a warmer climate 
they could stand work in hot weather far better. An interesting 
account of a team of five bulls who worked in carts and waggons as 
their owner claimed better than horses, is given. 

IiOngbridge Deveiill Church. The Wiltshire Times, Nov. 
19th, 1921, notes that three helmets, a sword, a pair of gauntlets, and 
two " crowns," which hung over the arch of the Bath Chapel and were 
suflFering from rust, have been carefully cleaned and oiled, and are now 
hung in the tower where they can be well seen. 

Westbury Church Bells. The dedication of the new peal of 
bells in Westbury Church is described in Wiltshire Gazette, Nov. 3rd,' 
1921, as having taken place on Oct. 29th. The six old bells have been 
re-cast, on the ground that they were out of tune, by Taylors, of Lough- 
borough, and two new bells have been added at a cost of £1058. The 
old peal was the heaviest of any parish Church in Salisbury Diocese, 
and the new peal is heavier still. The inscriptions on the old bells, 
which have been reproduced on their successors, are given. 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 123 

Viscount Long of Wraxall. The elevation of the Rt. Hon. 

j W. H. Long to the Peerage was the occasion of a long appreciative article 
I and sketch of his career in the Wiltshire Times, May 21st, 1921, with 

a photo portrait and a reproduction of an unpublished drawing, "Mr. 

Walter Long addressing the House of Commons," by F. C. Gould. 

George Herbert, Saint, Pastor, and Poet. By Florence 

Bone. Article in The Sunday at Home, Feb., 1922, with views of 
Bemerton Church and Salisbury Cathedral, and a reproduction of 
Dyce's picture "George Herbert at Bemerton." 

Anthony "Wilkins, of Westbury, Gent., who sailed 
with Sir Walter Raleigh, 1617. Wiltshire Times, 

Dec. 24th, 1921. Anthony Wilkins was presumably on board the South- 
ampton, the ship of Captain Bailey, who deserted Sir Walter in the 
Canaries and returned to England, where Anthony Wilkins gave 
evidence before the Court of Admiralty on Nov. 12th, 1617, as to the 
doings of Captain Bailey and Sir Walter in Cork Harbour and the 
Canaries. His evidence as here reprinted, was wholly in Sir Walter's 
! favour, who was accused of piracy by Capt. Baily. 

;|Thomas Pratt, Rector of Woodborough, was in 1553 

' ! arrested by three servants of Robert Hungerford, Sheriff, and made 
to walk 14 miles to Cadenham House, where he was shut up for 10 
days, because, said the Sheriff, of his immoral life, for which he pro- 
posed to report him to the Bishop. Wiltshire Times, June 17th, 1922. 

Thomas Hobbes, of Malmesbury. A well written and amus- 
' ing article by the Rev. A. C. Holden in Wiltshire Gazette^ June 15th, 

A.n Old Time Parson, 1654—1713. By the Rev. 
Canon R. Gr, Livingstone, of Brink worth, A short 

article in The Bristol Diocesan Review, No. I., Jan., 1922, p. 
11, gives some account of Narcissus Marsh, born at Hannington, Dec. 
26th, 1638, educated at High worth, and Magdalen Hall, Oxford, 
Fellow of Exeter Coll. Oxon 1658, Vicar of Swindon, 1662. Resigning 
this living he became Provost of Trinity College, Dublin, 1678, where 
he instituted Irish lectures, services, and sermons, became Bishop of 
Ferns, and Archbishop successively of Cashel, Dublin, and Armagh. 

Littlecote. A photo of the East Front, with long letterpress account 
i of the career of the financier, Mr. Gerard Lee Bevan, the occupier of 
i the house, and the sensational collapse of the City Equitable Fire 
Insurance Company is reprinted from the Sunday Expressm Wiltshire 
y i Ti7)i€S, Feb. 18th, 1922, with the story of the Darell legend. 
It I 

Palisbury Cathedral, Chancellor Wordsworth delivered three 
lectures dealing with various matters connected with the history of the 
Cathedral, abstracts of which were printed in Salisbury Journal^ Nov. 

1.24 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

13tli, 20th, and 27th, 1920. Before 1840, when the separate prebendal 
estates were vested in the Ecclesiastical Commissioners, each Canon 
on collation to a prebendal stall, paid £b in support of the Cathedral 
library, and from 1490 all dignitaries paid in addition, on admission, 
the collation fee or " Cope money " — originally for the provision of 
copes — which apparently was paid down to 1840. The third lecture 
was on " The Canon Residentiary." After the removal from Old Sarum 
the General Rule making constant residence compulsory for all canons 
was relaxed for a term of years, during which all Canons except those 
in attendance on the King or the Bishop, were to keep at least 40 days 
residence. The attempt to induce every Canon to build a house in the 
Close for himself with accommodation for his Chaplain and Vicar 
never entirely succeeded. Possibly not more than thirteen good 
canonical houses besides the Bishop's Palace were ever built. The 
Dean had no official residence till Dean Robert Wykehampton presented 
one in 1277. The first seven Deans were all elected from among the 
Canons, but from 1309 to 1379 five Deans appointed by the King were 
all French or Italian Cardinals and non-resident. The provision by 
which the houses built by the Canons, and so their own personal 
property, became by the gradually decreasing rent paid to their repre- 
sentatives by each successive occupant, attached to the Cathedral as 
official residences, is shown at length, by the provisions made in Elias de 
Dereham's will, for the future use of " Leadenhall," which he had built 
at great cost as a pattern residence for himself. Each Canon, as well 
as the Bishop and Dean, was required to appoint and pay a competent 
Vicar Choral, either in Sub-Deacon's, Deacon's, or Priest's orders, 
according to the rank of the prebendal stall, who usually sat below his 
Canon in the second row in the choir. In consequence of the lack of 
housing accommodation it was arranged about 1320 that the 52 Canons 
should take a turn of residence for one quarter of each year. 

Salisbury Cathedral. Appeal for Repairs to the 

Spire and Ancient Glass. Wiltshire Gazette, May 25th, 
1922, contains a full report of a meeting in the Chapter House at 
which the Dean issued an appeal for ^3000, of which £1200 had already 
been spent on structural repairs to the upper part of the spire, and 
£900 was required for re-leading the ancient glass, a matter which was 
urgently necessary. 

Salisbury Cathedral Spire. The vane on the top of the spire 
made by Grist in 1762, measuring 7ft. in length, and weighing 1 cwt., 
2 qrs., 3lbs., has been removed and is not to be replaced, and in future 
the spire will be surmounted only by the Cross, as the weight of the 
vane is considered a danger. Salisbury Journal, Sept., 1921. 

Salisbury, Marriage Licenses, AD, 1668—79 (con- 
tinued). By Edmund Nevil and Reg. Boucher. Genealogist, N.S. 33 
—37. 1917 to 1921. 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 125 

Annual Report of the Salisbury, S, Wilts, and Black- 
more Museum for 1921 — 1922. Pamphlet, 8vo., pp. 16. 
The educational work undertaken by the Curator, Mr. F. Stevens, 
under the terms of the Wilkes' bequest, in the form of lectures, both 
to children and adults, and the admirable way in which that work is 
carried out, have made Salisbury Museum of late years an example 
and a pattern in this particular respect to most similar institutions in 
England. In addition to this most important work, it has at last 
been possible to expend some .£1200 of the Wilkes' bequest in building 
a boiler house, with radiators throughout the Museum, a staff room, 
lavatories, and storage cupboards, and some £329 on new cases, in 
which the fine and representative collection of pottery and porcelain 
included in the Wilkes bequest has, together with that already belonging 
to the Museum, been brought together and is now exhibited to great 
advantage in the fine circular room. A record of a most progressive 
year's work. 

Ellas de Dereham. Canon J. M. J. Fletcher, preaching in 
Salisbury Cathedral at the Commemoration of Founders and Bene- 
factors, Nov. 2nd, 1920, after touching on the work of William de 
Wanda, Dean 1220 — 1237, Edmund Rich, Treasurer, afterwards Arch- 
bishop of Canterbury, and Robert Grosseteste, afterwards Bishop of 
Lincoln, dwelt especially on the life and work of Elias de Dereham, 
architect of the Cathedral. Born dr. 1167, at West Dereham, Norf,, 
he was a close friend of Archbishop Hubert Walter, also a native of 
West Dereham, who appointed him his executor. He was also executor 
to Archbishops Stephen Langton and Richard Grant, as well as to 
Bishops Richard Poore and Peter de Blois, of Winchester. He was 
Rector of Harrow-on- the-Hill, and "King's Clerk," Canon of Wells, 
and the friend of Bishop Joscelyne, of Wells, and his brother, Bishop 
Hugh, of Lincoln, who had acted as Vice- Chancellor to the Archbishop. 
During the Interdict of 1208 he spent much time in France with the 

' two Bishops. He became Canon of Salisbury before 1220. He was 
engaged with Walter de Colchester in the construction of the famous 
Shrine of St. Thomas a Becket, at Canterbury, both of them being 
described by Matthew Paris as "incomparable artificers." Canon 
Fletcher mentions the authorities for the tradition that he was the 
architect of Salisbury, Dean Wanda, Leland, and the Close Rolls of 
1225. He is also believed to be the architect of the Great Hall of 
Winchester Castle, and probably of the West Front of Wells Cathedral, 
possibly of the Chapel of the Nine Altars at Durham. The sermon is 
printed in full in Salisbury Journal, Nov. 6th, and a large portion of 
it in Wiltshire Gazette, Nov. 25th, 1920. 

|jalisbury Mace Stand. The Salisbury Times, Aug. 18th, 1922, 
prints a good process illustration, and part of an article by L. W. C, 
from the Western Daily Press, together with notes by Mr. J. J. 
Hammond, and Alderman C. Haskins, on a fine carved wooden shield, 
which for many years was in private hands and was recently for sale 

126 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

in Salisbury for £50. Alderman Haskins tried to raise the amount by 
subscription to secure it for the city, but failing to do so, the shield 
was bought by the Rev. G. E. Quaille, who carried it off to Salisbury, 
Connecticut, U.S.A. At the top are the Royal Arms of George II., in 
the centre the City Arms, with supporters and the date 1745, and below, 
what are supposed to be the arms of the Mayor, Thomas Smith, a 
benefactor to St. Edmund's parish, " azure on a bend cotised three 
stirrups or." The actual metal holders for the mace are gone, but the 
holes where they were attached to the shield remain. It is suggested 
that it may have come from St. Edmund's Church, or, on the other 
hand, that it may have been the private property of Mayor Smith. 

Salisbury through the Ages. Abstracts of the second series 
of eight lectures given by Mr. F. Stevens, F.S.A., at the Public Library, 
Salisbury, from October, 1 920, to March, 1 921 , and the third series, given 
from October, 1921, to March, 1922, appeared in the Salisbury Journal 
after each lecture. The lectures were entitled " The Birth of the City " 
(Bishop Poore, and the formation of the Cathedral and City) ; "The 
Youth of the City" (Bishop Bingham, St. Nicholas' Hospital, Harnham 
Bridge, Simon de Montfort, the Cloisters) ; " The Manhood of the City" 
(City Defences, Gates, Streets, Market, Cross, Inns, &c.) ; " The Heart 
of the City" (Corporation, Guilds, Bishop Ayscough, Disturbances) ; 
"The Soul of the City, the Lady Church, Without" (Cathedral, Friars, 
City Parishes, Building of Spire, Campanile) ; " The Soul of the City, 
the Lady Church, Within " (Boy Bishop, Tombs, Coats of Arms, 
Religious Movements of the 14th and 15th Centuries) ; "The Story of 
the Montacutes"; "The Fall of Buckingham " (War of Roses, &c.); 
" The Dawn " (The Renaissance) ; " The Old Order Changeth " (Disso- 
lution, Growth of Corporation); "Salisbury at Work and Play" 
(Weights and Measures, Punishments, City Companies) ; "Gorges and 
Longford " (New families, Longford Castle, Bouveries) ; " The Lord 
have mercy on this house " (Plague in Salisbury, John Ivie) ; " King 
and Parliament" (Civil War); "After Worcester " (Penruddocke 
Rising, Restoration) ; " Let us now praise famous Men " (Worthies). 

Salisbury Public Library. Report on Educational 

Lectures, 1921 — 22. 8vo, pp. 7. This is the report of the 
third year's continuous course of Mr. Frank Stevens' lectures. The 
synopsis of the eight lectures on Salisbury through the Ages being 
given here fully. The total attendances, though somewhat less than 
in the preceding years, yet averaged 288 at each lecture. 

Bristol Delft Posset Pot, In the Connoisseur, Aug., \92l, W. 
227—229, is an account, with a good photograph, of a remarkable blue- 
and- white Bristol Delft Posset Pot, with a Royal Crown on the cover, 
said to have been made for James 11. on his marriage with Marie D'Este 
in 1673. It measures with the cover just over 15 inches. No names 
are mentioned, but the Posset Pot is in the possession of Mr. A. D. 
Passmore, of Swindon, who obtained it from a farmer's family who are^ 


Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 127 

known to have owned it since 1740, when it was in their possession at 

[Stouehengfe.] Ancient Legend that Stonehenge 
once stood on the Curragh of Kildare. By Lord 

Walter Fitzgerald. Journal of Kildare Archaeological Soc, IX. , No. 
2, 1918, pp. 199—200, 2 figs. 

Semington and Bradford, Weavers' Riots, 1802. 

Letters which passed between John Jones, Junior, J.P., of Woolley, 
Bradford-on-Avon, and the Home Secretary, Lord Pelliam, in 1802, 
concerning the burning of a mill at Littleton, in Semington, and other 
outrages round Bradford, are printed in Wiltshire Times, Jan. 21st, 

Weavers' Riots in West Wilts. The Proclamation by the 
Magistrates of West Wilts issued to the rioters and others, July 24th, 
1802, is printed in Wiltshire Times, Aug. 26th, 1922. 

Thomas Beaven, of Melksham, Clothier. The Wilt- 
shire Times, March 20th and May 6th, 1922, prints an account of 
curious adventures of Thomas Beaven and his son-in-law, Josiah 
Knight, merchant, of Tokenhouse Yard, in 1748. The former accepted 
the offer of the Spanish Minister of £500 a year for himself and £50 
a year for each of those he took with him, with £500 for expenses and a 
good house to live in with the free exercise of his religion for seven years 
certain, and an option of continuing or returning to England, if he 
would go to Spain and assist in the manufacture of cloth at Madrid 
just set up by the King of Spain. He seemed to have escaped from 
his creditors at Melksham with diflSculty and got safely to Spain, con- 
trary to the Act of Parliament. Further letters, &c. (1749) on his 
" most infamous scheme of betraying and seducing many artificers in 
the clothing trade into a most wicked and pernicious project of trans- 
lating this trade into Spain," are printed in Wiltshire Times, June 10th, 

The Bristol Diocesan Review, No. I., January, 1922. New 

Series, Vol. xxiv., takes the place of the Bristol Diocesan Magazine, of 
which Vol. I. was published in 1898. The first number is of 4to size, 
and contains 24 pages of varied matter, price 3c?. net. 

Trowbridge Brewers. A List of Brewers and Public Houses in 
1842 is printed in Wiltshire Times, Aug. 26th, 1922. 

Will of Penelope Hancocke, of Parley, Wilts, is printed 

in Wiltshire Times, Aug. 26th, 1922. 

The Crusaders' Church, Ansty, Wilts. Pamphlet, cr. 8vo., 

pp. 11, with view of the Church and Commandery [1921]. The Rev. 
W. Goodchild contributes four pages of notes on the Topography and 
History of Ansty. Payne de Turberville was granted Ansty temp. 

1 28 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

William Rufus ;his descendant, Walter de Turberville, gave it to the 
Knights Hospitallers in 1211, in order, suggests the writer, that King 
John's court might have the advantage of the services of the Church 
when the King was in South Wilts, during the period of the interdict, 
as the possessions of all Templars and Hospitallers were exempt from 
its effects. The existing building near the Church is probably the 
guest house of the Commandery, which acquired the chase rights in 
Ansty from Hen. III. in 1246, and additional land from Sir Thomas 
West in 1339. At the suppression Sir John Zouch bought the property 
for £30 6s. \d. In 1894 the family sold it to Mat. Arundell of War- 
dour for £3250. The Nave of the Church built by the Knights 
measures 34ft. X 12ft., the Chancel 30ft. X lift. 3in. Mr. Goodchild 
suggests that these unusual proportions indicate that the Chancel was 
intended for the sole use of the Knights and was screened off from the 
Nave, which served as the Parish Church. Until 1898 the living was a 
donative and not under the jurisdiction of the Bishop of the Diocese. 

The remaining pages contain a balance sheet, list of subscribers, and 
account of the work done at a cost of £570 in the restoration, chiefly 
in the flooring, seating, and roof. 

FigSbury Kings, or Chlorus's Camp, four miles N.E. of Salisbury, 
is described, with a plan, in the Wiltshire Gazette, Feb. 2nd, 1922. 
Large tracts of land to the E. of Old Sarum were acquired by the 
Government for the purpose of a poison-gas factory, and other lands 
right up to the rampart of the camp were commandeered, and there 
was a likelihood of the Rings also being used for military purposes. 
Sold a while ago by the syndicate known as " Winterbourne Ltd.," the 
Rings and part of the farm were bought by Messrs. Folliott & Son, of 
Salisbury. From them Mr. Arthur Whitehead, of Salisbury, bought 
the Rings, in order to prevent the site falling into hands not likely to 
preserve it. As he did not wish to keep it, Capt. B. H. Cunnington 
has recently (Jan., 1922) purchased it (about 27 acres) in a very public 
spirited way in order that its safety may be secured. Probably it will 
be excavated by Captain and Mrs. Cunnington in the future. The area 
of the camp is nearly 15 acres, the circuit of its ditch 4 furlongs, 198 
yards. A peculiar feature is the irregular ditch some distance inside 
the strong rampart. Possibly the name " Chlorus's Camp " may be due 
to Kennett's " Parochial Antiquities," which tells of Chlorus, the father 
of Constantine the Great, and of a fortification called " Chlorea," built 
by him on the downs near Sarum, and connects what he calls 
" Chlorendon " (Clarendon) with his name. 

Grittleton and Leigh Delamere. An article by the Rev. E. A. 

Gowring, Rector of Grittleton, in the Bristol Diocesan Review for 
August,! 922,describesthe beating of the bounds,and says that the bounds 
as given in a charter of King Edmund to Wulfric, A.D. 940, can be 
accurately followed at the present day. Reprinted in Wiltshire Times, 
Aug. 26th, 1922. 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 129 

The **01d Rectory" at Sutton Veny. The Wiltshire 

Gazette, Nov. 3rd, 1921, has a good article on this interesting old house 
visited by the Wilts Arch. Society in 1921, and recently restored by its 
new owners. It is curious that Hoare in Modern Wilts describes "the 
present Parsonage House " in Sutton Parva as "built out of there- 
mains of the Old Manor House" and gives particulars and measure- 
ments of the Hall, which are approximately those of the Sutton Veny 
(or Sutton Magna) house, which is not otherwise mentioned. It seems 
likely that by a slip Hoare has placed the house at " Sutton Parva " 
instead of "Sutton Magna." 

Trowbridge Couigre Pump. Joseph Slade, of Trowbridge, dr. 
1840, dug a well and erected a pump on the N. side of Lower Broad 
Street, Conigre, for the free use of the inhabitants, giving a house 
and garden, the rent of which was to be applied to the repairs of 
the pump. But the property became dilapidated and yielded no rent, 
and the water was declared unfit for drinking purposes, and in 1908 
permission was obtained to sell the property, and the £40 it brought 
was invested for the benefit of the Cottage Hospital. Wiltshire Times 
Aug. 26th, 1922. 

Great Chalfield and South Wraxall Manor Houses. 

Building News, Nov. 21st, 1917, p. 417. 1 plate. 

Bradford-on-Avon Bridge Chapel. Building News, Dec, 

12th, 1917, p. 462. 1 fig. 

The Cricklade Crosses. Architectural Review, Nov., 1919, pp. 
118—120. 5 plans, 3 elevations, 2 figs. 

The Crreen Dragon at Malmestaury. This picturesque little 

old house, standing to the east of the Market Cross, was the subject 
of some correspondence in the Wiltshire 6? a2;e^^(? in November, 1921. 
On the plea of throwing open the view of the Abbey Church from the 
street, a movement was set on foot in Malmesbury to purchase and 
demolish the old house. This Mr. J. Lee Osborn most vigorously 
protested against as a piece of useless destruction, in a letter to the 
Wiltshire Gazette, and was supported by the Editor of the paper. His 
protest apparently had the desired effect, as he was able to report in 
the issue of the Gazette for Dec. 1st that the house had been bought by 
Mrs. Elizabeth Jackson, of Malmesbury, and would be preserved in its 
present state. It contains a window which may be mediaeval. 

Sale of Books and MSS. from Rood Ashton Library. 

This sale by Messrs. Sotheby, on Nov. 24th, is noted at some length in 
the Wiltshire Gazette, Dec. 1st, 1921. One hundred and ninety five 
lots brought a total of £1898. The highest price paid was £185, for an 
illuminated Book of Hours, French of the 15th century. The 1st and 
only 4to edition of Shakespeare's "Taming of the Shrew," of 1631, 
came next at £100. 


130 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

Tetburyand Malmesbury, Annual Meeting of Bristol 
and Crloucestershire Archaeologioal Society at, 
July 18th, 19th, and 20th, 1922. Programme. 

8vo, pp. 31. Malmesbury, Charlton House, Lacock, Avebury, 
Cricklade, and Ingleshain are the Wiltshire places visited, on which 
there are notes, with the following illustrations : — Malmesbury Abbey, 
interior, S. side of Nave, and folding Plan ; Lacock, Tithe Barn, Abbey 
Cloisters, and folding Plan ; Avebury Stones, Restored Plan of Circles, 
and Manor House, South Front ; Cricklade Cross ; Inglesham Church, 
interior (all good except the last). 

Hedge-side Chance-Blades (gathered in Wiltshire), 

by M. K. Swayne Edwards, A series of thirteen articles in 
the Wiltshire Gazette, May 25th ; June 1st, 8th, 15th, 22nd, 29th ; July 
6th, 13th, 20th, 27th ; Aug. 3rd, 24th, 31st. 

The writer, staying apparently at or near Pickwick, and afterwards in 
the Salisbury country, explores the neighbourhood on her bicycle and 
jots down impressions of trees, flowers, skies, views. Churches, houses, 
and barns. Corsham, Box, Chippenham, Castle Combe, Yatton Keynell, 
Kington St. Michael, Malmesbury, Edington, Salisbury Plain, The 
Wylye Valley, Berwick St. James, and Salisbury Cathedral are touched 

She has a real love of Wiltshire, its lanes and its downs, and shows 
it as a pleasant country to wander in. 

Wesley in Wiltshire. Address by Rev. F. Senior, Circuit Minister, 
at Devizes. Wiltshire Gazette, Oct. 6th, 1921, ij cols. Gives some 
account of Wesley's preaching at Bradford, Melksham, and Devizes, 
and of the history of Seend Wesleyan Chapel. 

Wiltshire Ministers, 1818 — 19. Notes on various Non- 
conformist Ministers of this period are printed in Wiltshire Times, 
J n ne 10th, 1 922, including more especially the Rev. Adam Stumphousen , 
of Clack, and the Piev. Edward Spencer, Hector of Wingfield. 

An Old Wiltshire Tale^ An Orchard and a Brook. 

A Story of Southwick Court. By F. IT. G. in Wiltshire 
Times. Has some local colour and decent dialect. 

Wiltshire Dialect. Translations into Wiltshire Dialect, from the 
Satires, Odes, and Epistles of Horace, by F. M. Willis, appeared in 
The Oxford Magazine, Nov. 10th, 1921 ; Feb. 9th, March 9th, May 
11th, and June 22nd, 1922. 

The Early Years of Stage Coaching on the Bath 

Road. By W. A. Webb, Wiltshire Gazette, June 23rd, 1921. 

Stage coaches to Salisbury, and to Bath and Bristol, starting from 
the George Inn, Holborn, and from the George Inn, Aldersgate Street, 
are advertised in the London newspapers of April and May, 1658. The 

Wiltshire Books, Pam'phlets, and Articles. 131 

coaches for Bath and Bristol leave every Monday and Thursday, fare 
20/-. The route was at first via Shepherds' Shore, Sandy Lane (where 
travellers halted for a meal), Lacock, and Corsham. In 1667 Flying 
Machines from the Belle Savage, Ludgate Hill, to the White Lion, 
Bath, are announced, the journey occupying three days. In 1681 De 
• Laune's List of Stage Coaches mentions five different coaches running 
from liondon to Bath, generally twice a vv^eek, in addition to the carrier ; 
while the edition of 1690 (" Present State of London ") mentions 
Wagons for Devizes and Chippenham respectively. "A step to the 
Bath," by Ned Ward, cir. 1700, gives a burlesque description of a stage 
coach journey to Bath via Sandy Lane. List of coaches from contem- 
porary publications are given for 1717, 1722, 1724, and onwards to 
I7n0. Apparently the coaches were diverted from the Shepherds' Shore 
and Sandy Lane route about 1746. A very useful article, to which are 
added some notes as to the names and numbers of coaches running 
through Marlborough in 1828 and later. 

Old Wiltshire Roads. The Wiltshire Gazette, July 28th, Sept. 
8th, and 28th, contains letters on this subject from Mr. Ed. Kite, Mr. 
O. G. S. Crawford, and the Rev. A. C. Holden. The old disused road 
from Shepherds' Shore crossing Roundway Down to Netherstreet and 
thence by Sandy Lane, Lacock, and Corsham to Bath and Bristol was 
the London-to-Bath Road followed by the stage coaches down to the 
middle of the 18th century, though the carriers and horsemen always 
went by Cherhill and Calne. The Netherstreet road was disused after 
the passing of the acts "for repairing the highways between Shepherds' 
Shord and the Devizes" about that time. Mr. Kite, however, quotes 
several bequests of the 14th and 1.5th century for the repair of the 
Chippenham, Calne, and Cherhill road, which was the main road from 
London to Bristol during the middle ages. Mr. Crawford traces the 
course of the old road : " South of the Church at Sandy Lane the old 
road passed through the grounds of Wans House, where it may still 
be seen as a broad hollow lane, grass grown, with old trees still grow- 
ing by its side. This bit of old road, half-a-mile long, passed to the 
east of the modern road, which joins it again at the cross roads at the 
southern corner of the park. From here to a point south of St. Edith's 
Marsh and the third milestone from Devizes, the modern road probably 
follows the same course as the ancient; but at the north point of the 
park of Rowdeford House, where the modern road swerves to the S.E. 
round the park to Rowde, the old road followed the footpath which 
now survives as a short cut. 

I [Woodford]. An article in Co-mtz^H/ Zv/^, Aug. 12th, 1922. "Trout 
\ Fishing with Nymphs," by "George Southcote" [Major-Gen. Sir 

George Aston, K.C.B.] describes the fishing from the garden of Court 
House, Woodford, though the locality is not named. 

Mostly about Trout. By Sir George Aston (George Southcote). 
London : George Allen & Unwin, Ltd., Ruskin House, 40, Museum 
Street, W.C. 1 [1921]. 

K 2 

132 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

Cloth, demy 8vo, 8in. X 5in., pp. 223. Many of these articles are 
reprinted from Cornhill Mag., Nineteenth Century, Country Life, Pall 
Mall Gazette, John 0' London's Weekly, The Englishman^ and The 
Liverpool Courier. 

"February Fill Dyke," "A Wiltshire Water Meadow," "The First 
Dry Fly Day," "A Week-end in Wiltshire," " A May Fly Day," "A 
Fisherman's Fall," are, though no names are mentioned, concerned 
■with fishing experiences on the Salisbury Avon in the Woodford 

Catalogue of Armour from Wilton House, Including 
, . . the Historic Harness made by Jacob the 
Armourer for Henry Herbert, second Earl of 
Pembroke . . , sold by Sotheby , . . 23rd 
June, 1921. 

Hoyal 8vo, pp. 3 unpaged + 36. Eight fine photo plates of armour, 
one folding. 

" The collection of larmour at Wilton House is not a product of 
modern times, for none of its owners during the nineteenth century 
was a collector. It was bought for use, during the sixteenth century 
and the first part of the seventeenth, and it has been preserved there 
ever since." " The collection contains some pieces of peculiar interest 
to experts. The curious suit (Lot 40) with arms composed of narrow 
metal slats set widely apart, between which the wearer's coat sleeve 
was exposed, cannot easily be paralleled. . . . More important is 
the fine suit with extra pieces and equestrian armour (Lot 117); the 
anime, or splinted breastplate, is a rare type, as Mr. Kelly has shown 
in his article in The Burlington Magazine (Jan., 1919), while it is sel- 
dom indeed that so fine a suit of armour for man and horse is found so 
nearly complete. But without doubt the chief attraction of the 
Catalogue is the suit made by Jacob the Armourer for Henry Herbert 
second Earl of Pembroke, and it is no exaggeration to claim that for 
English and American collectors this suit may take rank with the most 
important in existence." . . . 'I'his famous suit (Lot 118) sold for 
^25,000, it is beautifully illustrated by four fine photographic plates, 
as well as a plate of the drawing of the suit which occurs in the album 
of its maker, Jacob the Armourer, now in the Victoria and Albert 
Museum. There is also a plate (folding) of the equestrian armour, 
and two other plates. Tha total realised by the sale was £'35,920 5s. 

A beautiful catalogue, with very full descriptions of the diflTerent 


Catalogue of Important Works of Art, including* 

Armour and Weapons, the property cf the Earl 

of Pembroke and Montgomery. . . Sotheby, 

Wilkinson, & Hodge. . . March 3rd, 1922 

Hoyal 8vo. The I'embroke portion consists of 57 lots of armour, the 
same as that ojffered for sale in 1921 which did not then reach the re- 
serve price, pp 3— 1(K 


Additions to Museum and Library. 133 

[Wilton Armour] Two Historic Armour Sales. By 

Charles ffoulkes (with Breadalbane Collection). Burlington Mag.^ 
July, 1917. pp. 38—42. 1 plate. 

[Wilton House Drawing^s] Accessions from the 

Wilton House Sale. By E. H. R., Museum of Fine Arts 
Bulletin [U.S.A.], Dec, 1917. pp. 73—75. 4 figs. 


Presented by Dr. Clay: Roman bronze spring brooch, from Stockton 

„ „ Capt. Cunnington : Pair of pattens, candle guard, gaufering 

irons, curious padlock. 
„ „ H. M . Prison Commissioners : Old clock from Devizes Prison. 

,, ,5 Col. J. A. Southey :; Earthenware vessel from Bishopstrov^. 

,, ,, Mr. E. C Gardner : Iron " Barley Chumper," from Beck- 

hampton Farm, used until 1890 for getting rid of the awns 

from hand-threshed barley. 
,, ,, The Executors of the late H. E. Medlicott: Wiltshire 

specimens of Stone Curlew and Merlin. Ancient stone 

., ,, Messrs. W. E. Free & Sons: Cinerary Bronze Age urn 

found at Knowle Gravel Pit, 1922. 
,, ,, Capt. James Sadler: Officer's uniform of Wilts Yeomanry 

of fifty years ago, and case specially made to exhibit it. 
,, ,, Rev. J. W. R. Brocklebank : Flint scrapers. 

,, ,, Rev. S. Firman: A mediaeval copper cross, 14gin. long 

found many years ago near the Church at Cherhill. 

I Library, 

|Presentediby The Executors of the late H. E. Medlicott, in accord- 
ance with his wishes : " The Autobiography of T. A. 
Methuen, Hector of All Cannings." "In a Wiltshire 
Valley." Isaac Taylor's " Words and Places." *' The Life 
of the Fields," by R. Jefferies. " Catalogue of the Library 
at Erlestoke Park," privately printed. " Ornithological 
Dictionary of British Birds," by Geo. Montagu, 1802 
" Paterson's Boads," 1822. Wilts Constabulary, Standing 
Orders. " Potterne," Canon Jones' History, with many 
additions and MS. notes by H. E. Medlicott. MS. notes 
on Alton Barnes and Potterne by Canon W. H. Jones. A 
large number of Wiltshire pamphlets, prints, cuttings, 
catalogues, &c., &c. Poems by H. A. Methuen. 

134 Additions to Museum and Library. 

Presented by The Maequis of Lansdowne : A large collection of original 

deeds and documents relating to the Manor of Calne and 

Calstone or the " Hundred of Calne," with Court Books 

from cir. 1650- 
„ „ Mr. H. W. Dartnell : "The House that Baby built," by 

Rev. H. VV. Pullen. 1874. Illustrations and cuttings. 

Elias de Derham, by W. Done Bushell. Wilts Pamphlets. 
„ „ The Author, Mrs. M. E. Cunnington : " Notes on Objects 

from an Inhabited Site on the Worms Head, Glamorgan." 

1920. "A Village Site of the Hallstatt Period in Wiltshire." 

1922. " A Note on some Brooches from Wiltshire. 1921. 
„ „ The Author, the Rev. H. C O. Kendall: "Eoliths, 

their Origin and Age. " 1 92 1 . 
„ „ The Author, Mr. F. M. Willis: Satires of Horace in the 

Wiltshire Dialect, from the Oxford Magazine. 
„ „ The Author, Mr. J. Lee Osborn : " Chippenham an 

Ancient Saxon Town, its surroundings and Associations." 

„ „ The Author, Mr. W. Whitaker : " List of Works on the 

Geology, Mineralogy, and Palaeontology of the Hampshire 

Basin." 1873. 
„ „ Mr. J. Watson Taylor : Sketch by Canon Jackson of the 

incised " inscription" at Stonehenge. 
„ „ The Author, Rev. H. C. Brooks: " Church of All Saints, ! 

at Westbury under the Plain." 1921. 
„ „ The Author, Mrs. Atkinson Ward, of Bradford-on-Avon : 

" Fay Inchfaun," five vols, of her works. 
,, ,, Mr. a. Schomberg : An accurate typed copy of the MS. 

(now in the British Museum), "The Stokes of Seen 

Churche." Five Wiltshire pamphlets. 
„ „ The Publisher, Mr. R. Scott: " Wanderings in Wessex."j 

,, ,, Viscount Long of Wraxall : "A Memoir of Brigadier 

General Walter Long, C.M.G., D.S.O. Printed for privatej 

circulation." 1921. 
,, „ The Author, Miss F. E. Baker: Testing Paint and 

Pigments for Colour Permanence, horn. Proceedings of thel 

Paint and Varnish Society, 1920 — 21. ] 

„ „ The Author, Mr. E, H.Stone: The series of articles from. 

the Wiltshire Gazette on " The Age of Stonehenge deduced; 

from Archseological considerations." Mounted in volume, 

" The Age of Stonehenge deduced from the Orientation oi 

its axis," Nineteenth Century, J Sin., 1921. "Stonehenge 

Notes on the Midsummer Sunrise." Man, Aug., 1922. i 
„ „ Rev. Chancellor Wordsworth : " Proceedings at thel 

Enthronement of the Bishop of Salisbury, 21st Dec, 1921,'! 

" A List showing the order of the Canons' Stalls in the 


Additions to Museum and Library. 135 

Presented by The Authoe, Mr. A. D. Passmore, F.R.A.I. : "Hammer- 
stones" [1920]. Typed report of Devil's Den, with plan 
and many photos of the work in progress. 4to. "The 
Avebury Ditch." Reprinted from The Antiquaries' Journal y 
1922. Many photographs of Wiltshire antiquities. 

,, ,, Rev. E. H. Goddaed : Wilts pamphlets, cuttings, illus- 

trations, &c. Salisbury Diocesan Gazette. Salisbury 
Diocesan Year Book. Sarum Almanack. "Ancient 
Highways and Tracks of Wiltshire, &c.," by G. B. Grundy. 

„ „ Mr. Dixon : Old Wilts Deed, with Great Seal. 

„ „ Mr. J. J. Slade : 24 Wilts Sale Catalogues. Drawing of 

head of effigy found at MonktonFarleigh. Lord Sidmouth, 
Life and Times, from Blackwood's Mag., 1847. 

„ „ Mr. a. W. Marks: 15 old Wilts Deeds. 

„ „ The Author, Mr. Maurice Hewlett : " Wiltshire Essays." 


„ „ The Maker, The Rev. H. Neville Hutchinson: Two 

Photos of a Model of Stonehenge restored, scale joc ^^^ 
in use at the British Museum. 

„ „ Capt. B. H. Cunnington : Devizes Almanack. Sketches 

done for charity by Charlesana Postuma Penruddocke. 
Official Guide to Devizes. Wilts Pamphlets. 3 Vols. 
Surtees Society " The Family Memoirs of the Rev. 
William Stukeley, &c." 

„ „ Mr. F. Stevens, F.S.A. : Annual Report of the Salisbury 

Museum, 1921—22. 

„ „ The Author, Mr. H. C. Brentnall : "Lucy's Official 

Borough Guide to Marlborough," 1922. 

„ „ The Corporation of Swindon : " Swindon's War Record." 

4to. 1922. 

„ „ The Author, Mr. H. St. George Gray : Report on the 

Avebury Excavations, 1922. 

„ „ Rev. C V. Goddard : Salisbury Journal. 

„ „ Canon Knubley : Two Wiltshire Photograph Groups. 

„ „ Mr. W, Heward Bell : Recent numbers of the Geological 


„ „ The Author, Mr. Alfred Williams : " Round about the 

Upper Thames." 1922. 


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Any Member whose name or address is incorrectly printed in this List is 
requested to communicate with the Financial Secretary. 


Srcljaeological anti i^atural fgistorg Societs. 

DECEMBER, 1922. 

Patron : 
The Most Hon. The Maequis op Lansdowne, K.G. 

President : 
W. Heward Bell, Esq., F.G.S., F.S.A. 

Vice-Presidents : 

The Most Hon. the Marquis of f The Right Rev. Bishop G. Forrest 
Bath Browne, F.S.A. 

Trustees : 

The Most Hon. The Marquis of 

Lansdowne, K.G. 
The Most Hon. The Marquis of 


The Right Hon. Lord Round way 
W. Heward Bell,Esq.,F.G.S.,F.S. A. 
G. P. Fuller, Esq. 

The Committee consists of the following Members^ in addition to the 
Honorary Officers of the Society : 

J. I. Bowes, Esq., Devizes 
Mrs. B. H. Cunnington, Devizes 
O. G. S. Crawford, Esq., Ordnance 

Survey ^ Southampton 
Canon E. P. Knubley, Steeple 

Ashton Vicarage, Trowbridge 
The Right Hon. the Earl of Kerry, 

20^ Mansfield Street, London, W.l 

A. D, Passmore, Esq., Wood Streety 

J, Sadler, Esq., lO, WoodvilleRoad^ 

Ealing, London, W. 5 
E. H. Stone, Esq., The Retreat, 

G. S. A. Waylen, Esq., Long Street, 


Hon. General Secretary and Librarian : 
Rev. E. H. Goddard, Clyffe Pypard Vicarage, Swindon 

Honorary Curator of the Museum, and Meeting Secretary 
B. H. Cunnington, Esq., F.S.A., (Scot.), Devizes 

List of Members. 141 

Honorary Local Secretaries : 

Dr. R. C. Clay, Fovant Manor^ 

R. S. Ferguson, Esq., Elm Grove, 

John D. Crosfield, Esq., Durley 
House, Savernake Forest, Marl- 
borough [Cor sham 

F. H. Goldney, Esq., Beechfield, 

Rev. H. E. Ketchley, Biddestone 

Rectory, Chippenham 
Rev. Canon F. H. Manley, Great 

Somerford, Chippenham 
Arthur Schomberg, Esq., Seend^ 

Frank Stevens, Esq., F.S.A., 

The Museum, Salisbury 

Hon. Treasurer : 
The Right Hon, Lord Roundway, Roundway Parh, Devizes 

Honorary Auditors: 
G. S, A. Waylen, Esq., Devizes 
W. M. Hopkins, Esq., Devizes 

Financial Secretary : 
Mr. David Owen, F.C.A., Rank Chambers, Devizes 

List of Societies &c., in Union with the 
Wiltshire Archxological and Natural History Society 

For iyiterchange of Publications^ Sfc. 

Society of Antiquaries of London. 
Royal Archaeological Institute of Great Britain and Ireland. 
British Archseological Association. 
Society of Antiquaries of Scotland. 
Royal Society of Antiquaries of Ireland. 
Kent Archseological Society. 
Somerset Archaeological Society. 
Essex Field Club. 
Hampshire Field Club. 
Bristol and Gloucestershire Archaeological Society. 
Herts Natural History Society and Field Club. 
Powysland Club. 
East Riding Antiquarian Society, Yorks. 
East Herts Archaeological Society. 
Cotteswold Naturalists Field Club. 
United States Geological Survey. 
Bureau of Ethnology, Washington, D.C., LTnited States. 
Dorset Natural History and Antiquarian Field Club. 
Surrey Archaeological Society. 
Society of Antiquaries of Newcastle-on-Tyne. 
Lancashire and Cheshire Antiquarian Society. 
Carmarthenshire Antiquarian Society. 


List of Members. 


Life Members : 

Antrobus, Lady, Shiremarks, 
Capel, Surrey 

Bath, The Most Hon. The Mar- 
quis of, Longleat, Warminster 

Crewe,The Most Hon.The Marquis 
of, K.G., Crewe Hall, Crewe 

Fitzmaurice, The Rt. Hon. Lord, 
Leigh, Bradford-on-Avon 

Kidston, G., 19, St. James' Square, 
London, S.W. 1 

Lansdowne, The Most Hon. The 
Marquis of, Bowood, Calne 

Pembroke & Montgomery, The 
Right Hon. The Earl of, Wilton 
House, Salisbury 

Penruddocke, C, Compton Park, 

Radnor, The Right Hon. The Earl 
of, Longford Castle, Salisbury 

Walmesley, John, Lucknam, Chip- 

Wordsworth, Rev. Chancellor, St. 
Nicholas' Hospital, Salisbury 

Annual Siibscrihers. : 

a Court, Captain The Hon. Holmes, 
R N., Bishopstrow, Warminster 

Adderley Library, Librarian of, 
The College, Marlborough 

Adye, Mrs. W. J. A., St. Mar- 
garet's, Bradford-on-Avon 

Ailesbury, The Most Hon. The 
Marquis of, Savernake Forest, 

Antrobus, Sir Cosmo, Bart., Ames- 
bury Abbey, Amesbury, Salis- 

Amos, The Rev. A., Neston Vicar- 
age, Corsham 

Arkell, Mrs., Redlands Court, 

Armin, F. G. H., 17, Market Place, 

Armour, G. Denholm, Corsham, 

Aston, Major-General Sir George, 
K.C.B., Court House, Wood- 
ford, Salisbury 

Avebury, The Right Hon. Lord, 
15, Lombard Street, London, 
E.G. 3 

Awdry, Mrs. C. S., Hitchambury, 

Awdry, Major R. W., Little Chev- 
erell, Devizes 

Aylward, Percy D., Wilton, Salis- 

Baker, Miss F. E., 91, Brown 
Street, Salisbury 

Baker, Kington, Crossways, Kes- 
ton, Kent 

Baker-Stallard-Penoyre, Mrs., a 
Becketts House, Tinhead, West- 

Barrett, W. H., 76, Marshfield 

Road, Chippenham 
Bath Corporation Library, Bath 
Bell, W. Heward, F.G S., F.S.A., 

Cleeve House, Seend, ]\lelksham. 
Bell, Lt.-Col. W. C. Heward, 

R.F.A., M.P., Junior Carlton 

Club, London 
Bethell, S., West View, Quemer- 

ford, Calne 
Bird, Herbert, Trowle Cottage, 

Bird, W. R., 125, Goddard Avenue, 

Birmingham Free Libraries, Rat- 

cliflfe Place, Birmingham 
Blackmore, Dr. H. P., Vale House, 

Blackwell, Miss A. E., Tyssul 

House, New Road, Llandilo, 

Blease, H. F., Snellbrook, Staver- 

ton, Trowbridge 
Bodington, Ven. Archdeacon, The 

Vicarage, Calne 
Bourne, Rev. Canon G. H., D.C.L., 

St. Edmund's College,Salisbury, 
Bouverie, E. O. P., F.S.A., The! 

Old House, Market Lavington,) 

Bouverie, Miss A. Pleydell, The 

Old House, Market Lavington. 

Bowes, J. I., Devizes 
Bowes, W. H. B., Elham, Nr. 

Canterbury, Kent 
Bown, W. L., Enderly, Clarendon, 

Bradford, Miss M. M., St. Amands 

Adderbury, Banbury, Oxon. 

List of Members. 


Brassey, Lt -Col. Edgar, Dauntsey 
Park, Chippenham. 

Brentnall, H. C, Granham West, 

Briggs, Admiral Sir C. J., K.C.B., 
Biddestone, Chippenham 

Bright, J. A., Christian Malford, 

Bright, .VI rs. J. A., Christian Mal- 
ford, Chippenham 

Brocklebank, Rev. J. W. R., liOng- 
bridge Deverill, Warminster 

Brooke, J. W., Rosslyn, iVIarl- 

Brooke, W. de Leighton, Sand- 
field, Potterne, Devizes 

Brooke, Mrs. de Leighton, Sand- 
field, Potterne, Devizes 

= Bucknill, Mrs. L. M., Cricklade, 

; Wilts 

; Burgess, Rev. C. F., Easton Grey 
' Vicarage, Malmesbury 

Bury, The Rev. Ernest, All Saints' 
i Vicarage, Branksome Park, 

Rush, J. E., The Cabin, Melksham 

Bush, T. S., 20, Camden Crescent, 
i Bath 

Buxton, Gerard, J., Tockenham 

' Manor, Swindon 

Oaillard, Sir Vincent H. P., Wing- 
field House, Trowbridge 

Calderwood, J. L., Wroughton, 

Galley, Major-General T. C. P., 
C.B., M.V.O., Burderop Park, 

jCalne Public Library, Calne, Wilts. 

jGanner, Rev. J. T, Chitterne 

I Vicarage, Codford, Wilts 

Canning, Col. A., Restrop House, 
Purton, Wilts 

Carter, C. C, The College, Marl- 

^ary, Lt.-Commr. Henry, R.N., 

Newton House, Rowde, Devizes 

Jattarns, R., Great Somerford, 

Jhicago University General Li- 
brary, per Messrs. B. F. Stevens 
& Ikown, 1, Trafalgar Square, 
W.C. 2 

liivers, Giles, 9, York Terrace, 
'Imbb, Sir C. H. E., Bart., Silver- 
lands, Chertsey 

Clapham, Capt. J. T., 3, Home- 
field Road, WimbledonCommon, 
London, S.VV., 19 
Clarke, The Rev. A. H. T., The 

Rectory, Devizes 
Clarke, Rev. C. P. S., Donhead 

St. Andrew Rectory, Salisbury 
Clark- Maxwell, Rev. Preb. W. G., 
St. Leonard's Rectory, Bridg- 
Clay, Dr. R. C. C, Manor House, 

Fovant, Salisbury 
Clifton, The Rt. Rev. the Lord 
Bishop of, St. Ambrose, Leigh 
Woods, Bristol 
Codrington, A. E. W., Manor 

Cottage, Wroughton, Swindon 
Codrington, Mrs. Edward, Manor 

Cottage, Wroughton, Swindon 
Codrington, Commander C. A., 
R.N., Wroughton House, Swin- 
Cole, Clem, Calne, Wilts 
Cole, Dr. S. J., Campfield, Devizes 
Colville, H. K., The Lodge, Hil- 

marton, Calne 
Congress, Library of, Washington, 
]).C., U.S.A., per Messrs. E. G. 
Allen & Son, Ltd., 12 and 
14, Grape Street, Shaftesbury 
Avenue, London, W.C. 2. 
Cook, A., Southcot Lodge, Pewsey, 

Cooke, W. L., Keevil, Trowbridge 
Cooke, Mrs., Keevil, Trowbridge 
Cooper, Mrs., King's Legh, 191, 
Willesden Lane, Brondesbury, 
N.W. 6. [Devizes 

Coward, Ed ward,Southgate House, 
Coward, Mrs., Southgate House, 

Cowie, D. W. G., The Old Vicar- 
age, Sutton Veny, Warminster 
Cox, Alfred, 429, Strand, London, 

W.C. 2. 
Cox, E. Richardson, South Wrax- 

all .Manor, Bradford- on -A von 
Crawford, O. G. S., F S.A , Ord- 
nance Survey, Southampton 
Crosfield, John D., Durley House, 
Savernake Forest, Marlborough 
Cunnington, B. H., F.S.A. (Scot.), 

33, Long Street, Devizes 
Cunnington, Mrs. B. H., 33, Long 

Street, Devizes 
Currie, I^ady, Upham House, Aid- 
bourne, Wilts 


List of Members. 

Curtis, Miss E, J., Havering 
House, Milton, Marlborough 

D'Almaine, H. G. W., F.S.A., 
Abingdon, Berks 

Dartnell, H. W., " Abbotsfield," 
Park Lane, Salisbury 

Davys, Rev. S. D. M., Urchfont 
Vicarage, Devizes 

Day, H., 57, Ashford Road, 

Dent, J. E., 22, Portway, War- 

Dixon, Kobert, Pewsey, Wilts 

Dunkin, The Rev. H., Patney 
Rectory, Devizes 

Dunne, A. M., The Highlands, 

Dunsterville, Col. K. S., 12, Oak- 
wood Court, Kensington, W. 14 

Edwards, W. C, 3, Victoria Road, 

Clapham Common, S.VV. 4 
Engleheart, Rev. G. H., F.S.A., 

Dinton, Salisbury 
Everett, C. R., The Hawthorns, 

Market Lavington, Wilts 
Ewart, W. H. Lee, Broadleas, 


Farquharson, Mrs. ,Til.shead Lodge, 

via Salisbury 
Farrer, Percy, F.S.A., Westfield, 

Mullen's Pond, Andover, Hants 
Fass, F G., Broughton Giflford, 

Ferguson, R. S., M.B., CM., Elm 

Grove, Calne 
Finlay, The Hon. Wm., Fairway, 

Great Bedwyn, Hungerford 
Fletcher, IJev. Canon J. M. J., 25, 

The Close, Salisbury 
Float, Miss L. C, The Secondary 

School, Devizes 
Flower, C. T., 2, Lammas Park 

Gardens, Ealing, London, W . 5 
Fowle, Rev. J. S., Hardenhuish 

llectory, (-hippenham 
Eraser, J. Alex, North clifie, Tet- 

bury Hoad, Malmesbury 
Freeman, (t. H., 9, Alexandra 

lioad, Kingston Hill, Surrey 
Fuller, G. P., Neston Park, 

Fuller, W. F,, Great Chalfield, 

.Melksham [Devizes 

Fuller, Rev. W., 14, Victoria Road, 

Gardner, E. C, Lloyds Bank, Ltd. 

(Capital & Counties Branch), 

Garnett, C, Greathouse, Chip- 
Gardner, Eric, F.S.A., Patmore 

House, Weybridge 
George, Reuben, 132, Goddard 

Avenue, Swindon 
Gilbert, J. C, High Street, 

Gladstone, John E., Bowden Park, 

Glanely, The Right Hon. Lord, 

Lackham House, Lacock, Wilts 
Glanfield, Rev. Edgar, Imber 

Vicarage, Warminster 
Goddard, Rev. E. H., ClyflFe 

Vicarage, Swindon 
Goddard, Mrs. E. H., Clyffe Vic- 
arage, Swindon 
Goddard, F. Pleydell, The Lawn, 

Godman, G. W., Wedhampton 

Cottage, Devizes 
Godsal, W., Haynes Hall, Twy- 

ford, Berks 
Godwin, Miss J. D., Moxhams 

Bradford- on- Avon 
Goldney, F. H., Beechfield, Cor 

sham, Wilts 
Goldney, Sir Prior, Bart.,Derriads| 

Goldsbrough, Rev. Albert, Burleyi 

in Wharf edale, Leeds 
Goodchild, Rev. W., Berwick S 

John Rectory, Salisbury 
Gore, C. H., F.G.S., 69, Eastco 

Hill, Swindon 
Gough, W., Nore Marsh, Woottoi 

Gowring, The Rev. E. A., Grittl 

ton Rectory, Chippenham 
G.W.R. Mechanics' Instituti 

Greenstreet, The Rev. L, 

Cotnpton Bassett Rectory, Cal 
Greville, The Hon. Louis, Hei 

House, Woodford, Salisbury 
Gundry, R S., C.B., Hillwor 

Cottage, Devizes 
Gwatkin, R. G., Manor Houi 

Potterne, Devizes 
Gwillim, E. LI., Marlborough 

Hammond, L. O., Cricklade, Wi 
Hankey, Basil, Manor Hou| 

List of Members. 


Stanton St. Quintin, Chippen- 
Hankey, Lt.-(Jol. S., Greenways, 

Hansard, J, H , Stanbridge Earls, 

Komsey, Hants 
Harding, A., Little Chalfield 

House, Melksham 
Harding, Miss W., Little Chalfield 

House, Melksham 
Harring, R. M., 22, Roundstone 

Street, Trowbridge 
Harris, Rev. C., Garsdon Rectory, 

Harrison, Rev. A. H., Lydiard 

Tregoze Rectory, Swindon 
Harrison, Mrs., Lydiard Tregoze 

Rectory, Swindon 
Harrison, Rev. D. P., Lydiard 

Millicent Rectory, Swindon 
Harrison, Rev. R. B., Purton, 

Hawley, Lieutenant-Col. Wm., 

F.S.A., Stonehenge, Amesbury, 

Head, A., 67, Goddard Avenue, 

Heneage, Claud W., 5, Egerton 

Mansions, London, S.W. 3 
Herbert, Major The Hon. G., 

Knoyle House, Salisbury 
Heseltine, Lieut-Col., J. E. N. 
Heytesbury, Col. Lord, The Green 

House, Crockerton, Warminster 
Hewlett, Maurice, Old Rectory, 

Broad Chalke, Salisbury 
Hoare, Sir Henry H. A., Bart., 

Stourhead, Bath 
Hobhouse, Rt. Hon. Sir C. E. H., 
I Bart., Monkton Farleigh, Brad- 

jHolloway, Mrs., The Manor, West 
I Lavington, Wilts 
jHookham, C., Furze Hill, Broad - 

way, Worcestershire 
pookham, Mrs. F., Furze Hill, 

Broadway, Worcestershire 
jHope, Major Cecil A., The Dial 

House, Lavington, Wilts 
iopkins, W. M., Lloyds Bank, 

Ltd., Devizes 

iornby, C H. St. John, Porch 

House, Potterne, Devizes 
|lowlden, H. Linley, Old Manor 
House, Freshford, Somerset 

iudson, Mrs. Gertrude, Park 
Lane, Salisbury 


Hurst, The Rev. R. C, The Vic- 
arage, Corsham 

Ilott, The Rev. Percy, Stanton 

Fitzwarren Rectory, Highworth, 

Impey, Edward, The Manor, 

Steeple Ashton, Trowbridge 
Islington, The Right Hon. Lord, 

Rushbrooke Hall, Bury St. 

Edmunds, Suffolk 

Jackson, J. T., Eastcroft House, 

James, Warwick, F.R.C.S., O.B.E., 
2, Park Crescent, Portland Place, 
London, W. 1 

Jenner, Lieut.-Col. L. C. D., 
C.M.G., D.S.O., The Manor 
House, Avebury, Marlborough 

John liylands Library, Man- 

Johnson, Rev. Beaumont, Sedge- 
hill Vicarage, Shaftesbury 

Johnson - Ferguson, Major A., 
Luckington Court, Chippenham 

Jones, The Rev. E Hhys, Ames- 
bury Vicarage, Salisbury 

Jones, Captain F., Seend, Melk- 

Jones, Rev. F. Meyrick, Mere, 

Jones, Walter H., M.A., Morgan 

. Hall, Fairford, Glos. 

Jupe, Miss, The Old House, Mere, 

Keir, W. Ingram, F.R.CSE., 

Combe Down, Bath 
Kelly, C'ol. C. R., Army and Navy 

Club, Pall Mall, London, S.W. 1 
Kerry, The Rt. Hon. The Earl of, 

20, Mansfield Street, London, 

W. 1 
Ketchley, Rev. H. E., Biddestone 

Rectory, Chippenham 
Klein, W. G., 24, Belsize Park, 

London, N.W. 3 
Knight, C. M., 7, Marlborough 

Buildings, Bath 
Knubley, Rev. Canon E. P., The 

Vicarage, Steeple Ashton, Trow- 

Lake, Richard, Kestrels, Easter- 
ton, Wilts 



List of Members, 

Lambert, Uvedale, F.R.Hist.S., 

South Park Farm, Bletchingley, 

Lansdown, C. M., "Montrose," 

Lansdown, George, " Sholebroke," 

Wingfield Road, Trowbridge 
Latham, Miss, Bushton Manor, 

Clyffe Pypard, Swindon 
Laverton, W. H., Leighton, West- 

Lawrence, W. F., Cowesfield, 

Leaf, Mrs. Herbert, The Green, 

Lethbridge, Kev. H. C. B., South- 
broom Vicarage, Devizes 
Lindsell, Mrs. M. E., Chiseldon 

Camp, Wilts 
Lister, E. C., Westwood Manor, 

Llewellyn, Lieut.-Col. Hoel, Chief 

Constable's Office, Devizes 
Locket, J. Wood, Inglewood, 

Long, The Right Hon. Viscount, 

Rood Ashton, Trowbridge 
Long, Colonel William, Newton 

House, Cievedon 
Lott, Herbert C, 10, Carlisle 

Parade, Hastings 
Lovat, Miss, Worton, Devizes 
Luery, A. E., B.Sc, 20, Long 

Street, Devizes 

Major, Albany F., O.B.E., F.S.A., 
30, The Waldrons, Croydon 

Manley, Rev. Canon F. H.,Somer- 
ford Magna Rectory, Chippen- 

Mann, W. J., Highfield, Trow- 

Marlborough College Natural His- 
tory Society, President of. The 
College, Marlborough 

Maskelyne, A. St. J. Story, Public 
Record Office, Chancery Lane, 
London, W.C. 2 

Maskelyne, Mrs. Story, Basset 
Down, Wroughton, Wilts 

Masters, W. A. H., 42, Cricklade 
Street, Swindon 

Matcham, G. Eyre, Newhouse, 

Maton, Eustace B., Coombe, En- 
ford, Marlborough 

Maton, Fred Stephen, High Trees, 

Clapham Common, London, 

S.W. 4 
Maton, Leonard, 2 1, Cannon Street, 

London, EC. 4 
McNiven, C. F., Puckshipton, 

Merriman, R. W., Sempringham, ] 

Messenger, H., The Close Gate- 
house, Salisbury 
Methuen, Field Marshal Lord, | 

Corsham Court, Wilts 
Miles, Miss C F., 59, Egerton 

Gardens, London, S.W. 3 
Milling, The Rev. M. J. T., The 

Vicarage, Ashton Keynes, Crick- 
Milman, Miss, Brownston House, 

Milman, Miss B. M., Brownston 

House, Devizes 
Mitchell, Miss E. C, The Square, 

Wilton, Salisbury 
Money - Kyrle, Mrs., Whetham, 

Morrin, The Rev.T., St. Aldhelm's, 

M almesbury 
Morrison, Hugh, M.P., 9, Halkin 

Street, Belgrave Square, S.W. I 
Morse, W. E., The Croft, Swindon 
Moulton, John, The Hall, Brad- 
ford-on Avon 
Murray-Shirreff, Mrs. A., Whitley] 

Brow, Melksham 
Myers, Rev. Canon, The Close,| 


Naish, Miss R. V., Wilton, Sails- 

Napier, Mrs. Charles, Chitterne 

House, Codford, Wilts 
National Library of Wales, Abery^ 

Neale, John Alex., D.C.L., 421 

Half Moon Street, Piccadillyj 

London, W 1 
Neeld, Lt.-Col. Sir Audley D.| 

Bart., C.B., Grittleton House 

Nelson, The Right Hon. EarJ 

Trafalgar, Salisbury 
Newall, R. S., Fisherton de 

Mere House, Wylye, Wilts 
Newberry Library, Chicago,!!. S, 

per Messrs. B. F. Stevens 

Brown, 4, Trafalgar Squarj 

London, W.C. 2 

List of Memhers. 


Newbolt, Sir H. J., Netherhamp- 

ton House, Salisbury- 
New England Historic Genea- 
logical Society, 9, Ashburton 
Place, Boston, Mass., U.S.A., 
per Messrs. B F. Stevens & 
Brown, 4, Trafalgar Square, 
London, W.C. 2 

New York Public Library, per 
Messrs. B. F. Stevens & Brown, 
4, Trafalgar Square, London, 
W.C. 2 

Nicholson, Godfrey, Woodcott 
House, Whitchurch, Hants 

Noel, Rev. Wyndhain, Christ 
Church Vicarage, Bradford-on- 

Normanton, The Right Hon. The 
Earl of, Somerley, Ringwood, 

Norwood, Cyril, D.Lit., The Col- 
lege, Marlborough 

Noyes, Miss Ella, Sutton Veny, 

Ordnance Survey, Director-Gen- 
eral of, Southampton 

j Owen, David, Richmond House, 

! Weston Park, Bath 

'Oxford Architectural and His- 
torical Society, Ashmolean Mu- 
seum, Beaumont Street, Oxford 

I Oxley, Selwyn, 75, Victoria Road, 
London, W. 8 

Paget, H. A., The Orchards, 

Rodbourne, Malmesbury 
Palmer, Brig.-Gen. G. LI., Berry- 
; field, Bradford-on-Avon 
(Parsons, R., Hunts Mill Farm 

Wootton Bassett 
J Parr, Miss, Salthrop House, 

Wroughton, Wilts 
I Parr, Miss Bertha, Salthrop House 
j Wroughton, Wilts 

Passmore, A. D., Wood Street, 
D 1 Swindon 
Si Paterson, Rev. C. E., The Vicarage, 

„ jPayne, E. H., Wyndcross, West- 
bourne Road, Trowbridge 
1 ^Peake, H. J. E., Westbrook House, 

I Newbury 
I [Pearson, Miss Edith A., Moxhams, 
I j Bradford-on-Avon 
I jPenruddocke, Capt. George, Comp- 
I ton Park, Salisbury 

Perkins, Rev. Charles E., Little 
Hinton Rectory, Swindon 

Phillips, A. J., Victoria House, 
Pewsey, Wilts 

Phillips, Bertram, Dinton House, 

Pile, T. A. J., 15, Holland Villas 
Road, West Kensington, London, 
W. 14 

Ponting, C. E., F.S.A., Lockeridge, 
Upper Parkstone, Dorset 

Powell, John U., Boreham, War- 

Preston, Sir W. R., M.P., Tetbury, 

Pritchard, J. E., F.S.A., 22, St. 
John's Road, Clifton, Bristol 

Public Record Office, per The 
Superintendent of Publications, 
Book Dept., H.M. Stationery 
Office, Princes Street, West- 
minster, S.W. 1 

Pugh, C. W., Hadleigh Cottage, 

PuUen, W., Goodrington House, 
Westlecott Road, Swindon 

Pye-Smith, E. F., The Close, 

Radcliffe, His Honour Judge, The 

Rise, Headington Hill, Oxford 
Rawlence, E. A., St. Andrews, 

Churchfields, Salisbury 
Reading Public Library, Reading 
Redfern, Rev. J. Lemon, Ashley 

Rectory, Tetbury, Glos. 
Reed, F. B., 50, Breakspears Road, 

Brockley, London, S.E. 4 
Rendell, Ethelbert, 29, St. John 

Street, Devizes 
Rendell, E. A., 29, St. John Street, 

Richards, Dr. W. K. A-, Mill Vale 

House, Bratton, Westbury 
Richardson, A. P., Purton House, 

Purton, Wilts 
Richardson, Rev. A. T., Bradford- 
Richardson, Mrs. H., Red House, 

West Street, Wilton, Salisbury 
Rison, H. E., Airdrie, Crescent 

Avenue, Binley Road, Stoke, 

Robbins, Rev. M., Holy Trinity 

Vicarage, West End, Chobham 
Roberts, The Rev. Dr. Page, 

Shanklin, Isle of Wight 
L 2 


List of Members, 

Roemer, Major de, Lime Park, 

Hurstmonceux, Sussex 
Rogers, J. Smith, 44, Belle Vue 

Road, Salisbury- 
Ross, Rev. Canon A. G. Gordon, 

St. Mark's Vicarage, Swindon 
Round way. Lord, Roundway Park, 

Rudman, Robert E. D., Chippen- 
Rumboll, C. F., M.D., Lowbourne 
House, Melksham 

Sadler, John, 10, Woodville Road, 

Ealing, London, W. 5 
Sadler, Mrs. Hayes, Norsbury, 

Sutton Scotney, Hants 
Sainsbury, Herbert, Greystone 

House, Devizes 
Sainsbury, Mrs. Herbert, Grey- 
stone House, Devizes 
Salisbury, The Right Rev., The 

Lord Bishop of, The Palace, 

Salisbury Clerical Library, Church 

House, Salisbury 
Salisbury Public Library, Endless 

Street, Salisbury 
Sanders, Rev, Harry, The Avenue, 

Scarth, Leveson 

Schomberg, Arthur, Seend, Melk- 
Scott, H. Dudley, Manningford 

Manor, Marlborough 
Selman, Mrs. H. E., Kington 

liangley, Chippenham 
Sibbald, J. G E., Mount Pleasant, 

Norton St. Philip, Bath 
Simpson, A. B., Upper Lodge, 

Fernhurst, Haslemere, Surrey 
Simpson, Cecil, Cliftonville, The 

Common, Sutton, Surrey 
Simpson, George,Quorndon, Forest 

Row, Sussex 
Simpson, J. J., Osbourne House, 

Cotham Park, Bristol 
Skurray, E. C., West Lodge, 

Slade, J. J., Gazette Office, Devizes 
Sladen, Rev. C. A., Alton Barnes, 

Slow, Edward, Wilton, Wilts 
Smith, R. M. Morgan, Manor 

House, Seend, Melksham 
Snailum, W. W., Wingfield Road, 


Soames, Rev. Gordon, Milden- 
hall Rectory, Marlborough 

Soul, John, Viney's Cottage, Ames- 
bury, Wilts 

Spicer, Capt. J. E. P., Spye Park, 

Steele, Lt,-Col., R.A.M.C., South- 
Gate Lodge, Devizes 

Stephens, Rev. Canon J. F. D., 
Wellesley Arms, Sutton Benger, 

Stevens, Frank, F.S. A., Blackmore 
Museum, Salisbury. 

Stevenson, Brigadier-Gen. E. H., 
Worton Littlecourt, Potterne, 

Stone, E. H., The Retreat, Pot- 
terne Road, Devizes 

Stone, W. J. E. Warry, 72, Elm 
Park Gardens, London, S.W. 10 

Stote, Rev. A. W., Colehill Vicar- 
age, Wimborne 

Sturton, Rev. J. A., Market 
Lavington Vicarage, Devizes 

Sumner, Hey wood, Cuckoo'siHill, 
Gorley, Fordingbridge, Hants 

Sweetapple, The Rev. H. D. S., 

D.Y>., The Vicarage, Box, Wilts 


Talbot, Miss, Lacock Abbey, Chip- 

Talbot, The Venerable Archdeacon, 
103, Bath Road, Swindon 

Tanner, Mrs., Southlook, Aid- 
bourne, Wilts 

Tatum, Edward J., 49, Canal, 

Tayler, Mrs. M. C, The Abbey 
House, Bradford-on-Avon 

Thornely, Thomas Heath, The 
Elms, Nursteed, Devizes 

Thompson, G. Malcolm, Kington 
Manor, Kington St. Michael, 

Thompson, Mrs. Malcolm, Kington 
Manor, Kington St. Michael, 

Timbrell, J. Neate, Bank Street, 

Trenchard, J. Ashfordby, Northaw 
Great Wood, Potters Bar, 

Tupholme, Rev. W. S., Steeple 
Langford Rectory, Salisbury 

Uppsala University Library, The 
Chief Librarian of, Uppsala, 

List of Members. 


Usher, T. C, Sunny Croft, Trow- 

Viney, Herbert, Maplecroft, Melk- 

Walker, Rev. F. G., Upton Lovell 

Rectory, Bath 
Walker, H. Seeker, Fairfield, 

Walker, Kenneth, Teffont Manor, 

Walrond, R. D., Aldbourne, Bram- 
cote Road, Putney, London, 
S.W. 15 
Walsh, Arthur H., The Manor 

House, Purton, Wilts 
Walters, L. D'O., 5, Swan Walk, 

Chelsea, London, S.W. 3 
Ward, J. E., Red Lodge, Purton, 
• Warrender, Miss, Chesham, Bucks 
Warrington, The Rt. Hon. Lord 
Justice, 10, Montagu Square, 
London, W. 1 
Waterlow, Mrs. H. M., Parsonage 
j House, Oare, Marlborough 
I Watson, Rev. A. J., Savernake 
I Vicarage, Marlborough 
I Watson-Taylor, G., Urchfont Man- 
j or, Devizes 

I Watson-Taylor, John, Wellington 
Club, Grosvenor Place, London, 
Waylen, G. S. A., 41, Long Street, 

Waylen, W. A., Littledean, Newn- 
ham, Glos. 

Webb, Mrs, Naesmyth, Bibury, 

Branksome Park, Bournemouth 
Weallens, Rev. R. S., Berwick 

Bassett Vicarage, Swindon 
Webb, W. A., 83, Argyle l^ad, 

West Ealing, London, W. 13 
Wells, Charles, F.J. I., 134, Crom- 
well Road, Bristol 
Westlake, Rev. R. L. A , Sutton 

Benger Rectory, Chippenham 
Weston, Lt-Col. R. S., Elmsgate, 

Steeple Ashton, Trowbridge 
Weston, Miss Gertrude, Elmsgate, 

Steeple Ashton, Trowbridge 
Weston, Miss Ellen, The Home 

Farm, Stockton, Codford St. 

Mary, Wilts 
White, G. A. H., High Street, 

Whitehead, Arthur, 35, Canal, 

Williams, Philip, Malt House, 

West Woodhay, Newbury. 
Williams— Freeman, Dr., Weyhill, 

Woodward, C. H., Exchange Build- 
ings, Devizes 
Wrangham, Rev. Canon F., The 

Vicarage, Highworth, Wilts 
Wray, Rev. G. D., Long Newnton 

Rectory, Tetbury, Glos. 

Yale University Library, New 
Haven, Conn., U.S.A., per 
Messrs. E. G. Allen & Son, Ltd., 
12 & 14, Grape Street, Shaftes- 
bury Avenue, London, W.C. 2 

C. H. Woodward, Printer and Publisher, Exchange Buildings, Station Road, Devizes. 

28 OCT 1938 


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m-^^^ ^SQOTMa 

No. CXXXVIIL JUNE,. 1923. Vol. XLII, 



Archaeological & Natural History 


Published under the Direction of the 

A.D. 185 3. 


REV. E. H. GODDARD, Clyft'e Vicarage, Swindon. 

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Archaeological & Natural History 


No. OXXXVIII. JUNE, 1923. Vol. XLII. 

Contents. page. 

Great Bedwyn Flowering Plants and Ferns: By Cecil 

r. Hurst 151—166 

Notes on Wiltshire Churches: By Sir Stephen Glynne ... 167 — 214 
Report on Diggings in Silbury Hill, August, 1922: By 

Prof. W. M. Flinders Petrie, F.H S. 215—218 

Some Notes on Trowbridge Parish Registers : By the Piev. 
A. W. Stote, M.A., Camb., F.S.G., Lond., sometime Vicar of 

Holy Trinity, Trowbridge 219—226 

Romano-British Villages on Upavon and Rushall Downs, 

Excavated by Lt.-Col. Hawley, F.S.A 227—230 

Wiltshire Newspapers— Past and Present (Co^itinued). 
Part IV. Newspapers of North Wilts. " The Wilt- 
shire Independent": By J. J. Slade 231—241 

Wilts Obituary 242—245 

Notes 245—253 

Natural History Notes 253—255 

Bird Notes 256 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles 257—271 

Additions to Museum and Library , 272—273 

Accounts op the Society for the Year 1922 274—276 


Plan of Silbury Hill to show Relation of Trenches [cut Aug., 
1922] to Fence Levels of Surface Contours — Levels of Un- 
disturbed Chalk 215 

Section of Silbury Hill to show Relation of Down, Turf Band, 
Chalk Levels 216 

Bronze Age Cinerary Urn found at Knowle, Little Bedwyn. . 246 

Cabalistic symbols inscribed on Spindle Whorl found in 
Bishops Cannings Churchyard 247 

Plan of Earthwork on Sugar Hill, Wanborough 249 

Devizes :— C. H. Woodward, Exchange Buildings, Station Road. 





No. CXXXVIII. June, 1925- Vol. XLII. 

By Cecil P. Hukst. 

The following paper includes flowers and ferns observed growing around 
Great Bedwyn on the eastern border of Wiltshire and in recording them 
the tenth edition of the London Catalogue has been used, the English 
names being taken from Dr. Druce's Flora of Berkshire. Rare and in- 
teresting plants noticed are the creeping and rooting var. radicans of the 
Lesser Spear wort {Raiiunculus Flammula) occurring on the margin of 
Bitham Pond, near the Column in Tottenham Park, the Downy-leaved 
Rose, Rosa omissa, well distributed in hedgerows and copses in the district, 
the Banewort (Sambucus Ebulus\ a colony of which grows on the top of a 
hedgebank in the village, the rare and beautiful Gentia^ia germanica in a 
chalkpit near Shalbourne, the curious variety of the Peppermint {Mentha 
piperita) in a little bog on the edge of Bedwyn Brails, which has been 
distributed through the Botanical Exchange Club, the Shoreweed {Littorella 
uniflora), a very scarce Wiltshire flower, by a pool in Tottenham Park, the 
two rare Helleborines, the Purple H%\\QhovmQ{Hellehorine violacea), growing 
very sparingly in the woods, and the beautiful Marsh Helleborine (//. 
palustris), found in a spongy bog near Webb's Gully, the very local 
Spiked Star of Bethlehem [Ornithogalum pyrenaicum)^ in three copses near 
Froxfield, the obscure little Needle-leaved Club Rush {Eleocharisacicularis), 
a local plant in the Kennet and Avon Canal and flowering at Crofton, the 
large sedge, Carex helodes^ five feet high in damp thickets in Foxbury Wood, 
but much affected by the great drought of 1921, the fine woodland grass, 
Calmagrostis epigeios, in a good station in Bedwyn Brails, the rare ferns, 
the Scale Fern {Geterach officinarum)^ in the brickwork of one of the canal 
bridges and on the Somerset Hospital at Froxfield, and the Moonwort Fern 
[Botrychium Lunaria), on West Leas, near Burridge Heath, and also in the 
Forest, and the beautiful emerald green var. capillare of the Wood Horsetail 
{Eqiiisetum sylvaticum) , growing in Wilton Brails. Noteworthy hybrids are 
the gentian, Gentiana Amarella X G. germanica, (G.Pamplinii), the poplar, 
Popidus alba X P. tremula {P.canescens),the rnsh^Juncus effusus X J. inflexus 
{J. diff'usus)^ and the sedge, Garexfulva X C. flava^ var. minor, and three wil- 
low hybrids {Salix alba X S.fragilis, S. cinerea X S. viminalis, and <S. cinerea 
X S. aurita), have also been detected. Interesting aliens are the fast 
spreading Asiatic and North American weed, Matricaria suaveolens, which 

152 Great Bedwyn Flowering Plants and Ferns. 

has got a firm hold of Bedwyn during the last decade and has evidently 
come to stay, and the widely diffused Crepis taraxacifolia ; other noticeable 
introduced species are the handsome orange hawkweed, Hieracium auran- 
tiacum, well established in a field at Shalbourne Newtown, the Milk Thistle 
{Silyhum Marianum), growing wild in the master's garden at Marlborough 
College, Viola .cornuta, a Pyreneean species occurring as a garden outcast in 
a bed of nettles near St. Katharine's Church in Savernake Forest, and 
Potentilla norvegica, found on waste ground at Pewsey Station ; the latter 
species has recently appeared in a good many new English stations. The rare 
iigwort, Scrophularia alata, extending for three miles along the Shalbourne, 
Polygonum maculatum occurring as the grey-leaved var. incanum in a 
cultivated field near Burridge Heath, and Eriophorum latifolium growing 
in a bog near Webb's Gully, appear to be new to Wiltshire ; and the hybrid 
Scrophularia alata X 'S'. aquatica^ when first found in 1915, near Standen 
Manor, was new to the British Islands. The pretty Meadow Cranesbill 
{Geranium pratense), the beautiful Autumn Crocus {Colchicum oficinale)^ 
and the elegant Solomon's Seal(Po^i/(7ona^tim inulti^orum) occnv plentifully in 
their seasons and are a great attraction to the countryside, while the hand- 
some Broom Rape, Orobanche elatior, growing on Centaurea Scabiosa and 
generally a rare species, is not uncommon. The following albino forms are 
rare: — white-flowered Dog-Violet {Viola canina) occurred in Savernake 
Forest, white-flowered Clustered Bellflower {Campanula glomerata), near 
Shalbourne, white-flowered Autumnal Gentian {Gentiana Amarella), near 
Botley Great Copse, white-flowered Field Gentian (6r. campestris)^ 
near Folly Farm, white-flowered Viper's Bugloss {Echium vulgare), near 
Bedwyn Brails, and white-flowered Lesser Battle {Pedicularis sylvatica), in 
Foxbury Wood. I am much indebted to Lieut.-Col. WoUey Dod for his 
valuable notes on our local roses ; his statement that he has remarkably 
few records from Wiltshire should induce naturalists to take up the county 
rhodology ; he writes on this troublesome genus : — " Very many forms have 
so distinct a facies that one is tempted to give new names, but if one is 
bound by description one must refer them to one or other of our existing 
names or create a whole host of new ones based on colour, habit, general 
appearance, a very natural arrangement but exceedingly difficult to deal 
with by description, so that one is driven to technical points which not 
only overlap, but bring very different looking plants into association." It 
is fortunate that the pretty little Lady's Tresses Orchid {Spiranthes 
autumnalis) still grows near the village, though its numbers seem to be 
decreasing. Definite records are given for the heath plants, the orchid, Orchis 
ericetorum and the pond weed, Potamogeton poligonifolius, both rare in this 
chalky country. Our scanty Chara flora consists of two species and a 
variety : — Chara vulgaris in the canal at Great Bedwyn, its var. papillata 
in abundance in a pond on the east side of Bedwyn Brails (it has since 
disappeared from this station) and C. hispida in two pools near the village ; 
and this district is little likely to produce many more of these rather obscure 
water-weeds, for most of the Characeae grow near the sea. The Kennet 
and Avon Canal runs through Great Bedwyn and divides North Wiltshire 
(vice-county 7), from South Wiltshire (vice-county 8). Although the 
village is not more than two or three miles from the Berkshire boundary,,' 

By Cecil P. Hurst. 153 

il have included only flowers which grew within the county of Wilts. The 
southern latitude of Great Bedwyn, about 51^° N. lat., is indicated by the 
occurrence of such plants as Cnicus eriophortis^ Gentiana germanica^ 
Hellehorine violacea, and Ornithogalum pyrenaicurti., species which are, 
'.generally speaking, restricted in their distribution to the south of England. 
The district chiefly lies upon the Upper Chalk on which there are ex- 
tensive outliers of Reading sands and London clay, and in addition there is 
a little Pleistocene valley gravel and by the Bedwyn Stream, Holocene 
alluvium. The Upper Greensand is exposed at Shalbourne in the Vale of 
Ham and at Savernake in the Vale of Pewsey. 

Flowering Plants. 

Myosurus minimus (Linn.). Mouse-tail. A curious little plant which 
has occurred on cultivated ground at Great Bedwyn ; I have not seen it for 
•a long time. It is found on the Upper Greensand of the Vale of Pewsey. 

Ranunculus Drouetii (F. Schultz). The late Kev. E. S. Marshall referred 
a water crowfoot which grew in a dewpond near the summit of Milk Hill, 
Alton Barnes, to a small-flowered form of this species — R. Flammula var. 
radicans (Nolte). On the muddy margin of Bitham Pond, near the Column 
in Tottenham Park ; plants from this locality were distributed through 
the Botanical Exchange Club of the British Islands. — R. repens (Linn.). 
Creeping Buttercup. A double-flowered form occurs. 

Hellehorus foetidus (Linn). Stinking Hellebore. Ten or twelve years 
■ago this plant was naturalized in the Vicar's Copse, at Great Bedwyn ; it 
now appears to be extinct. 

Aquilegia vulgaris (Linn.) Columbine. Several plants in Chisbury 
Wood; seemingly native. 

Berheris vulgaris (Linn.). The Barberry). In a hedge on the north-west 
side of Bedwyn Brails ; probably not indigenous. 

Nympha&a lutea (Linn.). Yellow Water Lily. Plentiful in the Kennet 
and Avon Canal at Bedwyn. 

Papaver Rhosas (Linn.). Common Red Poppy. The type grew in a 
cornfield near Bedwyn Brails, with pale maroon flowers and the vars. 
Mrigosum (Boenn), with hairs on the peduncles adpressed, and Pryorii 
{Druce), with crimson hairs on the peduncles, are scattered sparingly in 
the cornfields, but the latter is not nearly so well-marked as, say, in Hert- 
fordshire, where it was noticed by the late Mr. R. A. Pryor, whose name 
was bestowed upon it by Dr. G. C. Druce, of Oxford.— P. duhium (Linn.). 
Long Smooth-headed Poppy. Occurs here and there, as at the foot of 
Botley Down, where it grows with P. Argemone, but is not very common ; 
in a few places, as by the side of the canal at Great Bedwyn, I have found 
a plant with the characters of P. duhium, but with yellow latex, and this 
form is noticed in Dr. Druce's " Flora of Berkshire " ; I have not yet seen 
the true P. Lecoqii near Bedwyn, though this autumn (1922) I noticed a 
plant near Shalbourne, which may turn out to be this species. — P. Argemone 
<Linn.). A poppy which has bristly seed vessels and which grew in a corn- 
field on the east of Bedwyn Brails. 

Fumaria densiflora (D.C.). In a cultivated field near Folly Farm, 
also near Shalbourne and between Froxfield and Ramsbury ; a fumitory 
characterized by the large sepals. 

M 2 

154 Great Bediuyn Flowering Plants and Fer7is, 

Eadiculapalmtris (Moench). Yellow Cress. By water at Great Bedwyn 
and in a damp place at Bagshot. 

Arahis hirsuta (Scop.). Hairy Tower Mustard. Near the canal-side at 
Great Bedwyn. 

Cardamine pratensis (Linn.), Cuckoo Flower. A double-flowered form 
grew by the canal between Bedwyn and Crofton. 

Erophila verna var. majuscula (Jord.). Whitlow Grass. On anthills 
near Burridge Heath and very well-marked on a thatched roof at Oare ; a 
large branched condition. 

Cochlearia Armoracia (Linn,). The Horse Radish is naturalized by the 
side of a muddy ditch at Great Bedwyn. 

Sisymbrium Thalianum (Gay). Thale Cress. Bank near Little Bedwyn ; 
an uncommon species hereabouts. 

Brasdca arvensis (O. Kuntze). Charlock. The var. orientalis (Asch.), 
which has bristly pods, is rather common in cultivated fields. 

Coronopus didymus (Sm.). Lesser Swine's Cress. A casual plant 
occasionally growing on the canal wharf and on the railway bridges at Great 
Bedwyn, probably brought up in ballast from the west by the canal boats ; 
still (1st Dec, 1922) fruiting on the wharf. 

Lepidium ruderale (Linn.). One casual plant some years ago at Bedwyn 

BaphanusEaphanistrum (Lmu.). Wild Radish. The pale-flowered form 
with the petals white, or marked with lilac, is the more frequent plant ; 
occasionally the yellow-flowered plant, var flavum (Gray), occurs. 

Reseda luteola (Linn.). Dyer's Rocket, or Dyer's Weed. On Merle 
Down and one or two other localities ; a scarce plant in this district. 

Viola canina (Linn.). The Dog Violet. The very rare white form alha 
still occurs on sandy ground in one place in Savernake Forest, but is getting 
very scarce ; the type is widely distributed on sandy soil. 

Poly gala calcarea (F. Schultz). Chalk Milkwort. A beautiful plant 
with flowers of an exquisite coerulean blue, which grows on Merle Down, 
almost within the precincts of the village. 

Saponaria officinalis (Linn.). Soap wort. W^ell established in a valley 
at Shalbourne. 

Silene latifolia (Rendell & Britten). Bladder Campion. The hairy form 
var. puberula (Jord.) of this common plant is by no means infrequent.— 
>S'. Anglica (Linn.). Small Corn Catchfly. A few plants occurred in a 
cornfield east of Bedwyn Brails. L 

Lychnis Flos-cuculi (Linn.). Ragged Robin. Plants with pure white 
flowers grew in a marsh between Burbage and Pewsey. 

Hypericum Androsaemum (Linn.). Tutsan. Very rare : several plants' 
were found in a larch plantation near Rhododendron Drive, Savernake 
Forest, in Sept., 1922 ; otherwise unknown in the district. — H. perforatum 
var. angustifolium DC. A narrow-leaved var. scattered in the woods. i 

Geranium pyrenaicum (Burm. fil.). Mountain Crane's-bill. Native od 
the road between Great and Little Bedwyn. 

Erodium cicutarium (L'Herit.). Hemlock-leaved Crane's-bill. Wei 
established on the sandy margin of a cornfield on the eastern edge o 
Bedwyn Brails ; it has grown here for some years. 

By Cecil p. Hurst, 155 

Genista tinctoria (Linn.). Dyer's Green- Weed. Widely spread near 
Great Bedwyn on the Tertiary outliers, but avoiding the chalk; very 
plentiful in a valley near Gully Copse, also occurring in quantity on a 
plateau of London clay near Foxbury Wood, near Chisbury, etc. The 
large golden sheets formed by this plant in the flowering season have a 
magnificent effect. 

Ulex nanus (Roth.)- Dwarf Furze. The type grows near Folly Farm, 
and very dwarf plants, only a few inches in height, were seen near Merle 
Down ; on the east side of Bedwyn Brails and especially near London Ride, 
Savernake Forest, where it is very characteristic, occurs a tall, erect, 
strong spined form, which is the var. longispinus ; specimens were sent to 
Dr. G. C. Druce ; this form is often mistaken for U. Gallii. 

Trifolium pratense (Linn.). Red Clover. White flowers were noticed 
among a cultivated crop near Bloxham Copse. — T. filiforrne (Linn.). Small 
Trefoil. In fair quantity by the roadside, extending for some distance on 
Burridge Heath, also near Folly Farm, and near Bedwyn Brails ; this 
delicate little plant appears to have suffered from the great drought of 
1921, for this year (1922) it had disappeared from these stations; it will 
probably re-appear with the return of favourable conditions. 

Vicia sylvatica (Linn.). Wood Vetch. In a wood near Littlecote Park ; 
a beautiful plant with white flowers delicately pencilled with blue. 

Potentilla norvegica (Linn.). An alien which was noticed on waste 
ground at Pewsey Station in June, 1922. — P, ste^nlis (Garcke) Barren 
Strawberry. Flowering in the brickwork of the sunken wall on the south 
side of Tottenham House, Savernake Forest, on the 5th Feb., 1921, an 
early date ; it was seen in flower in a hedge-bank near Bedwyn on the 3rd 
Dec, 1922. 

Agrimonia odordta (Mill.). Agrimony. Well-marked plants in Foxburv 

Jiosa leiostyla (Rip.). A fair number of bushes in one part of Chisbury 
Wood ; Lt.-Col. Wolley Dod writes : — " Your rose comes under E. leiostyla 
(Rip.), in spite of its white flowers. I do not place much count on the 
colour of the flowers, which, like all characteristics of roses, is liable to 
considerable variation." — M. omissa (Desegl.) forma. Chisbury Wood, near 
Burridge Heath, near Wilton, Merle Down, in some quantity near East 
Grafton, near Stokke and at Burridge Heath ; apparently well distributed, 
it is by no means uncommon in woods and hedges near Great Bedwyn, and 
it would be interesting to trace it into Berkshire ; this is the rose which 
has previously been recorded as B. tojnentosa; Lieut.-Col. Wolley Dod 
writes : — " I think there is little doubt that your rose must go under an 
aggregate omissa nearer the type than to any other form, though it has 
longer peduncles than the type usually has. I have not seen the type 
further S.W. than Gloucestershire, though vars. Sherardi and svbmoUis 
reach Devon and Cornwall." Near East Grafton and Wilton this rose 
grows on Upper Greensand, while on Merle Down and in Chisbury Wood 
it is found on clay. — R. tomentosa v^x.scahriuscula ( Baker), About specimens 
from a bush on the northern edge of Bedwyn Brails, Lt.-Col. Wolley Dod 
wrote : — " I have little doubt that your plant is a form of R. scahriuscula^ or 
between that and foe,tida, not very typical of either ; the sepals have all 

156 Great Bedwyn Flowering Plants and Ferns. 

fallen, which is normal for scahriuscula in October, but they would afford 
corroborative evidence by their clothing and partly by their pinnation." 
About a shrub growing in Webb's Gully, he wrote : — '* It is one of those 
far too numerous intermediate forms between R. tomentosa var. scahriuscula 
and var foetida^ but nearer the former, though the leaflets are somewhat 
more pubescent than usual. They are hardly broad enough or glandular 
enough for var. /cB^^(7(X,f and the styles are too hairy. The two varieties 
run into one another bySall their technical characters, as, indeed, do all 
vars. of Rosa ... I have no records of any of the Tomentosae from 
Wilts, but that goes forilittle or nothing, as my records for the whole county 
are remarkably few. I do not think much of the turpentine smell attributed 
to var. foetida. Most of the group have a more or less pronounced scent, 
especially if rubbed, but to me it is rather of sweet-briar or russet than of 
turpentine." About a plant from Wilton Brails, Lt.-Col. Wolley Dod 
wrote : — " Your rose is|undoubtedly^. tomentosa var. scahriuscula^ in which 
as in all roses, you must expect a good deal of variation. Very few specimens 
in my herbarium exactly^agree with others in the same cover, and some 
differ disconcertingly widely. Var. scahriuscula is not far removed from 
type tomentosa^ in fact I don't think we know exactly what type is. More 
hairy styles, and leaflets, with.a tendency to shorter peduncles and somewhat 
more persistent sepals, arejthe leading features by which the true Tomentosae 
differ from the Scahriusculae, and when these features become still more 
pronounced, we get into the Omissae, but no group of Rosa is absolutely 
distinct from its neighbours," R. dumetorum (Thuill). Bushes of the 
Rosa canina group with the leaves pubescent only on the midrib and 
primary nerves beneath and coming under R. dumetorum forma trichoneura 
(Rip.), are common around Great Bedwyn and perhaps do not fall very far 
below the type, R. canina in numbers, but shrubs with the leaves hairy all 
over [^R. dumetorum (Thuill.)] and bushes with the leaves with the lower 
surfaces hairy all over but with the upper surfaces glabrous [^R. dumetorum 
forma urhica (Lem.)] are rare, and I have observed them in a few localities 

Crataegus oxycantha var. laciniata (Wallr.). A well-marked shrub of 
this cut-leaved variety occurred in Bedwyn Brails. 

Saxifraga tridactylites (Linn.). Rue-leaved Saxifrage. On a wall in 
Farm Lane, in the village ; very uncommon in this district. 

Chrysosplenium oppositifolium (Linn.). Golden Saxifrage. In rivulets 
and wet places in woods on the Tertiary outliers, avoiding the chalk; 
Chisbury Wood, Webb's Gully, Bedwyn Brails. 

Rihes nigrum (Linn.). Black Currant. Naturalized in Bedwyn Brails 
and in a swamp near Shalbourne. 

Sedum Telephium (Linn.). Orpine or Live Long. Not common ; 
scattered plants at Bloxham Copse and Burridge Heath. 

Sedum alhum (Linn,). White Stone-Crop. Naturalized on a garden 
wall in Farm Lane ; in the British Isles it is supposed to be native only on 
the Malvern Hills and in Somerset. 

Peplis Portula ( Linn.). Water Purslane. Rather common on the muddy 
margins of shallow pools ; seems to be increasing. 

Epilohium tetragonum (Linn.). Square-stemmed Willow-herb. Not 

! ( 

By Cecil P. Hurst, 157 

"uncommon in the woods ; I have been unable to find E. obscurum, the 
generally more frequent species. 

Conium maculatum (Linn.). Hemlock. Very scarce; a casual plant 
on Bedwyn Wharf this year (1922). 

Sison Amomum (Linn.)- Stone Parsley. In a hedge by the roadside 
near Shalbourne Newtown. 

(Enanthe fluviatilis (Coleman), Very plentiful in the canal at Bedwyn 
and extending eastwards and westwards, but rarely flowering. 

Heracleum Sphondylium var. anqustifoiium (Huds.). Cow Parsnip. 
Well-marked plants of this var., which has narrow leaflets, were observed 
in Tottenham Park. 

Caucalis nodosa (Scop.). Knotted Parsley. Scarce ; in a cultivated 
field below Botley Down. 

Sambucus Ebulus (Linn.). A colony of the rare Danewort, or Dwarf 
Elder, is established on the top of a roadside bank in Brown's Lane, in the 
village ; there is another good station on the east side of a copse near 
Marten, and a former record exists for [kittle Bedwyn, where I have not 
seen it ; this species is not a native of Britain, its occurrence in our country 
is due to its former cultivation for medicinal uses ; the plant has a purgative 

Galium erectum (Huds.). Upright Bedstraw. Among short grass near 
Starveall Farm, Botley Down, about two and a half miles south of Great 
Bedwyn, flowering towards the end of June ; this species blooms about 
three weeks earlier than the closely-allied G. Mollugo ; the plants were 
named by the late Rev. E. S. Marshall. 

Valeriana dioica (Linn.). Marsh Valerian. Common by the canal side 
and in damp places in woods. 

Solidago virgaurea (Linn.). Golden Rod. Very scarce ; a few plants in 
Cobham Frith and Foxbury Wood. 

Gnaphalium sylvaticum (Linn.). Heath Cudweed. In some quantity 
in a heathy field between Burridge Heath and Shalbourne. 

Matricaria inodora (Linn.). Scentless Feverfew. In flower nearBurridge 
Heath in February ; it probably bloomed all through the very mild winter, 
1920— 2L — M. suaveolens (Buchenau), An Asiatic and North American 
species which has spread extensively around Great Bedwyn during the last 
ten years ; its headquarters appear to be the Wharf, where it was probably 
originally brought in ballast by the canal boats ; it has already reached 

Senecio erucifolius (Linn.). Hoary Ragwort. Frequent on London Clay 
around the village. 

Arctium majus (Bernh.) Great Burdock. Very scarce ; once near Brail 
Cottages and on Furze Hill, near Hungerford. 

Cnicus eriophorus (Roth.). Woolly-headed Thistle. In one locality near 
Bedwyn Brails; a fair-sized colony, now nearly exterminated, spread in 
three years from a single plant ; the handsomest and most stoutly-armed of 
of our thistles, and, with the exception of some localities in Yorkshire, con- 
fined in its distribution to the limestone districts of the south of England. 
— C. pratensis (Willd.). Meadow Thistle. On dampish ground near Webb's 
Gully ; here the annual plant with sub-entire leaves and a single flower-head 

158 Great Bedwyn Flowering Plants and Ferns. 

occurs ; tlie biennial or perennial form has often cut leaves and two or 
three heads or flowers. 

Centaurea Scabiosa CLinn.). Greater Scabious. A white-flowered form 
was noticed near Folly Farm, near Shalbourne, in Pewsey Vale, etc. 

Picris hieracioides (Linn.). Hawkweed Ox-tongue. Very local; near 
Burnt Mill Lock on the Canal, also near Froxfield, and in Wilton Brails. 

Crepis taraxacifolia (Thuill). On Conyger Hill ; near Little Bedwyn ; 
railway cutting near Savernake Station (G.W.R.) ; a well-established plant 
of rather recent introduction which appears to be spreading ; in the list of 
Marlborough Flowers in the Marlborough College Nat. Hist. Soc. Report 
for 1907 it is only recorded from Membury Camp, near Baydon, as the crow 
flies, about seven miles from Great Bedwyn. 

Hieracium aurantiacum (Linn.). Naturalized in a field at Shalbourne 
Newtown. — H. Boreale (Fr.). Broad-leaved bushy Hawkweed. Not un- 
common in woods and by roadsides, East Grafton, Stokke, etc.—H. umbel- 
latum (Linn.). Narrow-leaved bushy Hawkweed. A few plants in a wood 
near Burridge Heath. — H. sciaphilum (Uechtr.). Sparingly in Foxbury 
Wood, teste E. S. Marshall. 

Lactuca muralis (Gaertn.). Wall Lettuce. In a beech coppice named 
*' Bivar Firs," on the chalk escarpment near Rivar, Shalbourne. 

Campanula glomerata (Linn.). Clustered Bell-flower. With white 
flowers near Shalbourne. — C. Trachelium {Linn.). Nettle-leaved Bell-flower. 
In Foxbury Wood with white flowers. 

Legousia hybrida (Delarb.). Corn Campanula. Occasionally in corn- 
fields near Bedwyn. 

Primula vulgaris (Huds.). The hybrid with the Cowslip occurs, but is 
not common. Primrose flowers can be found all the year round in sheltered 
places in woods, this year (1922) they were noticed in November and 
December in Bedwyn Brails, 

Anagallis tenella (Murr.). Bog Pimpernel. Plentiful in a small marsh 
near Webb's Gully ; a delicate pretty little plant. 

Blackstonia perfoliata (Huds.). Yellow Centaury. There is a good, 
station for this local species on the southern side of Chisbury Wood; as is 
usual in the case of annuals, the quantity produced in each year varies a ; 
good deal, more being produced in favourable seasons. I have known it 
in the above locality for the last six years. 

Erythraea Ceritaurium (Pers.). Centaury. White-flowered Centaury 
is by no means uncommon on sandy ground in the woods surrounding Great 

Gentiana Amarella (Linn.). Autumnal Gentian. Various patches with 
white flowers on the downs below Botley Great Copse were seen in 1920.— 
G- campestris (Linn.). Field Gentian. Among short grass near St 
Katharine's Church, in the Forest, near Cobham Frith, near Chisburj 
Wood, near Burridge Heath, etc., well distributed amongst short grass 
heathy places near Great Bedwyn ; a white-flowered form, rare in the soutl 
of England, occurred near Folly Farm. — G. germanica (Willd ). In an oki 
chalk pit north of Shalbourne, where it hybridizes with G. Amarella [Cl 
Pamplinii (Druce)] ; the hybrid plants found here were named by Dr. G. c| 

By Cecil P. Hurst. 159 

Menyanthes trifoliata (Linn.). Bogbean, or Marsh Buckbean. In a 
spongy bog near Webb's Gully ; also on very wet ground in Chisbury Wood. 

Myosotis ccespitosa (Sch.). Marshy ground near Burridge Heath. 

Lithospermum officinale (Linn.). Gromwell. In Wilton Brails and 
Chisbury Wood ; not so common as L. arvense. 

Echium vulgare (Linn.). Viper's Bugloss. Very local ; near Round 
Copse and by a chalk-pit on the east side of Bedwyn Brails ; at the latter 
station the very rare white-flowered plant (/. alha) was observed. 

Cuscuta Epithymum (Murr.). Lesser Dodder. Eastern side of Bedwyn 
Brails, uncertain in its occurrence. 

Hyoscyamus niger (Linn.). Henbane. In an old chalk-pit in Tottenham 
Park and near Braydon Oak in Savernake Forest. 

Linaria spuria (Miller). Round-leaved Toadflax. A pelorious form with 
three, four, or five spurs to the corolla occurred on Conyger Hill in a 
cultivated field ; I found eight or nine plants showing this curious deformity, 
the typical plant, of course, has only one spur. 

Scrophularia alata (Gil.). Extending for about three miles along the 
Shalbourne stream from its source in a swamp near tShalbourne to about 
half-a-mile below Standen Manor, where it meets and hybridizes with S. 
aquatica, thei Water Figwort ; Dr. G. C. Druce's description of the hybrid 
S. aquatica X S. alata, which was new to the British Flora when it was 
found in 1915, is as follows: — "Plant tall and luxuriant, of a less dark 
green than aquatica, but slightly darker than alata, and somewhat less 
translucent. The leaves less acute than alata, crenate or crenate serrate, 
with longer and more open crenations. Corolla greener than aquatica, 
darker than alatd,, the staminode not entire, but slightly divided into two 
obscure lobes. Capsule smaller than aquatica, less pointed, and usually 
broader, often quite small and abortive. Some of jthe specimens were 
nearer to aquatica, others to alata, the leaves approaching in shape and 
cutting to one or the other parent, with which they grew in tangled masses." 
A Latin diagnosis was published in the Report of the Botanical Exchange 
Club, Along the Shalbourne, Scrophularia alata grows in Wiltshire and 
Berkshire, and very fine plants, over six feet high, occurred in the dense 
Epilohium hirsutum swamp at the source of the stream, one specimen 
exceeded seven feet ; in this morass I noticed a plant of the Figwort 
producing adventitious roots. 

Euphrasia curtawSiV. glabrescens{'^Qtt^t. ). Eyebright. Rather plentiful 
on sandy ground in Tottenham Park ; the late Rev. E. S. Marshall referred 
my plants to a small form of this var. 

Pedicularis sylvatica (Linn.). Lesser Red Rattle. The rare white- 
flowered form was noticed in Foxbury Wood in May, 1921. 

Orobanche elatior (Sutt.) Broomrape. This handsome and generally 
rare species is by no means infrequent in this neighbourhood ; plants have 
occurred at Great Bedwyn, it grows by roadsides near Froxfield, and there 
is a fine station in a chalk-pit to the south of Chilton Foliat ; it is a very 
rare Berkshire flower. 

Lathraea Squamaria (Linn.). Toothwort. In hazel copses ; not common, 
Foxbury Wood (in profusion in one place). Horse Copse, Trinkledown 
Copse, it occurred in a hazel hedge by the roadside near Froxfield ; parasitical 
on the roots of hazel and other shrubs. 

160 Great Bedwyn Flowering Plants and Ferns. 

Verbena officinalis (Linn.)- Vervain. A few plants at Shaiboume. 

Mentha rotundifolia (Huds.). Round-leaved Mint. A good station for 
this rare mint exists on a rubbish heap in the hedge opposite Sicily Cottages, 
near Sadler's Hill ; it is presumably introduced here, though the 
cottagers told me it was not grown in their gardens. — M. piperita (Huds.)» 
Peppermint. Abundantly in a little Juncus effusus marsh on the north-west 
side of Bedwyn Brails ; probably a denizen, for thirty or forty years 
ago a cottage and garden stood about sixty yards away, though these 
have long ago disappeared, and the mint probably escaped from the garden 
and found its way to the bog ; the specimens had a strong odour of Spear- 
mint {M. viridis),Si.nd were more hairy than the ordinary Peppermint, under 
which they will be probably placed as a variety ; this made them of some 
critical interest and this year (1922) specimens were distributed through 
the Botanical Exchange Club of the British Isles ; they were strongly 
infested by the parasitic fungus, Puccinia menthae. — M. sativa var. paludosa 
(Sole). On wet ground near Stype, the upper whorls are collected into a 
spike in this var. 

Calamintha Acinos (Clairv.). Basil Thyme. A few plants near Bedwyn 
Brails ; more plentifully at the foot of the chalk escarpment near Starveall 

Scutellaria minor (Huds.). Lesser Skullcap. Not uncommon in damp 
places in woods on the Eocene outliers near the Bedwyns, avoiding the 
chalk, Wilton Brails, Bedwyn Brails, Stype, etc. ; north of the canal I have 
seen it in Haw Wood. 

Stachys officinalis (Trev.)- Betony. The white-flowered form is found 
near Bedwyn. 

Lamium Galeohdolon (Cr.), Yellow Archangel. The barren creeping 
stems of this plant occur in our woods in autumn and are very puzzling to 
beginners, in the absence of flowers. 

Teucrium Scorodonia (Linn.). Wood Sage. A plant of the heath which, 
avoids lime, so is very local near the Bedwyns ; it occurs very sparingly in 
Bedwyn Brails, in Webb's Gully more plentifully, and grows in quantity in 
Birch Copse, Savernake Forest. 

Ajuga reptans (Linn.). Bugle. White flowers are found occasionally in 
the woods. 

Littorella unijiora (Asch.). Shoreweed. A calcifuge plant flowering in 
August, which is very rare in calcareous Wiltshire ; it grows with Sphagnum \ 
moss on the muddy margins of a drinking pool for the deer in Tottenham] 
Park ; this pool is well raised above the chalk on an outlier of Reading sands 

Gheno'podium ruhrum (Linn.). Red Goosefoot. Characteristic speci-| 
mens at Wolfhall. 

Polygonum lapathifolium (Linn.). On drying mud in Tottenham Park;! 
in some years this annual plant is very uncommon, it was so in 192L P\ 
maculatum var. incanum (Gren. et Godr.). Fairly frequent in a stubblei 
field near Burridge Heath in 1921, but next year I was unable to find a| 
plant ; Dr. G. C. Druce tells me Polygonum maculatum has hitherto beei 
unrecorded for Wiltshire. P. amphibium (Linn.) The var. coenosw 
(Koch) which is intermediate between the terrestrial and aquatic forms of 
this species and has a decumbent stem, is plentiful near the stream a| 
Shalbourne Mill. 

By Cecil P. Hurst. 161 

Bumex pulcher {lAnn.). The Fiddle Dock occurred in fair quantity- 
close to the Swings on Marlborough Common in 1922 and here it has been 
known to grow for many years ; there is a good station by Hopgrass Farm 
near Hungerford, for this very local species. — It. acutus (linn.). A plan 
which is a hybrid between R. ohtusifolius and -Z2. cWs/j-wsand which grew in 
a field on the south side of the London and Bath Road, near Knowle Farm. 
Salix pentandra {lAn^.). Bay-leaved Willow. Planted in a valley on 
Upper Greensand, near Wilton Water. S. viridis{Fv.). A hybrid between 
S. alha and S. fragilis planted in the last mentioned valley ; the plants 
were named by Dr. G. C, Druce. S. aurita (Dwarf Sallow), X S. cinei^ea 
(Sallow), [S. lutescens A. Kern.). A hybrid willow growing on Conyger 
Hill ; the Rev. E. F. Linton, author of " The British Willows,'' wrote : — 
" The willow is very good ^. aurita, X S. cinerea. The oblong-lanceolate 
leaves and their clothing below showing czTierea and the stipules auricled 
and pointed proving aurita plainly. It is the commoner hybrid of the 
Capreae.'' — *S^. aurita type occurs on Conyger Hill, and also near Burridge 
Heath and in Foxbury Wood. — S. emerea (Sallow), X *S'. vimi^talis (Osier), 
(S.Smithiana Willd.). A not infrequent hybrid by the canal and its water- 
courses near Bedwyn. S. 7rpens (Linn.). Creeping Willow. An ericetal 
shrub not uncommon on the Tertiary outliers; Wilton Brails, Bedwyn Brails, 
near Folly Farm, between Shalbourne Newtown, and Burridge Heath, etc. 
Populus tremula (Linn.) The Aspen. Not uncommon among trees on 
the outskirts of woods; Chisbury Wood, Bedwyn Brails,near Foxbury Wood. 
I have not seen the White Poplar {P. alha) here, although it is recorded 
for Bedwyn. — P. nigra (Linn.). Black Poplar. In Foxbury Wood. — P. 
canescens (Sm). Grey Poplar. A hybrid between P. alba and P. tremula ; 
near Burnt Mill Lock, on the canal, and a few trees on Burridge Heath, 
near Foxbury Wood. 

C eratophyllum demersum (Linn.). Hornwort. Abundant in the canal. 
• JVeottia Nidus-avis [llich.). Bird's Nest Orchid. Copse near Ramsbury ; 
'Trinkle Down Copse, Froxfield. 

Spira7ithesautumnalis (Rich.). Ladies' Tresses Orchid. In fair quantity 
butdecreasing,ina sloping rushy meadow, on clayey ground, near the northern 
edge of Bedwyn Brails ; an exceedingly pretty and graceful little plant, 
with honey-scented flowers. 

Hellehorine latifolia (Druce). Broad-leaved Helleborine. A few plants 
near Baverstock's Copse, Shalbourne, and several by Rhododendron Drive, 
in the Forest; a very local species. — H . violacea {'DvvlQq) . Purple Helle- 
borine. Thinly scattered through the woods round Great Bedwyn ; it often 
gets eaten down by rabbits before blooming ; I found a fine flowering spike 
; in Foxbury Wood in August, 1920; this orchid used to grow^ well by the 
i roadside at Cobham Frith Wood, near the London and Bath Road, and, 
i from the stem and leaves being deeply tinged with dark violet, was known 
j locally as *' Black Hellebore," but it has not appeared in this station for 
I several years, being, like many orchids, very uncertain in its occurrence; 
[plants were also found in a copse near London Ride, in the Forest. — 
\H. longifolia (R. k Br.). Marsh Helleborine. In a spongy bog on London 
tclay, between Folly Farm and Webb's Gully, in fair quantity ; first noticed 
by Dr. A. Adams, of Looe, Cornwall, in 1919; a rare and beautiful marsh 

162 Great Bedwyn Flowering Plants and Ferns. 

orchid flowering in July. It occurs in the above station with the extremely 
rare Broad-leaved Cotton Sedge {Eriophorum, latifolium)^ and it is note- 
worthy that the association of these two rare plants is also found at Cothill 
Bog, in Berkshire, a noted locality for scarce and interesting marsh flowers. 

0. ericetorum (Linton). Heath Orchis. Well-marked plants in some 
quantity on boggy ground near Stype Wood ; it also grows near Folly Farm 
and north of the canal I have seen it near the top of Hatchet Lane, Great 
Bedwyn ; it differs from 0. maculata in growing on marshy ground and 
in flowering earlier, the leaves are narrower and the lower lip of the flower 
much larger and broader, though its middle lobe is very short. 

Hahenaria viridis (Br.). Frog Orchis. In some quantity on the down 
below Botley Great Copse. 

Iris faetidissima. Stinking Iris, or Gladdon. A few plants in the wood 
at the top of Hatchet Lane, but doubtfully native. 

Galanthus nivalis (Linn.). Snowdrop. Naturalized near Ham and 
Membury Camp. 

Polygonatum multijlorum (All.). Solomon's Seal. Occurring in nearly 
every wood and copse around Bedwyn ; the frequency and wide 
distribution of this graceful sylvestral species is a floral characteristic of the 
district ; it is occasionally seen growing by the wayside where a road passes 
through a wood. 

Allium vineale (Linn.). Crow Garlic. Common on field borders but 
always the var. compactum (Thuill), in which the flowers are replaced by 
bulbils ; I have not seen the type. —A. ursinum (Linn.) Ramsons. I noticed 
this species in a copse in Ham village, near Shalbourne. 

Omithogalum umbellatum (Linn.). Star of Bethlehem. Fallow field, 
probably a broken-up meadow, near Tidcombe, in some quantity in May, 
1920; a naturalized species. — 0. pyrenaicum (Linn.). Spiked Star of 
Bethlehem. Jugg's Wood, Trinkle Down Copse, Brief Copse, which are 
three small woods between Oakhill, near Froxfield, and Stype Wood, in 
which it also grows; one of the most local and interesting of our native 
wild flowers. The glaucous channelled leaves appear in March and are 
quite withered by the time the plant flowers in July, which feature Dr. 
Druce says makes it belong to 0. sulfureum (Roem. et Schult.) ; the un- 
expanded flowering spikes in May are called "French Asparagus," but 
when cooked are very insipid compared with the real vegetable. 

Colchicum autumnale (Linn.). Meadow Saffron, or Autumn Crocus. This 
beautiful plant is a great ornament in September to our woods, where it is 
common, growing in the densest thickets ; the large leaves appear in April 
and are poisonous to cattle, they have quite disappeared by the time the 
plant blooms in the autumn. 

Paris quadrifolia (Linn.). Herb Paris. Plentiful in one place on the 
chalk in Foxbury Wood ; a lime-loving local species. 

Juncus compressus (Jacq.). Ramsbury, near one of the watercourses of 
the Kennet. — J. diffusus (Hoppe). A hybrid between J. injflexus and J. 
effusus occurs in a sloping meadow on London clay near Shalbourne] 
Newtown ; plants from this locality were named by Dr. Druce ; I think Ii 
have seen it elsewhere near Bedwyn, — J. conglomeratus (Linn.). Occurs 
but is not nearly so common as J. effusus; perhaps there are ten plants of| 
the latter to one of the former. 

By GecU p. Hurst. 163 

Luzula sylvatica (Gaud.). Great Wood Rush. This plant grows finely 
in Chisbury Wood, where it has long been known to occur. 

Sparganium simplex (Huds.). Bur-reed. Not uncommon along the canal. 

Lemna irisulca (Linn.). Ivy-leaved Duckweed. Not uncommon along 
the canal, but owing to incessant dredging the stations are uncertain. 

Alisma Plantago var. lanceolatum (Wilh.). Water Plantain. A form 
with lanceolate leaves, shorter style, and oval not oblong sepals which 
appears to merge gradually into the type, grows commonly along the Canal 
with the typical plant. 

Sagittaria sagittifolia (linn.). Arrowhead. By the canal side at 

Butomus umbellatus (Linn.). Flowering Rush. Occurs sparingly along 
the canal between Bedwyn and Savernake, but does not often flower ; the 
triangular rush-like leaves are very distinctive ; owing to the constant 
dragging and pruning of the canal, its persistence in any one given station 
is very uncertain. 

Ti^iglochin palustre (Linn.). Marsh Arrow Grass. Very sparingly by 
the canal and in two bogs between Folly Farm and Webb's Gully. 

Potamogeton polygo7iifolius (Pourr.). This pondweed grew sparingly 
and flowered in a little bog drain between Round Copse and Folly Farm 
the plants were named by Dr. Druce ; it is very rare or absent on the 
chalk but is common in heathy districts. P. Friesii (Rupr.). In the 
canal at Wootton Rivers. 

Zannichellia palustris (Linn.). Horned Pondweed. In a large pool 
forming the headwaters of the Shalbourne Stream near Shalbourne ; it 
seems extinct in a pond near Wolfhall. 

Eleocharis acicularis (R. & Sch.). Slender Club Rush. A very in- 
conspicuous plant not uncommon in the canal near Bedwyn ; it grows 
submerged and is the form submersa (Hy. Nilss.) in which state it does not 
flower. The plant is recognisable by its white creeping rhizome which is 
sometimes brought up by the tow-ropes of canal barges, and by its slender 
needle-like leaves ; when I noticed it in 1920 it seemed to be new to South 
Wilts, the only other county record appearing to be that of Dr. Druce, who 
found it at the bottom of the canal at Marston Maisey, in North Wiltshire 
and recorded it in the t7b^^r7^. o/^o^. for 1885, p. 275. In 1921 the water 
in one of the sections of the canal near Crofton was slightly lowered and 
the plant which was growing plentifully on the muddy margin above the 
water produced its tiny spikelets sparingly, the leaves were very fine and 
grass-like. P. palustris (R. & Sch.), Club Rush. Round a pool high up 
on the down to the south of Tidcombe specimens of P. palustris occurred 
3ft. in height, this is the var. major (Koch.). 

Scirpus setaceus (Linn.). Foxbury Wood ; side of an open valley near 
Webb's Gully ; very sparingly on the edge of Chisbury Wood ; a local and 
rare plant in the adjoining county of Berkshire. 

Eriophorum angustifotium (Roth.). Cotton Sedge or Cotton Grass. 
Marsh near Round Copse ; boggy ground near Webb's Gully. P. latifolium 
(Hoppe). Broad-leaved Cotton'Sedge. Sparingly in a spongy bog between 
Folly Farm and Webb's Gully ; this rare plant, specimens of which from this 
llocality were examined by Dr. Druce, was new to Wiltshire when it was 

164 Great Bedwyn Flowering Plants and Ferns, 

noticed in 1919, by the Rev. J. H. Adams, of Minchinhampton (Glos.) ; the 
great drought of 1921 played havoc with our Gyperaceae and this year (1922) 
I have been unable to find it. 1922 has been very wet and it is to be hoped 
it will reappear. 

Carex pulicaris (Linn.). Flea Sedge. In a marsh near Round Copse 
and plentiful on boggy ground at Stype. — C. disticha (Huds.). A tuft by 
a drinking pool for the deer near Leigh Hill, Tottenham Park. — G- leporina 
(Linn.). Not uncommon in damp places around Bedwyn. — G. Goodenowii 
(Gay). Very fine and tall in a boggy place in Bedwyn Brails; bog near 
Webb's Gully. — G. pallescens (Linn.). Oobham Frith Wood ; 3ft. high in 
Foxbury Wood, growing with G. helodes,—G. panicea (Linn.). Pink Sedge, 
or Carnation Sedge. Bog near Webb's Gully. — G. helodes (Link.). 5ft. 
high and extending for some distance in a boggy valley in Foxbury Wood, 
but greatly diminished in quantity by the drought of 1921.— C./w^va (Host.). 
Plants from a marsh near Round Copse were named by Dr. Druce ; it also 
occurs in a bog near Webb's Gully, and here it hybridizes with G. flava var. 
minor ; the hybrid is a very rare plant, and specimens from this locality 
were distributed through the Botanical Exchange Club. — G.fiava (Linn.). 
Not infrequent in boggy places near Bedwyn,but all the var. minor (Towns.), 
I have not seen true fiava. — G. hinervis (Sm.). An ericetal species which 
appears to be extinct in its locality near Rhododendron Drive, in the 
ForestjOwing to the gradual drying of the ground, and at present I know 
of no locality near Bedwyn. — G- echinata (Murr.). Occurs in quantity on 
boggy ground near Stype. 

Galamagrostis epigeios (Roth.). Wood Small Reed. A good station for 
this fine grass exists in Bedwyn Brails, not far from the Keeper's Cottage, 
and near the eastern border of the wood ; there is an old record for Chisbury 
Wood, where I have been unable to find it ; it was noticed a year or two ago 
near Chilton Foliat during an excursion of the Marlborough College Natural 
History Society, 

Sieglingia decumhens (Bernh.) Not uncommon in heathy places, Stype, 
near Folly Farm, near Shalbourne Newtown, etc., etc, 

Molinia ccerulea {'^\oQnQ,\\.) . Purple Melic Grass. In wet heathy places, 
not common ; London Ride ; boggy ground near Stype ; marshy valley 
near Round Copse ; a bluish moorland grass, the wiry stems are sometimes 
used for cleaning pipes. 

Foa trivialis var. parviflora (Parn.). In a damp valley in Foxbury 
Wood, a slender plant with small 1 — 2 flowered spikelets. 

Glyceria plicata (Fr.). On ground by the stream at Shalbourne Mill ; 
also by a pool north of Shalbourne ; easily known by the lower pale being 
twice as long as broad, instead of three times, as in G. fluitans. 

Festuca bromoides (Linn.) Squirrel's-tail Grass, The very dwarf form 
var. nana (Parn ) occurred on sandy ground at Dod's Down. 

Bromus erectus (Huds.). Very fine on chalky roadside banks as by the 
road from Great Bedwyn to Shalbourne ; very handsome in flower.—^, 
secalinus var. velutinus (Schrad.). In a dry cornfield near Great Bedwyn 
Vicarage ; one or two plants on the south side of the canal near Guildford's 
Farm ; spikelets downy and larger than in the type, which is occasionally 
seen in cultivated fields near Bedwyn.—^. commutatus (Schrad.). Cornfield 
above a sandpit near Round Copse. 

By Cecil P. Hurst. 165 

Brachypodium pinnatum (Beauv.), Spiked Fescue Grass. Local; a 
large patch in a field near Fairway, Great Bed wyn, conspicuous from its 
yellow-green colour ; it occurs in the Forest, in a small depression in the 
chalk near Braydon Oak. 

Nardus stricta (Linn.). Mat Grass. Not common ; a patch in a heathy 
field near Burridge Heath ; also growing rather sparingly near Stype 

Blechnum Spicant (With.). Hard Fern. Not uncommon in woods on 
the Tertiary outliers, but not on the chalk ; particularly abundant in a 
small valley on the Reading sands in Chisbury Wood. 

Asplenium Adiantum-nigrum (Linn.). Black Spleenwort. Generally 
very rare in the district but common in the brickwork of the bridges over 
the canal near Great Bedwyn. — A lVichoma7i€s (hinn.). Maidenhair Spleen- 
wort. A fern that grew in the churchyard wall at Great Bedwyn, where 
it appears to be extinct. 

Athyrium Filix-fmnina (Roth.). Lady Fern. Bather common in the 

Ceterach officinarum (Willd.). Scale Fern. Very rare ; in fair quantity 
in the brickwork of a bridge over the canal between Great Bedwyn and 
Crofton ; on the Somerset Hospital at Froxfield ; it has occurred in the 
brickwork of a lock-pound on the canal. 

Phyllitis S col opendr turn (Newm.). Hart's Tongue. Very rare; in a 
brick shaft at Dod's Down ; on a bank by the Shalbourne Stream, near 

Polystichum aculeatum (Roth.). Prickly Shield Fern. In hedges and in 
the ramparts at Chisbury Camp, the only station near here. 

Lastrea montana (T. Moore). Sweet Mountain Fern. In small quan- 
tity in two localities near London Ride in the Forest ; this fern may 
possibly have given its name to Savernake Forest, for Mr. Maurice Adams 
writes in " Sylvan Savernake " : — " As to the origin of the name ' Saver- 
nake ' opinions differ. Some, as Fuller, Camden, and others, considered it 
to have reference to an old Cornish word, ' savarn,' signifying ' savour,' " 
and that the name was given to the district from the fact that a sweet- 
smelling fern known as the Po/?/po6?it«m/m<7rans was occasionally found 
here. Aubrey's allusion to this is in the following terms: — "Dr. Fuller 
also makes mention of a sweet fern which growes in this forest, which the 
Vicar here tells me he hath seen and smelt ; it is like other fern " (" other 
fern " probably refers to bracken and Lastrea Filix-mas) " but not so 
bigge. He knows not where about it grows but promised to make en- 
' quiry." To this statement he appends the memorandum " Send also to 
Mr. Bird of Stock for some." To the view that the name Savernake is 
thus derived it has been objected that the fern in question is not by any 
means confined to this locality, nor is it likely, under these circumstances, 
to have given the name to so large a tract of country. However this may 
I be, in view of the above, its persistence in the Forest in two localities not 
far from Stock House, is interesting ; it should be searched for and found 
in other parts of the Forest. 

166 Great Bedwyn Flowering Plants and Ferns. 

The Shield Ferns, Lastrea spinulosa (Presl.) and L. aristata (Ren. & 
Brit ) are common in the woods. 

Polypodium vulgare (Linn.). Polypody. Common on oaks in the 

Ophioglossum vulgatum (Linn.). Adder's Tongue Fern. Not uncommon, 
very plentiful on London clay in a meadow near Shalbourne Newtown ; 
Chisbury Wood, etc. 

Botrychium Lunaria (Sev.). Moon wort. In fair quantity in one place 
on the flat expanse known as West Leas, near Foxbury Wood ; in May, 
1922, I saw two plants on Column Ride, in Tottenham Park. 


Equisetum sylvaticum (Linn.). Wood Horsetail. A local species occur- 
ring plentifully ; in a meadow on j London clay near Newtown Shalbourne ; a 
very elegant plant ; the rare var. capillare (Milde), emerald green and with 
many long slender branches of equal length grows in some quantity in one 
place in Wilton Brails. E. palustre (Linn.)- Marsh Horsetail. The var. 
poly stachy um {'^%\gQ\)m which, th^ branches bear cones as well as the 
main axis, is found sparingly on London clay at Dod's Down ; only two 
localities for this uncommon form are given in Dr. Druce's " Flora of Berk- 


Chara fragilis (Desv.). In a shallow pond near Burridge Heath ; with 
nice fruit in a pool on Conyger Hill. C. vulgaris (Linn.). Canal at Great 
Bedwyn; Var. papillata (Wallr.). In large quantity paving a drinking 
pool for cattle on the east side of Bedwyn Brails in Aug., 1921, but this 
year (1922) it had entirely disappeared, as often happens with the Charas ; 
Mr. James Groves, F.L.S., writes : " Your plant is C. vulgaris var. papil- 
lata ; extreme forms of the variety are well-marked but like most Chara 
vars., there are many intermediates. I am afraid the continued drought 
(in 1921) has been prejudicial to water as well as to land plants." 



By Sir Stephen Glynne.^ 

Amesbury. [Sept. 28th, 1824. J The Church of Ambresbury is a large 
and ancient edifice, standing in a Church yard adjoining the park of 
the Manor House. It is in the form of a cross, consisting of a nave 
with south aisle, a transept, a chancel with a large tower in the centre. 
The general character of the Church is Early English with some later 
portions. The south aisle is a Perpendicular addition, and is divided 
from the nave by two pointed arches with a good Perpendicular pier 
having detached shafts with flowered capitals. The windows in this 
aisle are tolerably good Perpendicular. The west window of the nave is 
Perpendicular. The nave has a wood roof with pierced beams, wrought 
with the square flower and other ornaments. In the south wall of the 
aisle is a good Perpendicular trefoiled niche. 'Ilie appearance of the 
nave is much disfigured by a clumsy projecting gallery for singers, 
which is placed within one of the arches on the south side. The roof of 
the south aisle and of the transept is plain but has corbels formed by 
grotesque heads. The tower is large and massive ; its character is Early 
English. It has on each side three long lancet windows, and is finished 
by a perfectly plain parapet. The arches which support it are par- 
ticularly bold and lofty ; they open to the nave, chancel, and transept, 
and spring from piers formed of clustered Early English shafts. The 
northern transept has at its north end three Early English lancet 
windows, and more of the same sort on its west side, with string course 
running beneath them. The chancel displays some very good work. 
It has some lancet windows and two very elegant Decorated ones, each 
of four lights, and one on each side of the chancel ; their tracery is 
very diJBTerent, that on the south side appears to be early in the style. 
The east window is Perpendicular. A string course runs round the 
interior of the chancel. On the north side is a small Early English 
doorway with a dripstone. On the north side of the altar table is what 
is said to have been a confessional. It is a beautiful Decorated 

^ In St. Deiniol's Library, at Hawarden, are preserved a large number of 

[MS. notes on the architectural features of Churches in many parts of 

I England made by Sir Stephen Glynne chiefly during the second and third 

quarters of the 19th century. The Wiltshire portion of these notes was 

I transcribed for our Society in 1909 by the kindness of the then warden, the 

j Rev. G. C. Joyce. It is proposed with the generous permission of Mr. H. 

Gladstone, to follow the example of some other societies which have 

already printed the portions concerning their counties, and to print these 

Wiltshire notes as they stand without comment, except that where a word 

in the MS. is illegible or doubtful it will be noted by a query. 


168 Notes on Wiltshire Churehes. 

specimen, somewhat early in the style. It is a niche with deep 
architrave mouldings, simply feathered, and with shafts having plain 
round moulded capitals ; this is surmounted by a triangular canopy 
with an extremely fine rich finial and crockets, and having on each 
side of it a buttress terminating in a rich crocketed pinnacle. The 
space between the canopy and the head of the niche is filled up with a 
pierced trefoil. The whole is of exquisitely beautiful workmanship. 
In the chancel is a brass inscription of 14Y0. The font is square and 
plain, but at the base on each side is a range of trefoiled niches. 

Ashton Keynes. Holy Cross. [June 24th, 1870.] An interesting 
Church, consisting of a lofty clerestoried nave with north and south 
aisle, chancel with north aisle, a west tower, and north and south porch. 
There is some variety of architecture and some curious features. The 
arcades of the nave are not quite alike, each has four arches. On the 
north the two western are Early English and pointed, upon a central cir- 
cular column which has some odd sculpture in the capital, resembling 
volutes, and the west respond has a kind of fluting. Thenfollows a (?) and 
a square pier, and the two eastern arches are later upon an octagonal 
pillar with some foliage in the capital and with somewhat similar 
responds. The southern arcade is wholly Early English, the columns 
circular with circular moulded capitals and similar responds. The 
clerestory windows are poor and modern. In the south aisle are two 
Edwardian windows of two lights and one Perpendicular of three. In 
the north aisle they are all good Edwardian of two lights. The nave 
has a (triple T) roof with ribs and tie beams. The tower arch is an 
open one pointed, on octagonal shafts with capitals. On the north 
side of the tow^er is a trefoil headed doorway. 

The tower seems Perpendicular, is divided into three stages, and has 
corner buttresses and a good embattled parapet and well finished 
gargoyles. The west window is large, of five lights, but rather plain- 
each light simply cinquefoiled. 

The belfry windows, each of two lights — in the (?) stage is a single 
trefoiled light. On the north is a shallow projection for staircase. 
The nave contains some open ancient benches of plain character. The 
chancel arch is Norman of three orders, upon two shafts on each side, 
which have cushion capitals. One order is of double chevron, one of 
single ; the soffit is plain. The font is attached to a south pier and is 
early : a circular block with herring bone and foliage round the rim. 
There is a square-headed door with the rood stairs at the east of the 
north aisle of the nave and an upper door pointed. Between the north 
aisle of the nave and that of the chancel is an Early English arch upon 
square imposts — over which is a curious piece of sculpture which seems 
of Early Decorated character. It looks like a reredos, but its situation 
so high up makes that improbable. It is in three compartments and 
forms rather a flat arch, the centre piece having a cusped vesica ; the 
lateral compartments have ogee canopies with crockets and finials— 
and bounded by Perpendicular mouldings filled with ball flowers. 
The chancel is divided from its north aisle by two small pointed 

By Sir Stephen Glynne. 169 

arches of Early English character on square impost mouldings, set upon 
the central square pier ; each of these arches opens into a separate 
chapel. The two chapels are very curious. Each has separate tiled 
roofs, and each contains a piscina ; that in the western has a canopied 
arch, surmounted by a trefoil, with shelf and basin. The other piscina 
is simply with trefoil headed arch and also with stone shelf. The 
windows of these chapels are transitional from Decorated to 
Perpendicular. The chancel has on the south one Perpendicular 
window of two lights, two square-headed, another next the east, is a 
single-light cinquefoiled. The east window is Perpendicular, of three 
lights and transomed. The north porch has some flowered mouldings 
and corner buttresses. Lateral windows square headed and Per- 
pendicular. The outer door with continuous mouldings ; the inner 
door has round arch and very plain hood. The south porch has coved 
ribbed roofs. The outer door continuous ; the inner has Tudor arch 
and foliage spandrels. 

Avebury. S. James. [29th April, 1850.] This Church has a nave with 
with aisles, chancel, west tower, and south porch. There are some 
Norman features. The nave is short and lofty ; the chancel rather 
long. The walls are mostly of flint and stone mixed. Within the 
porch is a good Norman doorway, late in the style, having two orders 
of mouldings and shafts. Of the former one is nail-headed, one 
cylindrical, the hood nail-headed. The shafts are keeled and have 
capitals of First Pointed appearance with moulded abaci. The porch 
itself is late. The effect of the interior is poor from the disproportionate 
size of chancel and nave, and more especially from the debased alter- 
ations in the latter. The short arcades are each only of two bays, 
having pointed arches, with circular columns, which have debased 
square capitals. The south clerestory is also of a debased character. 
In the angle of each extreme pier on the south appears a short Norman 
shaft, a remnant of the original work. The windows are mostly Third 
Pointed in the aisles, except one on the south, which has two trefoiled 
headed lights under a segmental arch, and a lancet at the end of the 
north aisle. 

The chancel arch is a very low pointed one, springing from half 
octagonal shafts. Over this arch against the bare wall is seen now the 
front of the roodloft, having a series of niche paneling, painted and gilt, 
a flowered cornice above and a vine below, under which again is some 
j fringe work with spandrels. On each side is a hagioscope into the chancel 
' from the aisle, both which are large and passage like. That on the north 
opens by a flat arch abutting on the east window of the north aisle, and 
into it opens the rood door. To the west of it is a small (?). On the 
south the hagioscope is in a sort of flattened trefoil form. The nave 
is full of wretched pews and has a western gallery. 

The chancel is early Middle Pointed. On the north are two windows 
of two lights and also on tlie south, the westernmost of which has been 
curiously altered, but the alteration not completed. A third light, also 
three-foiled, but wider than the others, is added to the west, and there 

N 2 

170 Notes on Wiltshire Churches. 

is the beginning of an extension of the containing arch over it. The 
east window is a pretty one of three lights, each light trefoiled headed 
with a trefoil over the lateral lights, and a sixfoil over the central one. 
There is a priest's door on the south, and a piscina, which is now 
undergoing restoration. The fenestella (?) is trefoiled. Opposite to 
this on the north is an obtuse arched almery. The sacrarium is laid 
with encaustic tiles. The altar of oak has a green frontal charged with 
a cross. The font is a fine Norman one, cylindrical in form, diminishing 
downwards, covered with foliage and scroll work — and on its lower 
part is a range of rude intersecting arches with large shafts. The 
tower arch is continuous. The Tower Third Pointed of three stories, 
embattled with four crocketed pinnacles crowning angular buttresses. 
On the south an octagonal turret not reaching the whole height and 
becoming square in its lower part, which has a door. The belfry 
windows of two lights. On the west an obtuse doorway with continuous 
moulding and returned hood. The west window of four lights, with 
hood returned. 

The south aisle is embattled with pinnacles. The north aisle has a 
parapet. The roof of the nave modern. 

Bedwin, Great. [19th June, 1845.] A fine large Church of cruciform 
plan with central tower, with excellent First and Middle Pointed 
features. The walls are constructed of flints and the exterior is 
generally rather plain. The west window is a Third Pointed insertion 
of three lights, as is also the clerestory, which has square-headed 
windows of two lights, and some of the other windows in the aisles 
are similar. The tower in its upper portion is of the same date and 
has an elegant pierced battlement and long belfry windows of two 
lights. The roofs are leaded. Some odd flying buttresses have been 
added to the north clerestory and there are no other buttresses to the 
aisles. The north porch is modern. The interior is in good condition 
and has received much improvement under the auspices of the present 
Vicar. The nave has on each side a fine semi-Norman arcade of four 
arches slightly pointed and enriched with chevron ornament :in the 
mouldings and billets in the hood. The columns are circular, of a 
common Wiltshire character, not unlike those at the Ogbournes and 
Collingbournes ; the capitals square and varying in the character of 
their sculpture, some having singular foliage, some with heads inter- 
mixed. Under the tower are four plain recessed pointed arches of 
early Middle Pointed character, supposed to be about 1306, the hoods 
springing from well-executed head corbels. 

The transepts are Middle Pointed, each has at the end a three-light 
window with ogee head ; the other windows of two lights also Middle 
Pointed. In the south transept is a piscina of octagonal form having 
a projecting ogee canopy three-foiled. Under the end window are two 
sepulchral arches in the wall ; beneath one is the effigy of a cross-legged 
knight with a shield; the other projects considerably, and beneath it 
is an inscribed flat stone ; probably commemorating the founder. In 
both transepts on the east wall is an unusual quantity of fresco I 

By S'W Stephen Giynne. 171 

painting, discovered by removing the whitewash, and of superior 
character to what is generally seen. In the south is represented the 
Crucifixion and the legend of a female saint. In the north is a good 
deal of diaper work with figures of S. John Baptist, S. George, &c. 
The transepts are ceiled, but the corbels are seen. 

The chancel is First Pointed, and large. On the south side five 
lancets which have trefoil heads. The S. W. extended into lychnoscope 
with a transome (?) On the north is the same arrangement, but two 
are cut short by a monument. The north-east and south-east windows 
are extended into seats and there is an ogee piscina trefoiled, with 
projecting basin having an octofoiled orifice. The east is almost 
Middle Pointed of three lights, having the hood corbeled. The windows 
of the chancel have externally no hood. There is a priest's door. In 
the 'chancel are several monuments : one brass of John Seymour, 1517, 
another debased tomb toSir John Seymour, 1536. The rood screen is late. 

The chancel has some very good executed tiles of modern work within 
the sacrarium. The roof of the chancel is high and leaded. The north 
porch is modern. 

Beechingstoke. S. Stephen. [May 14th, 1859.] A small Church having 
only chancel and nave, with south porch, and wooden belfry over the 
west end. There is on it the date 1653, when perhaps it may have been 
wholly or for the most part rebuilt, as there are late debased features 
and the windows are mostly square-headed and poor. The east window 
is a bad Perpendicular insertion and has good stained glass. The 
chancel arch is pointed, rising at once from the wall. The font is 

[Berwick Bassett. Printed in Vol. xxxvii., p. 420.] 

Bishop's Cannings. [August, 1835.] This is a very fine cruciform 
Church, affording an excellent specimen of Early English work almost 
unmixed, except by the insertion of some windows. The nave has side 
aisles, but not the chancel, and from the centre of the cross rises the 
tower of very fine Early English masonry, having a plain parapet with 
a corbel table below it and surmounted by a plain well proportioned 
spire, perhaps of later date. There are small shafts set in the angles 
of the tower and a turret at the north-east angle ending in a pyramid. 
The belfry windows are three long lancets with fine mouldings all 
about them, but no shafts. On the north and south sides there are 
two lancets in the stage below the belfry windows. The whole Church 
is built of excellent stone. The western gable of the nave and the south 
clerestory are embattled, the aisles are leaded, with plain parapets, the 
transepts tiled, with high roofs and gables. There is a large south 
porch with groined ceiling, the outer doorway has very fine arch 
mouldings with foliage, and slender shafts and (— ?) by a triangular 
crocketed canopy. The inner doorway is Early English with shafts 
having foliated capitals. Several of the gables of the Church are (— ?) 
by crosses. The west window of the nave is a triple lancet, with good 
mouldings internally and marble shafts with foliated capitals. The 

172 Notes on Wiltshire Churches. 

nave has on each side four good Early English arches with circular 
pillars, the capitals of which are square with a kind of scalloped 
ornament. The roof of the nave is plain, the beams upon corbels 
representing crowned mitred heads. There is a small window of 
Norman appearance at the west end of the north aisle. The windows 
of the side aisle and clerestory are rectilinear of three lights. The tower 
stands upon four pointed arches opening to the nave, chancel, and 
transepts, rising from half octagon shafts. Beneath the tower is a fine 
groined ceiling of stone. 

The north transept has an aisle or chapel on the east, to which it 
opens by two finely moulded arches, with clustered pier of shafts 
having foliated capitals. This chapel has plain lancet windows. The 
south transept has only arch {sic) to its eastern chapel, in which chapel 
is one lancet and one Early Decorated window, and a late ( — P) monu- 
ment, date 1571. At the end of this transept is a large niche with foliated 
head having knobs at points of the crosses, and containing a piscina and 
a shelf or credence. The transepts in most respects are similar, and 
each has at the end a fine triple lancet with rich mouldings and marble 
shafts with foliated capitals. Under the windows runs a string course ^ 
continued over the doorway in the inside. 

In the north transept is a curious ancient wooden seat, probably a 
confessional, the back of which is painted with three scrolls opening 
from a bird's beak, inscribed thus in black letter : — 
Nescis quatu 
Nescis quoties. 
Deum offendisti. 

In the south transept is a rude ancient box. 

The chancel is large and handsome and has a stone groined ceiling in 
three compartments, of simple design, probably coeval with the main 
portion of the Church, the bosses are foliated, the ribs moulded and 
spring from circular shafts with moulded capitals. The northern 
windows are lancets with good mouldings. On the south they. are 
small incipient Decorated of two lights, without feathering. The 
east window is a fine triple lancet, with marble shafts, nearly resembhng 
those at the ends of the nave and of the transepts. On the south side 
of the altar is a curious piscina, square and projecting, with shafts 
having foliated capitals, and above it a trefoil niche with bold moulding 
stopped by very diminutive shafts standing upon head corbels. The 
altar piece is modern, a stone screen in the Rectilinear style, the altar, 
also modern, is of stone. On the south side of the chancel are remnants 
of sedilia mutilated, the arches trefoiled, and springing from corbels. 
On the north of the chancel is a vestry coeval with it, a strong stone 
groined roof in two compartments, the ribs upon corbels, and the win- 
dows small lancets. The font is octagonal, with quatrefoils on a plain 
shaft. The interior of the Church is in good condition and seems to 
be carefully attended to. The pews, if such things must exist, are good 
of the kind. At the west end is a large organ presented in 1809 by a 
Mr. Bay ley. 

By Sir Stephen Glynne. 173 

Bishopston (S. Wilts). S. John Baptist. [Feb, 20th, 1872.] A fine 
Church cruciform in plan, with central tower. There is a south porch 
and vestry north of the east end of the chancel, but no aisles to nave 
or chancel. The chancel and south transept are of most excellent 
Decorated work ; the north transept also decorated. The nave has 
Perpendicular features. The Church is far superior to the generality 
of the neighbouring Churches and has features of remarkable beauty. 
The material is as usual of mixed flint and stone. The nave has a 
west window of three lights of Decorated character, under which is a 
later doorway with rather flat arch. The other windows of the nave 
are Perpendicular of three lights, two on each side. The roof is of flat 
pitch. The nave is fitted with open seats. The tower is on four 
pointed arches, of which those at the north, east, and west, are lofty 
and continuous in mouldings. That on the south has been altered, is 
much smaller and surrounded by wall in which, above the arch, may 
be seen a Norman arch head, relic of an earlier building, opening to the 
transept, and a trefoil headed lancet. There are two stone brackets 
flanking the western tower arch. The north transept has a Decorated 
window of three lights with reticulated tracery at the end, and two of 
flowing character of two lights. At the end, under the window, a fine 
tomb of the same character, under a rich sepulchral arch having double 
cusping, a large finial, and ball flower in the arch mouldings. The tomb 
has an incised slab. There is also another incised slab with a cross. 
On the east side of this transept is an ogee niche with fine canopy be- 
tween the windows, also a piscina with ogee arch and finial with ball 
flowers in the mouldings and a shelf. This transept has a plain roof« 
The south transept is of similar Decorated character, but has a fine 
groined roof with ribs and bosses, the ribs on corbel heads. The win- 
dows resemble those of the north transept. There is a stone seat at 
the south end. The piscina between the windows on the east side has 
rich overhanging ogee canopy with flanking pinnacles and finial. In 
this transept is a canopied tomb under an arch, resembling that of the 
north transept, commemorating the late Rev. G. A. Montgomery, 
Rector, obit. L840. The organ is placed in the south transept. The 
pulpit has fine wood carving said to have been brought from Spain by 
the Rev. G. Montgomery, also there are good wood stalls of recent date 
in the chancel. The south transept and chancel have externally on the 
east side good paneled parapets pierced with quatrefoils. 

The end window of each transept has externally an ogee hood with 
finial. The south transept has another curious feature, externally 
below the sill of the end window, a kind of small quasi cloister, hav- 
ing a sloping roof and opening on the south by two arches between 
which, as well as (at) the angles of the building, are pedimental but- 
tresses. There are also open arches at the east and west of this cloister. 
This curious building is groined within and it contains two (?) tombs 
which are not in (situ) ?, having been removed from the interior of the 

The chancel has the same paneled parapet as the south transept, 
and is evidently of the same date. It has on each (side 1) windows of 

174 Notes on Wiltshire Churches. 

two lights, two on the south, one on the north (the vestry occupying 
the eastern bay on the north) of good flowing tracery. On the south 
is a priest's door of remarkable beauty, set within a kind of shallow 
porch with overhanging canopy ending in an ogee richly crocketed with 
finial, having groining on the underside. The form of the outer arch 
is remarkable, having cinquefoil head, at one end upon a shaft, at the 
other oddly carried down the jamb. The east window is of four lights 
like that of the south transept, with external ogee drip having finial, and 
the small window in the gable above in shape of a spherical triangle. 
There is an octagonal stair turret at the north-east angle of the chancel. 
The groining of the chancel is very beautiful — each compartment has 
six ribs meeting in a central boss of rich sculpture. The east window 
has on each side, internally, a canopied niche. On the south of the 
sacrarium are three sedilia of great beauty, of the same date as the 
Church, having cinquefoil heads, crocketed with finials, above which 
are pedimental canopies also richly crocketed and with finials. Upon 
each finial is set a crocketed pinnacle having crockets and finials and 
and paneling. There are also crocketed pinnacles set between the 
sedilia, on square stems paneled. Between each stall is an opening of 
ogee form. The upper pinnacles rise to the window sill. The piscina 
has disappeared. 

The vestry has single trefoil headed windows. 

The font is Perpendicular, the bowl octagonal and paneled. 

The porch is tiled — the doorways within it and outside both have 
continuous arch mouldings, and there is a stoup near the inner door, 
also a staircase that led to an upper chamber. 

The tower is plain and hardly lofty enough in proportion. Its upper 
part is very ordinary Perpendicular with bold embattled parapet and 
belfry windows of two lights. 

The south transept and window has externally a dripstone, ending 
in a large finial reaching up to a small window in shape of spherical 
triangle in the gable. 

The end window of the north transept has not the external ogee drip. 

The reredos is a new one, with fine wood carving. 

Bishopstrow. S. Adelme (sic). [May 26th, 1863.] This Church is not 
very interesting ; the body is wholly modern, having been rebuilt in 
the seventeenth century in a quasi-Italian style, with Venetian windows. 
At the west end, however, lis the original steeple, which is wholly 
Perpendicular, a square tower with battlement, bearing an octagonal 
ribbed spire,' which has a horizontal band of paneling. The buttresess 
are placed at the angles, the belfry window of two lights labeled. 

Box. This Church has a nave with aisles, of which the southern is modern, 
chancel, and between the nave and chancel a tower crowned by a stone 
spire. There is a vestry on the north of the chancel, and the whole is 
constructed of fine stone. There is not, however, very much to admire 
in the architecture. The tower, above the roof of the body, and the 
spire are Perpendicular, as are also most of the external features of the 
Church. The tower has an open paneled parapet of a style very common 

By Sir Stephen Glynne. 175 

in the western counties, and small crocketed pinnacles at the angles. 
The belfry windows are of two lights and beneath them is a projecting 
graduated ledge, a feature not very unusual. The spire is octagonal, 
but not ribbed. The buttresses of the tower are strong and on the 
north side is an octagonal stair turret. There is at the west end of 
the nave a Tudor arch doorway, with paneling on the spandrels ; 
over it a three-light Perpendicular window. The windows of the north 
aisle and in the chancel are mostly square-headed, containing the 
doubtful Transition tracery which is so often found. The roofs are 
covered with the stone slates which abound hereabouts. The nave is 
divided from the north aisle by four pointed arches upon low octagonal 
columns with overhanging capitals, and from the south aisle by four 
modern pointed arches with mouldings continued down the piers. 
The windows of the south aisle are (in) imitation of the northern 
ones. The tower in its lower part opens to the nave and chancel, 
each by wide pointed arches, which have continuous mouldings and 
no shafts. The chancel has an east window of three trefoil lights 
within a general arch. The interior is much modernised— there is 
an organ at the west end. The vestry north of the chancel has a gable 

Bradford. Holy Trinity. A large Church entirely Perpendicular, except 
some earlier portions in the chancel. The plan is a west tower with 
short spire, a long and wide nave with north aisle and a small south 
chapel and south porch and chancel. The tower is rather plain — has 
an embattled parapet and an octagonal turret at the south-east. The 
west window, of three lights, has a ( — ?) arch ; the second story has a 
single square-headed window ; the belfry on each side a two-light 
window; the buttresses at the angles; the spire of stone original, but 
not lofty. Within the tower is a fine stone groined roof and the arch 
opening to the nave has paneled soffit. The whole of the exterior is of 
good stone and well finished, though not rich. The nave and chancel 
have embattled parapets, the former a lead roof, the latter tiled. The 
porch has a niche over the entrance. The south chapel, which is low, 
has a tiled roof without battlement. On the south side of the nave 
the windows are mostly of three lights with transoms, one of four lights. 

The windows of the north aisle are of three lights and there is a small 
projection resembling an oriel in the wall of the same aisle, internally 
having two stages of paneling ; it may, perhaps, have served as a 
monumental chapel. 

The arches which divide the nave from the aisle are in two divisions, 
the first, westward, comprises three which have good mouldings and 
spring from light piers of lozenge form with four shafts attached, are 
stilted and have octagonal capitals. Beyond there is a large and wide 
square pier, eastward of which are two pointed arches, with a finely 
moulded pier between them with a shaft at each face. Corresponding 
with the break in the disposition of the piers, there is also an interval 
in the windows of the north aisle. The battlement, gargoyles, corbels, 
(?) on the north side are all particularly well finished. The chancel 

176 Notes on Wiltshire Churches. 

arch is wide, with mouldings and shafts, but encumbered with an ugly- 
gallery and the Royal Arms with the date 1668. There is a small arched 
aperture in the wall from the nave to the north aisle beyond the last 
arch eastward. In the north aisle near the chancel arch is an octagon 
turret for the rood stairs. The chapel on the south of the nave is low 
and opens by an obtuse late arch with mouldings and small shafts. 
This chapel is not used and is the property of Earl Manvers. It has 
a hagioscope, opening into the chancel. In it is a late brass of a lady 
in the dress of the age of Elizabeth, to "Elizabeth Anne — wife of 
Gyfford Longe Oct. 1601, whose known good lyfe sheweth that God 
hath taken her sowle to his mercy." 

The chancel is large and has a covered roof with some sort of paneling. 
There are traces of early work in the chancel and some Norman windows 
closed on each side. The east window is of five lights and Decorated, 
containing some modern painted glass. Some other windows are 
Perpendicular, and one on the north side Decorated of two lights. In 
the south wall is a very fine Decorated tomb, which projects out- 
wardly in a pedimental form, in which a lancet window was inserted, 
and closed. This tomb is surmounted by a lofty and rich canopy, 
consisting of a deeply recessed and moulded arch, having remarkably 
bold feathering, inwardly a lofty triangular crocketed canopy, flanked 
by pinnacles which are set on corbels. On the tomb is the effigy of a 
cross-legged knight with shield and sword. Another slab has an eflSgy 
in bas relief. The reredos is Italian and ugly and contains a painting 
of the Last Supper. The pulpit is poor. The nave has north, west, 
and east galleries ; in the western a large organ. The roof of the nave 
is plastered and in panels of Italian taste. 

The font has an octagonal bowl — the faces variously paneled with 
roses, etc. 

Brinkworth, S. Michael. [Oct. 17th, 1864]. A fair Church, having 
nave with aisles, chancel, west tower, and south porch. The chancel 
has some earlier features and is much lower than the nave. The rest 
is Perpendicular. The tower, rather small, has battlement and corner 
buttresses, belfry windows of two lights, in string courses, some 
smaller windows set irregularly, on the west side a three-light window 
and doorway with label and paneled spandrels. The nave and porch 
wholly embattled ; the outer doorway of the latter has continuous arch 
mouldings and shield corbels. The character iof the nave is very 
uniform ; all the windows similar, of three lights, with intermediate 
buttresses. There is a north doorway of Tudor form. The nave has 
on each side an arcade of five tall pointed arches on octagonal pillars ; 
the arches well moulded and the pillars have capitals. The nave roof 
is coved ; those of the aisles are of plain wood. 

The chancel arch is pointed upon octagonal shafts. 

'J'he chancel is very low and ceiled. The east window is Decorated 
of three lights, and one on the south also Decorated of two lights. One 
north window is a single ogee light, trefoiled, and one is Perpendicular 
square-headed of two liglats. The nave has a high pointed east gable. 
The east end of the aisles embattled. 

By Sir Stephen Glynne, 177 

Britford. S. I'eter. [Feb. 20th, 1872.] The Church is cruciform, with 
central tower, and without aisles ; but an addition was made on the 
north side of the chancel about 100 years ago in incongruous style, 
forming the mausoleum of the Bouveries, and not opening into the 
Church. There are indications of very ancient supposed Saxon work, 
north and south of the nave, where are very rude doorways with round 
arches, with brick intermixed with the stone. The masonry of the 
Church is chiefly of flint with stone intermixed. The tower in its 
upper portion is modern and poor. It stands on four stilted pointed 
arches. The windows of the nave are all modern of the worst kind, 
and the whole is at present pewed. In the east wall of the south 
transept is a piscina with ogee niche, trefoiled and with octofoil orifice. 
There is also a similar piscina to the east of the north transept. There 
are open roofs to the nave and south transept ; the chancel is ceiled. 
There are bad windows in the chancel ; on its north side is a fine tomb 
of Perpendicular character, said to be that of Henry Stafford, Duke of 
Buckingham, obit. 1483, but this is doubtful. The altar tomb is 
paneled with rich canopied niches of ogee form crocketed and 
pinnacled, in which are figures of saints and kings. Above the tomb 
is a rich ogee canopy with two bands of foliage and flanked by pin- 
nacles. A few old bench ends remain amidst the pews. The Church 
is shortly to be restored, and good plans by Street adopted. 

Brokenborough. S. John. [Oct. 16th, 1864] A small Church having 
nave with north aisle and chancel, north porch, and wooden belfry 
over the east end of the nave. The nave has an arcade of four semi- 
Norman arches, semicircular and of small size, on columns which are 
circular and have moulded capitals. The chancel arch is pointed, 
upon circular shafts. In the nave the windows are mostly Perpen- 
dicular, but those at the west end dissimilar. On the N. side of the 
nave is a debased window stretching into the roof and clearly an in- 
sertion. The chancel has on the south a trefoil headed lancet, having 
good mouldings externally all round it. The east window Decorated 
of two lights. The seats are mostly open but plain and poor. There 
is a plain wood screen dividing the chancel. The font has an octagonal 
bowl paneled, Perpendicular in character. The windows on the south 
partly closed, as also the door. The south porch is plain. 
The public approach to this Church is on the north side. 

romhani. S.Nicolas. [April 27th, 1850] A fine Church, with many 
interesting features, having a nave and chancel, each with a south aisle, 
a south porch, and a tower crowned with stone spire in the centre ; 
the aisle extending along the latter as a qu^si-transept, but not carried 
beyond the walls of the other portions. There is some First Pointed 
work in the chancel, the rest of the Church chiefly Third Pointed, the 
south chapel of the chancel being in the rich style which occurs in a 
similar chapel at S. John's, Devizes. The arcade of the nave is of four 
pointed arches, having octagonal columns with moulded capitals, above 
which are small wedges at the angles. The roof of the navels an open 

178 Notes on Wiltshire Churches. 

one with pierced tracery over the beams. In the east angles of the 
nave are corbels of angels bearing the emblems of the Passion. Over 
the eastern portion of the nave, where was the rood loft, the roof is 
paneled and coloured. The ribs are supported on corbel heads. The 
windows of the nave and aisle are all Third Pointed ; at the west a 
large one of five lights ; another similar one on the south ; one on the 
north square-headed of three lights. Another has lost its tracery. 
The tower rises on three pointed arches, opening to the nave, chancel 
and south aisle, which are continuous. In that part of the aisle which 
passes the tower is a five-light window. On the north of the tower is 
a door having nicely carved woodwork opening to steps that lead to 
the rood-loft and also to a sacristy which is either rebuilt or a new 
addition. The chancel is First Pointed, has on the north, three single 
lancets, and a triplet at the east end. The latter has externally 
separate hoods, and internally shafts with elegant circular foliated 
capitals. There are small arches flanking the triplet which are without 
shafts. Of the north lancets only the eastern one has shafts, of which 
the capital has an abacus and foliage and circular bases. Under the 
north-east window is a square recess, or aumbry, having trefoil 
feathering. On the south of the chancel arch is a trefoiled squint into 
the aisle. The chapel on the south of the chancel called Bayntun aisle 
was probably built in the time of Henry VIII., and is of great rich- 
ness both within and without ; and this richness externally extends to 
the part south of the tower. All this has a very fine paneled battle- 
ment, with shields and foliage and a flowered cornice, the buttresses 
at the set-offs having diagonal crocketed pinnacles, which have also 
flowered mouldings. The windows are closely set, each large and of 
five lights. Over the point of each externally are angels bearing shields 
which bear the emblems of the Crucifixion. The east end of this chapel 
is extremely rich, with pinnacles adorned with shields and foliage. At 
the point of the gable is a lofty niche having a high canopy, paneled 
and pierced, the pediment rich and having undergroining, and the 
jambs wreathed. The pedestal of the niche is paneled and flanked 
by two elegant arches, having beautiful mouldings, enriched with 
pieces of foliage and flowers rising from light piers of four slender 
shafts clustered in a lozenge form, with stilted bases and capitals 
octagonal with foliage. Between two windows on the south side is a 
canopied niche, and there is some good stained glass. The priest's 
door has both externally and internally an ogee crocketed canopy, ris- 
ing above the window sill. This chapel has a flat paneled ceiling, 
painted and gilt, with ribs and bosses. On the north side of the east 
window is a rich niche. This chapel is enclosed by rood screens. 
There is a canopied black marble tomb of later date with three ogee 
compartments and paneling, and brass figures at the back, and an 
inscription to Sir Edward Bayntun, A.D. 1574. Another Third i 
Pointed tomb has an effigy and canopy of black marble supported by j 
debased columns. There are also some brasses and helmets, &c., sus- j 
pended. The chapel on the south of the tower has very flat stone I 
groining with foliated ribs and an odd large pendant in the centre. 

By Sir Stephen Glynne. 179 

Over the squint is a ledge with flowered moulding. The south porch 
has a parvise and is embattled ; has the beginning of fan groining, and 
both inner and outer doors obtuse. The tower is strongly built, is 
embattled, and has a large turret on the N. side, is of three stages, and 
the belfry window of two lights. There are four crocketed pinnacles 
and the spire is plain and octagonal without ribs. At the angles are 
gargoyles. The north and south sides of the nave are embattled. 

The font is Third Pointed, the bowl octagonal and diminishing 
downwards, the ribs sinking into the stem and having vine and grapes 
at the points. Each face is paneled. 

The pulpit is a pretty stone one, with paneling and crockets on an 
octagonal stem. The front of the desk is adorned with open niches 
and buttresses. There are low open benches with carved ends, and an 
organ at the west of the aisle on the ground. 

Burbage. All Saints'. The Church has a west tower, nave with aisles, 
north transeptal chapel and south porch, chancel. The tower is not 
lofty, but of excellent stone masonry, though late Perpendicular. It 
is remarkable for being larger from north to south than from east to 
west, and has an embattled parapet and four crocketed pinnacles. 
The west window, of three lights, and below it a door with good 
mouldings. The belfry windows, each of two lights. Some part of 
the tower is chequered in flints. 

The exterior is much patched, some part is chequered in flint, and 
other portions of rough flinty ( — ?), but with a large portion brick is 
intermixed. The clerestory on the north side is carved in brick of 
modern work. Part of the south clerestory is concealed by the sloping 
roof of the aisle. The south is better finished than the north aisle, and 
has a moulded parapet. The windows of the side aisles are Perpen- 
dicular, those on the south better than the north, but most are square- 

I headed except one of two lights at the east end of the south aisle. At 
the west end of the south aisle is a corner buttress with triangular 

I head. The nave has on the north four pointed arches with mouldings 

' carried down the piers, without capitals. On the south the piers are 
octagonal. The clerestory windows are square-headed, of two lights 

I with labels. The exterior of the north transept has two gables, but 
all the windows on the north side are bad and modern. The chapel is 

! of poor work and does not open by an arch within, except by a small 
one to the north aisle. 

In the chancel arch is a late and poor wood screen. The chancel is 
superior in beauty to the nave and has some good Decorated windows, 
two on each side of two lights — one on the south is square-headed and 
verging in character towards Perpendicular ; beneath it are three 
ascending sedilia, which are either unfinished or mutilated ; the arches 
plain with pier of ( — ?) and in one a stone elbow. Eastward of them 
is an ogee canopied niche with stone shelf and piscina. Some of the 
chancel windows have good coloured glass. The east window is 
mutilated and the wall for the most part rebuilt in brick. The fittings 
of the interior are far from elegant. 

180 Notes on Wiltshire Churches. 

Surcombe, North. S. John. [August, 1849.] A small Church, con- 
sisting of a chancel and nave, with low tower on the south, which 
forms a porch. The east end presents externally a complete course of 
long-and-short w^ork, and is so far remarkable. The west window was 
once a double lancet, but all other features of the Church are very 
ordinary Third Pointed, or else indefinite from their plainness. The 
chancel arch is very small and pointed, dying into the wall. On the 
south side is a window of two trefoiled lights. Some others are square- 
headed, some modern. The east window is closed. On the south of 
the chancel is a small rude piscina in shape of a semicircle. Near the 
south door is a stoup. The font a cylindrical bowl. 

Calne. S. Mary. [April 27th, 1850.] A large Church of considerable 
pretensions, consisting of a nave and chancel, each with aisles, north 
and south porches, and a tower on the north side occupying the place 
of a transept. There are portions of various styles ; the arcades of 
the nave being Norman and First Pointed, but nearly all the exterior is 
Third Pointed ; there are indications of considerable changes having 
been made in the arrangement, and the chancel and tower are very 
late, almost in a debased style. The arcades of the nave are irregular 
and rather low. The four western bays are Norman, with semicircular 
arches having square edges, some of the hoods toothed, and some 
billeted. All on the south are of the former kind. The piers are short 
and cylindrical, one on the north filled with a kind of bead ornament. 
The fifth arch is First Pointed, with mouldings and toothed hood. The 
sixth is late and of Tudor form, the capital of the pier below the spring 
of the arch. The east respond clustered shafts. This bay is clearly of 
late date. The Church seems to have been originally cruciform. There 
are short quasi transepts still to be traced, but not reaching beyond the 
aisles. It seems also possible that there was once a central tower. The 
nave has a clerestory with windows of three lights. All the windows of 
the nave and aisles are Third Pointed, that at the west end and those 
of the aisles square-headed ; at the west of the aisles they are pointed. 
The chancel arch is a wide and an obtuse one, springing from square 
piers, evidently debased ; over it two oval windows with quatrefoils. 
The roof of the nave has beams upon brackets which rest on corbel 
heads of very fine execution, mostly crowned and mitred ; the timbers 
moulded. The aisles are narrow. The nave is pewed and galleried. 
A large organ at the west end. The tower is erected on the north side 
of the quasi north transept, opening to it by a wide debased arch. The 
chancel has on each side two obtuse arches, evidently debased, with 
circular pier, having square capitals. The chancel extends a little 
beyond the aisles. All this eastern portion and the tower are very late 
and scarcely pure in style. The east window is an old one, by no means 
elegant, of five lights, with two Perpendicular mullions flanking the 
centre light, a sprawling quatrefoil surmounting the latter, and a heart 
in the head of the lateral compartments ; altogether a sort of bad 
Flamboyant composition. There is no piscina nor sedilia to be seen. 
The east windows of the aisles are of three lights. The font is not worth 

By Sir Stephen Glynne. 181 

notice, it has an octagonal bowl, quatref oiled with flowers. There is a 
low chapel, now a vestry, adjoining the north porch, on its east side, 
which has square-headed windows and a piscina concealed in a cupboard. 
The whole of the exterior is of fine stone and ( — ?). The south porch 
is rather plain and has shafts externally in the angles. The north 
porch is a fine one, having battlement and pinnacles. It has fine stone 
groining with bosses ; its inner door of Tudor form. The outer door 
has good bold mouldings and hood returned upon corbels in the form 
of a rose within a star. The clerestory is embattled and pinnacled, as 
in the north chapel, but not the south aisle. The eastern bay of the 
nave, which seems to have been once occupied by the central tower, 
presents now a debased clerestory window over the arch of similar 
character in the internal arcade. The south transept does extend a little 
beyond the aisle and has a moulded parapet. The tower, notwith- 
standing its inferior details of late work, has a grand general appearance. 
It is of four stages with battlement and eight crocketed pinnacles of 
large size. The windows in the different stages are of two lights 
without foils ; in the belfry they are double. On the north side is a 
poor one of three lights and an obtuse door beneath it. The buttresses 
have pinnacles on the set-ofifs. The chancel presents externally a 
character far inferior to the nave and has no battlement. 

The west door of the nave is of Tudor shape, with label and foliaged 
spandrel. In the apex of the battlement of the west front is a fine 
canopied niche upon a paneled bracket. 

Dastle Combe. S. Andrew. [May 25th, 1867.] An elegant Church 
almost wholly Perpendicular, recently restored and practically rebuilt. 
It consists of nave and chancel, each with north and south aisles, south 
porch, and west tower of excellent stone masonry, of the fine local type 
1 of North Wilts. The nave has a clerestory, which has battlements and 
j tiled roof, lately renovated. The aisles of the chancel are also tiled. 
The porch has been rebuilt ; there is a good canopied niche over the 
door. The tower is a remarkably fine one, has paneled battlement, 
three crocketed pinnacles at angles, and at the south-east angle a lofty 
octagonal stair turret with slit lights, surmounted by a pyramid. There 
are two divisions by string courses. The buttresses diminish upwards, 
and have rich crocketed pinnacles at the different stages. The belfry 
windows of three lights have the pretty stone lattice work of the district. 
Below them in the next stage are two-light windows. On the west 
side is a four-light ( — ?) window between two canopied niches and six 
pediraental canopies, being high and enriched with crockets and con- 
taining figures of saints. The west doorway has a Tudor arch and 
label on corbels. 

In the chancel and its aisles are traces of Decorated character. The 
east window of the former is odd, having four trefoliated lights, over 
which is a quatrefoil in a square. The east window of the north aisle 
is flowing Decorated of three lights, and the south-east window of the 
chancel is Decorated, square-headed, of three lights. The west windows 

182 Notes on Wiltshire Ghurches. 

of the aisles are decorated of two lights. Everything else is Perpen- 
dicular. In the aisles of the nave the windows are chiefly square- 
headed, of three lights with good tracery, not quite similar, and those 
of the chancel aisles are generally Perpendicular. The tower arch to 
the nave is open and of very grand and tall proportions, with fine 
( — 1) of moulding, some continuous, some with small shafts, and 
the tower has a most elegant stone ceiling with fine groining. The 
nave has on each side an arcade of three fine tall arches on light stilted 
piers, which have four shafts with foliaged octagonal caps. Between 
the arches are angel figures bearing shields. The clerestory windows 
have two lights, square-headed. The roof is new in the nave. The 
aisle roofs slope and have ribs with carved bosses. The spandrels of 
the chancel arch are illuminated and several windows have coloured 
glass. The chancel arch is pointed, springing from corbels set very 
high. The ( — ?) are highly enriched, some with delicate foliage, one 
with figures under ogee crocketed canopies. The chancel is enclosed 
by low screens and has stalls. There is a small doorway in the east 
wall of the south chancel aisle. The north arch is carried quite to the 
east end, the southern is not. Below the aisles of the nave and those 
of the chancel in each case is a half arch. The chancel is divided from 
the north aisle by two Perpendicular arches lower than those of the nave, 
but similar ; from the south aisle by one wider arch. The chancel 
roof is of ( — ?) form and illuminated with blue and gold stars, with gilt 
ribs and bosses ; those of the north and south aisles are also illuminated. 
In the north chancel aisle, under a window, is a Perpendicular tomb, 
beneath a flat arched canopy. The sides of the tomb have figures of 
religious orders beneath ogee crocketed canopies with intermediate 
pinnacles ; on the tomb is a recumbent cross-legged effigy of a knight 
bearing a shield, with angels at his head. The ancient tomb is said to 
be that of Walter de Dunstanville, Baro de Castle Combe. There is 
another modern Gothic tomb to the JScropes — of fair design with brass 

The south chancel aisle is narrow, contains the organ, and a small 
niche or piscina at the south-east. On this side the rood door and 
steps are seen. There is a good deal of illumination at the east end of 
the chancel, and a showy (?) reredos. On the south of the sacrarium 
is a flat arched recess and a cross shaped orifice for piscina with four 
holes. The seats are all open, and the interior has a fine efi"ect. 

The pulpit has ogee niches in each panel and is painted in fresco. 

The font is a fine one, transition from Decorated to Perpendicular, 
the bowl octagonal, on four shafts. On the bowl are ogee niches, and 
there is a fine band of foliage intermixed with heads forming a kind of 
trellis work. 

The churchyard is beautifully kept and shaded by trees. Near it is 
an ancient stone coffin. The market cross of the picturesque village is 
remarkable, of Perpendicular character, beneath a pinnacled canopy or 
roof having four pillars at the angles and paneling on an octagonal 
(— '?) beneath. 

By Sir Stephen Glynne. 183 

Charlton. S.John. Near Malmesbury. [16th Oct., 1864] This Church 
is oddly arranged ; consists of a wide nave divided by an arcade, and 
two equal chancels, much lower than the former, a tower engaged at 
the west end of the southern aisle, and a south porch. The southern 
chancel may be considered the chancel properly containing the altar. 
The nave is wide and under one roof, but oddly divided into two aisles 
by a central arcade, much as at Wootton Bassett, but it is probable 
that this has been an alteration in the Perpendicular period, as the 
arcade bespeaks an earlier period and such an arrangement of the 
roof is inconsistent with the usage of that date. It is graceful 
neither within nor without. The external effect is sprawling and 
confuses the outline. The outer walls of the western portion have 
been raised and have embattled parapets, and nearly all the 
windows late Perpendicular insertions, some rather debased. But 
on the south one single trefoil headed lancet, a frequent Wiltshire 
feature, remains, and a corresponding lancet on the north not trefoil 
headed, and both set high in the wall. The northern windows have 
mostly four lights and are square-headed. There was once a north 
porch, now replaced by a modern vestry. The south porch has stone 
seats, the inner doorway has a fiat arch and over it are ogee niches. 
The tower has a debased look, is without buttresses, has an octagonal 
turret for stairs on its south side, and an open parapet with pierced 
quatrefoils and four poor pinnacles. The two upper stages divided by 
string courses, the belfry and other windows late and debased. The 
west front at present looks ugly from the alteration of the roof of the 
northern aisle, the wall of which is now ( — ?) with that of the tower, 
whether originally so is doubtful. 

The unusual arrangement within is increased by what has the 
appearance of two towers at the west end of each aisle. The actual 
tower is upon pointed arches with continuous moulding open on the 
north and west, and a corresponding arch is added at the west of the 
north aisle, as if there were also a tower there. The nave arcade is 
semi-Norman, has four round arches of chamfered orders, upon tall 
circular columns having octagonal caps, some with rude foliage, some 
with the kind of volute seen in the Norman work. The arches open- 
ing from the two bodies to the two chancels are similar, pointed, with 
continuous mouldings, but the separation of the chancel is made 
almost complete by the pew of the Earl of Suffolk, which, though not 
raised, extends nearly across the whole breadth of the body at its 
eastern end, leaving only a small space to pass somewhat obliquely 
into the proper chancel. 

This pew is apparently Jacobean and has some good wood carving, 
and is enclosed by a fine screen, heavy but handsome with arched com- 
partments, the arches fringed, and various figures upon the pillars . 
Behind thep ew is the rood screen, of toferable Perpendicular woodwork, 
running across the whole width. 

The southern chancel is clearly original and has a trefoil headed 
lancet on the south-west. The east window of the same is poor Perpen- 
dicular of two lights. The northern chancel is a private chapel and 


184 Notes on Wiltshire Churches. 

burying place of tlie Earls of Sufifolk. The arch between the two has 
been removed, and the space is now occupied by a gorgeous tomb of 
Elizabethan character, having recumbent figures of a knight and lady 
beneath a rich canopy supported by Corinthian columns. There is 
much arabesque ornamentation and there are small kneeling figures. 
About the tomb appear the initials A.K. E.K. 

The north chancel or chapel has a. square-headed two-light window 
on the north and a late doorway. The east window has an earlier 
character, apparently early Decorated ; two trefoil headed lights under 
an arch, and a quatrefoil above them. The jambs externally have good 

The font has a circular bowl with two courses of moulding, one 
having a kind of knob, one a rope ornament ; the stem octagonal, and 
not fitting, altogether of doubtful character and (— ?). 

The mother Church of Westport and both its daughter Churches (at 
Charlton and Brokenborough) are arranged nearly alike, each having 
one aisle to the nave of equal width and scarcely distinguishable, as to 
which is nave and which aisle. But at Westport the aisle is extended 
along the chancel, which is now undivided, perhaps through modern 
alteration. At Brokenborough there is no aisle to the Chancel, while 
at Charlton there are two similar chancels each divided from the 
corresponding nave or body. 

There is a large amount of ivy on the outer walls of Charlton Church, 

Cheverell Parva. S. Peter. [May 13th, 1859.] A small Church having 
a single nave, and chancel, and western tower, and north porch. The 
condition is good, it having been lately repaired, and the nave fitted 
with neat open seats. The nave has Decorated windows of two lights. 
The east window of the chancel Decorated also, of three lights, recently 
restored. The chancel arch is pointed, springing at once from the 
wall. The roofs arched and also the porch. The tower arch is pointed, 
very plain and narrow. The tower small and low, with a pointed roof 
of tiles, has on the west a moulded doorway, a three-light Perpendicular 
window, over which is a foliaged bracket and single belfry openings. 
The gables of the chancel have crosses. 

The font is Perpendicular, an octagonal bowl panneled with quatre- 
foils on octagonal stem. On the north of the chancel is a vestry. 

Chilmark. S. Margaret. [30th July, 1849.] A cruciform Church without 
aisles, having a tower and lofty stone spire in the centre. There are 
some First Pointed features in the chancel, the rest is mostly Third 
Pointed. The chancel has on the north a First Pointed corbel table 
and two lancets ; on the south a better corbel table of masks, etc., and 
three lancets. The east window is of three lancets within a pointed 
arch. There is a south porch, and on the north of the nave a Norman 
door. The south door is Third Pointed with pretty good mouldings. 
There are square-headed windows of two lights, of Middle Pointed 
character in the nave. The transepts are short and have some poor 
windows ; one in the south transept is of three-foiled light in a pointed 
arch. The tower rises upon four Pointed arches which die into the 

By Sir Stephen Glynne. 185 

walls, and under the tower is stone groining with ribs but no boss. 
In the east walJ of the south transept is a shallow arched recess, 
cinquefoiled, also two brackets, and ( — 1) near the south door. In the 
chancel the sill of one of the southern windows forms a ledge, ending 
in a flower. At the south-east angle is a bracket formed by a head, 
and under it a rude niche, probably a piscina, with octagonal projecting 
ledge. There is some mediocre stained glass in the chancel. In the 
south transept a piscina formed of a cylindrical basin on a stem, with 
square base having chamfered angles. There is an organ, a Jacobean 
pulpit, and poor stalls in the chancel, the improvements in the Church 
having been made too soon. The tower is Middle Pointed, has a 
moulded parapet and two-light belfry window. The spire octagonal, 
banded but not ribbed, of very nice proportions. 

Chippenham. S. Andrew. [April 18th, 1847.] The plan is a nave and 
chancel, each with south aisle, a south chapel and porch, and a western 
tower with spire. The whole of good stone, and the external appearance 
chiefly Third Pointed. There are, however, earlier portions. The 
tower is First Pointed in its two lower stages, having flat buttresses 
and obtuse single lancets, and a west door having fair First Pointed 
mouldings and shafts, but the hood is returned in a square containing 
a rose, having a later appearance. The belfry story has debased 
windows, and a pierced paneled Third Pointed parapet, as at Corsham, 
but below it is a First Pointed corbel table. The spire is not extremely 
lofty and Third Pointed, has a cincture of paneling, and canopied spire 
lights near the upper part. At the angles of the tower are pinnacles. 
On the north side of the nave the wall is partially stuccoed and the 
windows are debased. The south side has rather a rich appearance, 
the chapel having pinnacles set diagonally on the set-ofi* of the buttresses 
and a fine cornice of angels with shields under the battlement. The 
chancel has a very fine paneled battlement and pinnacles richer than 
the nave. The windows on this side are mostly large Third Pointed 
ones of four lights ; those at the east and west of five lights, the latter 
mutilated, the former very fine. The south porch has a Tudor door 
and a stair turret in the angle. There is the usual small projection on 
the north side near the east end of the nave for a rood staircase. The 
north side of the chancel is quite plain, has a three-light Third Pointed 
window lychnoscope which is of a kind of mixed Middle and Third 
Pointed character. There is a trace of an obtuse arch in the wall 
blocked, and there is a vestry which is modern. The east window is 
Third Pointed of four lights, and there is a cross in the gable. 

The interior has much suffered in its appearance, the original arcade 
of the nave being removed and modern columns substituted. There is 
a modern ceiling, sadly low, and a very large organ in the west gallery, 
to admit which it has been necessary to make an opening in the ceiling. 
The chancel arch is late Romanesque and fine, especially on its western 
face, having beautiful mouldings and bold chevron ornament, the outer 
moulding engrailed ; the shafts are large, with abaci to the capitals and 
chevron down the jambs. On the south is a hagioscope, obliquely set 


186 Notes on Wiltshire Churches. 

with an ogee arch facing west with cinquefoil feathering. The chancel 
aisle opens to the chancel by two elegant Third Pointed arches with 
the usual piers. The shafts, on stilted octagonal bases, with elegant 
capitals of foliage. The south chapel has a very fine east window of 
five lights, with transom and double feathering, beneath which is a 
label upon corbels, which looks as if it had been a door. The other 
windows of this chapel have internally paneled soffits. In it there is 
also a piece of the original flat paneled ceiling still visible ; it is painted 
blue with gilt stars. There is an arch between the aisle of the nave and 
that of the chancel. The font is modern. Over the vestry door on the 
north of the chancel is a fine piece of paneling with embattled cornice 
. — whether part of a screen is not certain. 

Codford St. Mary. [26th May, 1863.] A nice Church lately restored 
and in excellent condition, consisting of a nave with south aisle, 
chancel with south aisle, a south porch and western tower. The aisles 
to both nave and chancel are an addition to the original plan, and are 
divided by an arcade of pointed arches on octagonal pillars in the nave. 
The arch between the two aisles and between the chancel and aisle are 
pointed and continuous. The windows on the south are new ones of 
Decorated character and of two lights. 

The chancel arch is Early English and pointed on shafts with 
capitals of rude sculpture. On the north of the chancel are two Early 
English lancets, the east window, Perpendicular, having some stained 
glass. The interior is fitted with nice open benches. 

The font has a plain circular bowl, with moulding round the rim 
upon a stone ( — ?). 

The pulpit is Jacobean. The tower arch is pointed, rising straight 
from the wall. The tower is Perpendicular and embattled, has corner 
buttresses, a string course, belfry windows of two lights, and on the 
west side a three-light window. 

Nave 36ft. long, 14ft. 2in. wide ; chancel 21ft. 9in. long, 13ft. lin. 

Codford St. Peter. [May 26th, 1863.] This Church has only a nave 
and chancel, with west tower and south porch. The masonry of the 
south side of the nave is good and both nave and porch are embattled, i 
This portion, as well as the tower, seem to be Perpendicular. The i 
porch has a continuous arch as the outer doorway. The north side has 
a plain parapet and is mantled with ivy. The windows on the south 
side are labeled. The arms and crests of the Hungerfords may be seen 
sculptured on the wall on the south side. The interior is untidy, dis- 
figured by unsightly pews and galleries which are particularly cumber- 
some in so narrow a Church. It is, however, hoped that improvements 
will shortly be effected similar to those which have made the interior 
of Codford St. Mary so satisfactory and graceful. The nave and 
chancel are now both ceiled. The chancel arch is semi-circular and 
probably early Norman, very plain and without mouldings or imposts. 
There are three ascending sedilia on the south of the chancel which 
appear to be of Decorated character but not rich, having trefoil heads 

By Sir Stephen Glyiine. 187 

surmounted by pedimental hoods having finials and corbels. In the 
chancel the windows are various, the eastern debased, of three lights 
and square-headed ; on the south Perpendicular, one of two lights and 
square-headed, the other of three lights. On the north one single light 
trefoiled, one plain Perpendicular of two lights. The organ is placed 
in the chancel. In the nave the windows are Perpendicular of two 
lights, set high in the wall, after the fashion of a clerestory. The font 
has a square bowl, on a circular stem with base. It is Norman and has 
sculpture in two tiers, representing flowered and star mouldings, also 
a kind of scroll. The tower arch is continuous and masked by the 
gallery. The tower is ordinary Perpendicular with good battlement 
and four crocketed pinnacles, the belfry windows of two lights and 
there is a large stair turret at the north-east angle, encroaching on the 
belfry window. In the stage below the belfry a plain slit-like opening. 
The west window of three lights and mutilated. 

Nave 43ft. 6in. long, l8|ft. wide ; chancel 26ft. 8in. long, IVjft.wide. 

ollingbourue Ducis. This Church has a west tower, which is small 
and remarkable for not being square, a nave with side aisles, south 
porch, and chancel. The nave and aisles have one general leaded roof 
without clerestory or parapet. The south porch is of brick. The tower 
is i^erpendicular, of small size, three stages in height, but much larger 
from north to south than from east to west. The general features of it 
much resemble the tower of Collingbourne Kingston. The material is 
a mixture of flint and stone. There are projecting corbels, corner 
buttresses, and a square staircase turret on the south, reaching two 
stages in height. The parapet embattled, and there are four small 
crocketed pinnacles. There is no west door. The west window of 
three lights. The belfry windows vary a little on the different sides. 
The body of the Church is stuccoed and on the north side are very few 
windows. The south porch of brick. The aisles are narrow and each 
divided from the nave by three Early English arches, of which the 
northern are plainer than the southern, the pillars all circular ; those 
on the north have octagonal capitals, some with inverted and other 
ornaments. Like those of Collingbourne Kingston. On the south the 
capitals are square — with varied mouldings — one having heads at the 
! angles. The responds resemble the piers. The tower arch has con- 
tinuous mouldings. The chancel arch is low, pointed, springing 
from clustered columns. The windows of the south aisle are square- 
headed and Perpendicular. On the north is one of two trefoil lights 
in a square. The interior is rather dark. The chancel is open except 
j for two ugly pews. The east window has three trefoiled lancets within 
1 a pointed arch. On the south is one Decorated of two lights with 
I trefoil head. Another consists of two trefoil lights with quatrefoil 
I above, between them, decidedly Early English. 

In the chancel on a slab is engraved an inscription and figure of a 
child, "Edw. Saint Maur, 4th son of W"". Saint Maur Earl of Hertford, 
born 1630 died 1631." There are English verses also inscribed. 

The font is a circular cup on a cylindrical shaft. The pulpit cloth is 
crimson, with date 1752. 

188 Notes on Wiltshire Churches. 

CoUingbourne Kingston. This Church has a nave with side aisles^ 
and south porch, a chancel, and a good tower at the west end of the nave. 
The tower is Perpendicular, three stories high, with a fine battlement, 
paneled with quatrefoils and four small pinnacles with an ugly kind of 
foliage at the top of each. Under the parapet a band with square 
flowers, the belfry windows square-headed of three lights, with label, 
and label (?) on shields. On the south side of the tower a small proj ecting 
turret. The side aisles are leaded, without a parapet, the Church tiled. 
The whole stuccoed externally, except the tower. The porch, leaded, 
is entered by a Tudor arch doorway, the doorway within it has a small 
pedestal for an image above it. The clerestory is an ugly modern 
addition, of brick, with circular windows. 

The nave is divided from each aisle by Early English arches, but 
differing on the two sides. On the north are three of considerable 
width, especially that next the east, the two western columns are circular 
and very large, having octagonal capitals, one with a kind of in- 
verted ornament, the other with foliage of a stiff and early character. 
The eastern arch springs from a semi-octagonal shaft attached to the 
pier, and the responds at each end have the rude foliage. On 
the south are four equal pointed arches, with circular column, one 
having a moulded capital, the others charged with a kind of inverted 
ornament, but varying and evidently early in the style. The responds 
are similar. The tower arch is pointed with continuous mouldings. 
The windows of the side aisles Perpendicular of two lights. The 
chancel arch is a very fine Early English one, having deep and beautiful 
mouldings, much superior to those of the other arches, and clustered 
shafts with capitals of rich foliage, some of which, however, are much 
mutilated. The chancel is large, its windows verging to Decorated, 
the side ones of two lights, the eastern of three lights, with plain 
muUions and no foils. There is in the chancel a curious brass, the 
inscription on a plate and only a female figure, space being left for 
another which evidently was never executed, as only the death of the 
wife is recorded in the inscription : — 

Orate pro aiabs Constantini Darell armigi qui 

obiit ... die ... a° dni. MCCCC et Johanna 

uxor eius que obiit viijdie Decembs a" dni 

MCCCCLXXXXV. qr. aiabus ppiciet' de' 
On the south side of the altar is a vast monument of the iVth century, 
of marbles painted and gilt and the canopy rising nearly to the ceiling. 
It commemorates Sir Gabriel Pile, of Collingbourne and Anne, his 
wife, the figures are very large. A.D. 1628 and 1640. 

The font is octagonal, on a stem of like form, and very plain. 

Combe Bisset. S. Michael. [Feb. 20th, 1872.] The Church has nave 

with aisles, chancel, north and south transeptal chapels, the tower 

forming the south transept, and south porch. j 

Chancel, 27ft. long, 14ft. 4in. broad. Nave, 41ft. long, 39ft. wide. ' 

The materials, chiefly flints, with stone dressings, and in some parts ; 

chequered, especially the chancel. The north arcade of the nave hasj 

By Sir Stephen Ghjnne. 189 

three Perpendicular arches with lozenge piers having alternate shafts 
and hollows. The bases stilted, and the shafts have octagonal capitals. 
The nave has on the south two plain Norman arches with chamfers 
and a large circular pier, having square capital with sculpture of foliage 
and other things. East of the two Norman arches is a pointed arch 
opening to the tower transept v;hich seems Early English. The pillar 
between that and the Norman arches of the nave is very massive and 
the arch is on plain imposts. An arch is thrown from each pier across 
the south aisle. 

The west respond is indented ; the east has chamfered angles, with 
flowers. The clerestory has Perpendicular square-headed windows of 
two lights. The roof is new and has pierced tracery. Those of the 
aisles have lean-to roofs. Between each aisle and transept is a Tudor- 
shaped arch. The west window is Perpendicular of three lights ; those 
of the aisles and transepts also Perpendicular, of two and three lights, 
some square-headed. The doorway within the south porch has semi- 
circular arch with toothed ornament in the hood. There is also an 
arch stretching across the aisle, in the south aisle near the porch. The 
tower has on its north-east a polygonal stair turret. The tower forms 
the south transept, opening by a plain pointed arch on square imposts 
and one Early English arch to the nave. 

The seats are new and all open. The pulpit, of stone, is also new. 
The chancel arch is pointed and stilted, springing at once from the 
wall. On the north of the chancel are two la.ncets. On the south are 
two Perpendicular square-headed windows of two lights. At the east 
a Perpendicular window of three lights. On the south a priest's door 
and double piscina having two plain pointed arches, with continuous 
mouldings. The chancel is stalled. The font is Early English, has 
circular cup-shaped bowl on stem, with four legs. The south aisle has 
embattled parapet and intended (*?) pinnacles. The north aisle is also 
embattled. The tower is Perpendicular, has battlement and octagonal 
turret at the north-east, two string courses, four pinnacles, a three-light 
window and belfry windows of two lights. 

Ciorsham. [Feb. 12th, 1845.] A large and interesting Church, with 
portions of every style and consisting of a large nave and chancel, each 
with side aisles, a south porch, and a tower rising from the centre 
between the nave and chancel, but without transepts. The tower is 
chiefly Early English, of large size, having lancet windows above the 
roof of the nave, and in the belfry some of Decorated character. The 
parapet moulded ; and there are four pinnacles round the base of a 
stone spire which has been destroyed by a storm. 

The south porch has a ( — ?) embattled and a stone groined roof 
with two canopied niches on the outer entrance and on the west side, 
and on the east side of the porch are additions made in 1611 in ( — ?) 
style. The whole is built of good stone. The nave and aisles of con- 
siderable width, with separate roofs and three equal west gables. At 
the west end of each aisle is a Decorated-light window. There are 
Perpendicular windows in the south aisle and an upper storey of 

190 Notes on Wiltshire Churches. 

square-headed ones along some part of it, added 1631. The nave has 
no clerestory, but some dormer windows of debased kind are added in 
the roof. On the north side are some Decorated windows with rich 
angel corbels to the hoods. The chancel and its south chapel or aisle 
have high tiled roofs. The latter has Perpendicular windows of four 
lights. The north chapel has also Perpendicular windows which are 
of three lights, the eastern one very long. The east window of the 
chancel is Perpendicular, between two mutilated niches internally. 
The interior, though spacious, and ( — ?) is very sadly blockaded by 
hideous pews and galleries of all sizes and shapes. The nave is divided 
from each aisle by four plain Norman arches with circular columns 
having square abaci, and the common kind of capital. 

The roofs are covered and ribbed in square panels. The tower rises 
upon four low pointed Early English (arches) having large pillars 
and springing from shafts having capitals like those at Slymbridge, 
in Gloucestershire, except the eastern arch, in which Perpendicular 
mouldings have been inserted. There are similar Early English 
arches between the aisles and the quasi transepts. The chancel 
with its aisles or chapels appears to be entirely Perpendicular. The 
north chapel is divided from it by two wide pointed arches, the south 
( — ?) two with paneled continuous soffits and a tall pier. The north 
chapel is enclosed by a freestone screen having open tracery, an ogee 
door, and an elegant fan groining. Without are two fine Perpendicular 
tombs. One very large with panels and crocketed niches with shields 
commemorates Sir John Hannam. At the east side is the raised 
platform for an altar. Its roof is covered with open ribs. Against the 
south pier of the chancel is a tomb. 

The tower has a stone groined ceiling within, and within the east 
arch of the tower, forming the entrance to the chancel, is a low 
stone screen. Over the east end of the chancel is a flat paneled ceiling. 
On the north side of the altar beyond the aisle is a three-light Perpen- 
dicular window and there are indications of a paneled reredos, mostly 
concealed (?) by modern wainscoting. There are some good carved 
benches and desks in the chancel. In the south chapel is a paneled 
ceiling and its east end is enclosed by a wood screen resembling that 
of a rood-loft. 

The font (now in the south chancel) is Perpendicular, having an 
octagonal quatrefoil bowl. 

There is a large organ at the west end of the nave, the pulpit in 
(arch ?) fashion, bestrides the centre avenue of the nave. 

Cricklade St. Sampson. [ 1 842.] This is a very interesting and spacious 
Church with a variety of fine work. The plan is cruciform. The nave 
has aisles of unequal size, and from the centre rises a very magnificent 
Perpendicular tower. The nave and aisles exhibit Early English and 
Decorated work — the tower is Perpendicular of very rich work and some 
peculiarities. The transepts are narrow, the chancel not very spacious { 
but has a chapel on the south, now a vestry, of late Perpendicular ' 
character, having a fine battlement and four-light window ; at the east 

By Sir Stephen Glynne. 191 

angle a singular flying buttress ; within a beautiful canopied niche. 
The west front is irregular. The nave and the north aisle, each of 
which is very wide, have separate gables. The south aisle is narrow 
and its west end a continuation of the gable of the nave. The parapets are 
plainly moulded, and there is one along the south side of the nave above 
the aisle roof. The west doorway has pretty good arch moulding and 
shafts, and, together with a large portion of the Church, is of transition 
character from Early English to Decorated. The west windows of the 
nave and south aisle are nearly similar and most of those in the south 
aisle are of like character, of three lights trefoiled and a dripstone 
above, with circles above the heads of the lateral arches. Under the 
west window of the nave is a string course and it is set rather high in 
the wall. The two other west windows are much less so ; the northern 
a very magnificent Decorated window of five lights, — and two others 
on the north side. In the same aisle are also Decorated (windows) of 
three lights with extremely beautiful tracery. The north porch is 
plain. A south doorway has good arch mouldings and shafts of 
the transition style. The north transept has a battlement ; that of the 
south transept is unfinished. The stone work of the south chapel of 
the chancel and of the tower is excellent : — the rest coarser and earlier. 
The tower externally is at once singular and magnificent — it has an 
octagonal turret at each angle, which are finely paneled in the upper 
stages, as well as the whole of the tower, in an unusually rich style. 
Both the tower and the corner turrets are embattled and the latter 
crowned by lofty pyramids with ribs and bands. The battlement of 
the tower is of pierced paneling. Between the two stages of the tower 
is a cornice or ( — ?) with waved circles, rather a foreign style, and 
the lower part of the tower above the Church roof has three-light 
windows. In this stage the corner turrets are charged with niches. 
The nave, which is of some width, is divided from each aisle by three 
pointed arches, which are of Early English character. The piers are 
flat-faced with shafts attached, some of which are clustered and have a 
later character ; others are almost Norman. The southern arches are 
very dissimilar in shape and one of the piers on that side is of clustered 
shafts of almost Decorated character. There is no clerestory. The 
roof of the nave has beams upon pierced spandrels, which are set on 
angel figures bearing shields. The south aisle has a wood-paneled 
roof and carved cornice. Near the east end of this aisle is a trefoiled 
niche with shelf and piscina and a hagioscope. The windows of the 
south aisle, which are just emerging from Early English, have good 
arch mouldings and shafts within. There are detestable pews of all 
shapes and sizes and galleries inserted in some of the arches, as well as 
one at the west end which contains a broken organ. The north aisle 
is wide and of beautiful architecture, its splendid west window and 
two others have (— ?), and it has also two long lancets with fine 
mouldings and shafts internally. In this aisle is also a beautiful ogee 
arch in the wall, having a finial and small crockets, and flanked by 
pinnacles. It has bold feathering and ball-flowering ( 1) in the moulding ; 
beneath it a tomb sculptured with a range of quatrefoils. Perhaps the 

192 Notes on Wiltshire Churches. 

most striking feature in the Church is the magnificent interior of the 
tower, which is open to a considerable height, including one storey- 
above the roof of the body. The tower rises upon four rather narrow 
but lofty pointed arches, which spring from half octagonal brackets. 
Above each arch there is a variety of rich paneling with quatrefoils and 
several shields with armorial bearings and emblems in excellent pre- 
servation. There is also on each side a window of three lights with 
late tracery and on the east side a niche. The ceiling is finely groined 
in stone and has ribs and foliated bosses, the ribs springing from shafts 
in the angles. There are also several niches in the piers and the whole 
has a very splendid appearance. Another most remarkable feature is 
the rich stone work on each side of the western arch of the tower 
facing the nave, which seems to be the beginning of an intended stone 
screen or rood-loft across the arch. The whole fspace on each side is 
enriched wdth the finest stone paneling with niches, vine-leaf cornice, 
and a ( — ?) of Tudor flower. In the niches are large and rich pedestals 
for statues, and just above the lower part a small embattled cornice. 
There are also shields with the arms of Powlett. This work is perhaps 

The north transept has a Perpendicular three-light window and 
containing a rude niche in the east wall with shelf and drain. There 
is also a trefoil one with the same appendages in the south transept, 
which opens to the chapel south of the chancel by a Tudor arch, now 
walled. In the south transept is the font, which seems to be Per- 
pendicular. 'J'he chancel is Decorated, of very early character, with 
three-light windows and cinquefoil in the upper parts of them. The 
chancel is kept closed by an iron railing ( — ?). The arch to the south 
chapel is closed. 

Cricklade St. Mary. This is rather a small Church — having a low west 
tower, a nave with side aisles, south porch, and chancel. The western 
portion is late Perpendicular. The tower very plain, the windows of 
the nave of ordinary character, and mostly square-headed. The nave 
is divided from each aisle by three wide Tudor arches upon tall 
octagonal columns with high bases. The aisles are very low. The 
arch to the chancel is a fine Norman one, with chevron and other 
ornaments and shafts, but frightfully covered with yellow wash. The 
chancel is evidently altogether of Norman origin, and has at its east 
end a small single window of that character set high in the wall. 
South of the altar is what appears to be a Norman piscina— a plain 
half arch in the wall with basin and drain below. There is also a 
lancet on the north side. On the south are two early windows varying 
from Early English to Decorated, one being two trefoil lancets with 
circle between the heads, the other a double lancet (no dripstones). 
There is a north aisle to the chancel opening by a Tudor arch, but not 
reaching to the end. There is an ornamental wood cornice beneath 
the roof of the aisles. The font is a circular basin, moulded, on a 
cylinder which stands upon an octagonal base. The Church is sadly 
encumbered with pews, especially one on the south of the nave 

By Sir Stephen Glynne. 193 

belonging to the Vicar. The pulpit has carving in wood of about 
1600. The chancel is mantled with ivy. In the churchyard is an 
unusually elegant cross with a tabernacle in its upper part with 
sculpture representing the Crucifixion and other subjects, each in a 

Dauntsey. S. James. [Oct. 15th, 1864.] This Church has nave with 
north and south aisles, chancel with north chapel, south porch, and 
west tower. 

The tower was built 1630, as is recorded in an inscription, and has a 
fair outline, but as might be expected, of debased Gothic details, with 
four pinnacles. There is no clerestory. The roofs of good pitch. The 
south aisle has a corbel table just beneath the parapet. The walls are 
much covered with ivy. The porch is plain ; the outer doorway has 
strong plain mouldings. Within the porch is a curious doorway of 
rather singular form : the arch is of flat segmental form upon cushion 
capitals without shafts, making a semi-Norman character. The tower 
arch to the nave is pointed, on octagonal shafts. The nave has on each 
side an arcade of four rather odd stilted arches, on octagonal pillars 
with caps. The roof has tie beams and king posts. The windows of 
the aisles have mostly two trefoil-headed lights. At the east of the 
south aisle is an early Decorated one of three lights, with quatrefoils 
in the tracery. There is no chancel arch, but a wood screen of plainest 
Perpendicular woodwork. The chancel roof has tie beams, but is 
coved, and over the east end and over the rood loft is boarded and 

The chancel preserves the ancient stalls. The east window is Per- 
pendicular. On the south of the chancel is one square-headed of four 
lights and two narrower ones of two lights. In the north-east and 
east windows are considerable fragments of good stained glass of the 
15th century, some heraldic and some inscriptions, as " iSancta Anna, 
ora pro nobis," and " Sancta Dei genetrix"( — ?). In the chancel south 
of the altar is a fine tomb of the late Perpendicular character to ^ir 
John Danvers, who married the heiress of IStraddling and acquired the 
manor of Dauntsey ; the date 1525. The tomb is paneled and sur- 
mounted by a high canopy (the whole of marble) groined on the 
underside with flat arches and flanked by concave shafts surmounted 
I by high pinnacles. There are some angel figures, some supporting 
' shields. At the back is a brass with inscription partly mutilated, " I 

pray you of your charite in the worship of the Trinity, for an ," 

also some English verse and a portrait. 

On the north of the chancel is another fine late Perpendicular tomb 
to Sir John Danvers and Ann, his wife, panelled, with shields and 
having brass figures on the slab. The north chapel looks as if it had 
been built in debased period, but imitating ancient work ; has a quasi- 
Decorated east window ; the others of two ogee lights. It contains 
some gorgeous marble monuments ; one to Henry Danvers, Earl of 
Danby, obit. 1643, with some English verses ; another to the Earl of 
Peterborough. In this chapel is preserved an ancient stone coffin ; 

194 Notes on Wiltshire CMtrches. 

a rude painting on wood. Between this chapel and the chancel is 
a continuous pointed arch. The chancel extends eastward of it. 

The font is a plain octagon. 

Within the sacrarium is an incised slab with figures of knight and 
lady rudely executed. 

Devizes St. John. This is a large and handsome cruciform Church, of 
which the nave is l^ectilinear, but the transepts, chancel, and tower, 
especially the two latter, present fine specimens of Norman work. The 
nave is plain, and the west end has been modernised, the windows 
three lights. There are five pointed arches on each side dividing it 
from the aisles, the piers of which are formed of four clustered shafts 
in lozenge form ; the northern arches lean out of the perpendicular, 
and there is no clerestory. The walls of the transepts are Norman, and 
have plain flat buttresses, and at the ends two heights of Norman 
windows now walled up, with chevron work in the dripstones ; the 
upper tier consists of only one window near the apex of the gable. 
There is also a string of billet ornament but several Eectilinear win- 
dows have been inserted. The tower is of irregular form, being not 
square, but much larger from north to south than from east to west ; 
it is massive in its proportions, and very rich in Norman ornament, 
having two tiers of windows above the roof. On the east and west 
sides the upper tier has four semi-circular arches, springing from 
shafts, and alternately sub- divided into two smaller arches by a cen- 
tral shaft and pierced for windows. Beneath these is a string course 
of rope ornament, and the lower tier contains two semi-circular arched 
windows, with shafts and chevron work in the dripstone, below which 
is a string with billet ornament. On the north and south sides the 
upper tier has only three, and the lower one arch. There is a large 
circular turret at the north-west angle, the parapet is embattled, with 
a pinnacle at each corner of later date. The tower is supported on four 
arches opening to the nave, chancel, and transepts, those on the east 
and west are semi-circular, and spring from clustered shafts having the 
abacus to the capitals worked with a chevron ornament. These arches 
are enriched with the chevron ornament in the mouldings. The north 
and south arches are pointed. The chancel has the roof groined in 
stone, and coeval with the other portions. It has the ribs simply 
crossing each other, with a plain top at the intersection, and springing 
from shafts having rich capitals with the rope ornament and scrolls. 
On the north side is a Norman window with chevron ornament in the 
mouldings. On each side of the chancel is a chapel of Eectilinear 
character each opening to the transepts by a pointed arch with paneled 
soflSt ; the windows are of good character, and the south chapel has a 
beautiful paneled battlement, and the east end surmounted by a rich 
niche, that formerly contained an image ; the buttresses are (— ?) by 
pinnacles, and beneath the battlement runs a cornice with square pieces 
of foliage and grotesque spouts. There is an excellent organ at the 
west end of the nave. 

Devizes St. Mary. This is a handsome Church consisting of a lofty 

By Sir Stephe7i Glynne. 195 

nave with side aisles and clerestory, a chancel, and a fine tower at the 
west end. The whole of the nave and the tower are Rectilinear of 
excellent character, but the chancel is Norman. The tower is a par- 
ticularly good specimen of beautiful, yet simple, work, the buttresses 
are very well grouped, and enriched in the several stages with crocketed 
pinnacles, the belfry windows are double, the parapet is embattled and 
at each angle rises a crocketed pinnacle : to the south side is attached 
an octagonal turret, the whole of very fine proportions and built of 
excellent stone. The clerestory and side aisle are embattled, the former 
has buttresses surmounted by crocketed pinnacles, and the east gable 
crowned by a high and rich canopied niche containing a statue. On 
the north side of this gable is an octagonal turret. The windows north 
of the aisles and clerestory are principally of three lights. The south 
porch is lofty, but is open to the roof. Within it is an Early English 
doorway, having deep and rich bands of moulding with the chevron 
ornament and shafts. This is the only trace of early work about the 
nave. The interior is very lofty, and has a rich wood roof, the inter- 
stices filled with pierced tracery, and the whole much enriched with 
square flower. Upon this roof is a black letter inscription which is 
very valuable, as it gives the date of the erection of this part of the 
Church, and is quite perfect. 

" Orate pro aia Willi Smythe qui ha 
eccliam fieri fecit, qm obiit primo die 
mensis Junii anno dni mille CCCCXXXVI." 

The nave has upon each side five pointed arches with octagonal 
pillars. The tower is lofty and fine. The arch to the chancel has the 
soffit paneled. The chancel itself is a good Norman specimen ; the 
buttresses flat, and beneath the roof a kind of billet cornice. The roof 
is vaulted in stone with plain but strong ribs, which spring from 
clustered shafts set against the wall, having each of them good capitals 
with the square abacus enriched with an embattled ornament, and the 
rope ornament in some of- the capitals. The windows of the chancel 
are mostly Rectilinear insertions. One of the doors has good wood 
carving. In the churchyard is a Rectilinear altar tomb with the sides 

Ditteridge. This small Church consists only of a nave and chancel, a 
small open bell gable rising from the east end of the former. There 
is a south porch mantled with ivy, having a plain moulded arch and a 
curious open timber roof. Within this porch is a curious and probably 
very early doorway. The door itself has a fiat head upon imposts ; and 
above is a considerable quantity of rude stone work included within a 
round arch raised high up. The arch is ornamented with a series of 
rude sculpture, representing a kind of scrolls or perhaps serpents 
twisting, within which are heads. The imposts supporting the hori- 
zontal course of stone above the door are charged respectively with (1) 
a dragon about which is a quantity of bead ornament, (2) an ass laden, 
and also with covered heads. On the north side of the nave is a small 

196 Notes on Wiltshire Churches. 

projection with door Dear to where the pulpit is. Another northern 
doorway is stopped. The windows on the north of the nave are square- 
headed with label— and also that at the west end. On the south of 
the nave is one of two lights with rather elegant tracery and good 
mouldings, which may be a transition from Decorated to Perpendicular. 
The chancel arch is pointed and very narrow, on octagonal brackets. 
On the south side of the altar is a straight-sided niche with moulding, 
containing a stone shelf and piscina, and in the south side of the nave 
is a square recess. The font is Norman, a cylinder with a band round 
it, on octagonal base, and some common Norman mouldings. There 
is a small organ in the chancel. The roof covered with stone slates. 

Downton. This is a fine spacious Church in the form of a cross, with a 
lofty tower in the centre. The nave has side aisles, but the chancel 
has none, though very large. The walls are mostly of flints, but partly 
chequered with stone. There is no battlement, the transept gables have 
stone crosses. The chancel has been disfigured externally by brick 
work, and a modern parapet. The windows of the south aisle are 
square-headed and of late character. In the same aisle is a small pointed 
doorway within a very narrow porch, between two buttresses. The 
tower is lofty, the lowest part Norman, with plain windows on the 
north and south, the upper part Perpendicular with modern battlement 
and pinnacles. The north aisle has a sloping tiled roof, and that of 
the nave is also tiled, without a clerestory. The northern windows 
are small and late. That at the west end of four lights, but the tracery 
gone. The nave is divided from each aisle by five pointed arches of 
]^]arly English character, but varying from each other. The three 
western arches are low and plain ; the two eastern tall and wide. The 
western piers are cylindrical and very massive with square capitals 
having the inverted ornament. The eastern are lofty and light, but of 
circular form, clearly much later in the style, There are low pointed 
arches opening from the side aisles to the transepts, of which the 
southern rises from clustered shafts with rich foliated capitals. The 
tower rises upon four fine deeply moulded Early English arches, with 
piers of clustered marble shafts which have moulded capitals. The 
western arch of the tower is double, and a singular effect is produced by 
one very much richer in its mouldings being inserted within the other. 
The eastern arch is richly moulded, those north and south much plainer. 
The transepts have at each end a triple lancet without shafts. In the 
north transept is one single lancet and on the east side a square-headed 
niche with label with very elegant and uncommon Decorated tracery. 
In the north transept is a trefoil niche. In the south transept is an 
oblique opening or hagioscope into the chancel. The chancel is very 
large and light, of a transition from Early English to Decorated, but 
with some incongruous modern embellishments, and some mutilations. 
The side windows are of two lights and long, with good internal arch 
mouldings. One window on the south has one light continued lower 
down than the other, as a lynchnoscope. The east window of five 
lights has lost its tracery. Between each window is an enriched corbel, 

By Sir Stephen Glynne. 197 

having varied and very elegant foliage terminating in a head. The 
whole chancel is wainscoted and has a marble pavement and steps to 
the altar. In it are some gorgeous modern monuments of marble to 
the Buncombe family, l^arons of Feversham. One by ( — 1) has a 
finely executed figure with a book hanging over an urn, but certainly 
not in an ecclesiastical style. In the south transept is another modern 
monument of the 17th century to Sir Charles Duncombe. The font is 
early, of octagonal form, moulded with rude semi-circular arches and 
lined with lead. The shaft is cylindrical surrounded by four of smaller 
size. There is an organ played either by keys or barrels. There is the 
shaft of a cross in the churchyard, of octagonal form, very slender and 
raised on several steps. The vicarage with a very pretty garden closely 
adjoins the east end of the churchyard. The village is picturesque and 

Easton Grey. [Oct. 15th, 1864.] A small Church, worthy of little 
notice, having a nave and chancel rebuilt in rather poor Gothic style, 
and an original western tower which is of ordinary Perpendicular work 
and rather low. It is embattled, has two string courses, but no but- 
tresses ; belfry windows ( — ?) headed, of two lights. On the west side 
a small two-light window, but no door. On the south side is a stair 
turret projecting and lighted by slits. The body of this Church was 
rebuilt in 1836. 

Edington. All Saints. [15th May, 1859.] This stately Church is of a 
kind rarely seen in a country village. It is part of a large chauntry or 
college founded in 1347 by William of Edington, a native of this parish 
and Bishop of Winchester. 

The Church is cruciform, with central tower, and very spacious; the 
nave has north and south aisles and a south porch. The exterior is of 
the best stone masonry and has a very good appearance, though plain. 
The character of the work corresponds very much with the above date, 
being mostly of a transitional character from Decorated to Perpen- 
dicular, but the windows presenting some variation. The nave is long, 
six bays in length, and the arcades lofty, the piers clustered of four 
shafts, having octagonal caps. The clerestory is probably later and has 
square-headed windows of three plain lights, in which are found some 
pieces of rich stained glass. The west windowis uncomm only large of 
eight lights and subarcuated, not unlike some of the western windows 
of Winchester Cathedral, and supposed to be the work of the same 
prelate. The windows of the aisles are square-headed of three lights, 
like those of the clerestory. Those on the north are set high in the 
wall, probably to make way for the cloisters. The roofs of the nave 
t and aisles are curious, having plaster groining in a fine Perpendicular 
1 paneled pattern ; the ribs on timber shafts with paneled spandrels. 
The roofs of the transepts are of similar character. At the west end of 
the aisles are two-light windows somewhat Flamboyant in design, and 
in the transepts are some similar ones of three lights. On the west 

wall of the north transept is an odd single window of this form ( ). 

Several windows contain fine fragments of ancient stained glass. 

198 Notes on Wiltshire Churches. 

On the east wall is a niche with canopy and groining, and remains of 

The tower rises upon four fine pointed arches, with clustered shafts 
having octagonal caps. The tower has a groined roof, which possibly 
may be of stone. The two transepts are very uniform. In the south 
transept is a fine Perpendicular tomb, charged with paneling and em- 
blems, on which is the figure of an ecclesiastic. Over it a fine canopy 
with under groining and pierced spandrels. At the east and west ends 
are large niches retaining much of the original colour. At the feet of 
the effigy is a Ton probably a rebus on the name. There is a rood loft 
of plain stone work and below a wood screen. 

The chancel is large and grand and perfectly unencumbered by 
seats. On each side it has three windows of three lights, of very good 
transitional tracery. At the east end a fine one of five lights, the 
tracery (has) a considerable Decorated element. This window is set 
between two fine canopied niches with pediments. There are two others 
in the east angles, the pedimental canopies of which are supported on 
human figures. Between the lateral windows are also canopied niches, 
containing mutilated statues and resting on varied well-sculptured 
figures. On the south is a pretty ogee canopied doorway. Witliin 
the sacrarium is a fine large alabaster monument with eflSgies to Sir 
Edward Lewys, obit. 1630. This monument is of fine workmanship. 
There are male and female eflSgies and an angel is represented as 
covering them. The figures of sons and daughters kneeling are below. 
The chancel is paved with marble. 

There is another large Perpendicular monumental chapel in the nave 
between two piers of the south arcade. The tomb is in the centre and 
bears the print of a brass. 

The canopy is flat, enriched with angel figures, bearing shields, 
charged with three lozenges. At the west end this chapel is entered 
by an ogee crocketed arched doorway. The pews are ugly. The font 
has a plain octagonal bowl. 

The exterior is for the most part embattled. The ends of the transepts 
are square. At the west angle of the southern is an octagonal turret; 
at the eastern crocketed pinnacles. The chancel has crocketed pin- 
nacles raised upon the buttresses. On the north side of the chancel, 
externally, is a curious kind of shrine under the central window, a 
semi-hexagon, embattled and paneled, with foliated open arches. 

The tower is low above the roof, has a battlement and octagonal 
turret at the south-west. The belfry windows have two lights and 
tracery like the Flamboyant windows at the west of the aisles. The 
north aisle has a plain parapet, and on this side appear the traces of 
cloister, etc., also a flowered doorway. The west end of the nave has 
a fine large doorway of curious design ; the door double, each part 
feathered, and paneling between the door head and the arch head ; the 
label on corbels representing crowned and mitred heads. There are 
unfinished pinnacles at this end. The porch is large and lofty ; of two 
stories and embattled. The groining of stone and very good. It has 
two tiers of square-headed windows, and an octagonal stair turret. 

By Sir Stephen Glynne. 199' 

The churchyard spacious and beautiful. There are several traces 
of ancient buildings belonging to the College. 

Erlestoke. [13th May, 1859.] A very poor Church, chiefly of debased 
inferior work and moreover in neglected condition It comprises a 
nave and chancel, with a sort of north transept, and western tower and 
south porch. The nave is rather wide, has a coved roof, and windows 
all of late somewhat debased character. One on the south is square- 
headed and somewhat better. The transept opens to the nave by an 
obtuse arch. The chancel arch is also obtuse and wide. The chancel 
has horrid ( — ?) house windows on the north or south and at the east 
end a bad four-light window, without foliations. The chancel is ceiled 
and has a large pew. The font has octagonal bowl with circular stem. 
The tower arch pointed and narrow on octagonal corbels. The tower 
is poor, with octagonal turret at the south, and debased window. The 
upper part modern. The porch has a continuous moulded outer 
doorway. The inner doorway, Tudor shaped, with label. 

Pisherton Anger. [1824 ?.] The Church of the village of Fisherton 
Anger, half-a-mile distant from Salisbury, is a neat unassuming village 
Church. Its architecture is not grand, but it is kept neat and tidy. 

It is in a great manner built of flints, and consists of a nave, north 
aisle, transept, chancel, and tower at the west end. The tower has a 
plain parapet, and a very good belfry window enriched with paneled 
stone work having pierced quatrefoils. On the west side is a window 
of three lights which appears Perpendicular. 

The nave is divided from the north aisle by one octagonal pillar, and 
one ruder kind of partition, but without any arches. There are plain 
pointed arches opening into the transept and chancel. The font is 
plain and circular, apparently Norman ; there are some small Perpen- 
dicular windows walled up ; the greater part are modern and bad. 
There are elegantly wrought stone crosses on the gable ends of the 
nave, transept, and chancel. 

Poxley. [Oct. 16th, 1864.] A small Church of rather mean appearance, 
comprising nave with small north chapel, chancel, porch, and low 
western tower. The windows are mostly square-headed. Perpendicular 
of two and three lights ; but in the chancel are some of earlier character. 
On the south a trefoil headed lancet, and on the north and south are 
square-headed ones of Decorated character. 

The nave opens to the north chapel by two well-moulded pointed 
arches on a light pier, of lozenge form with four shafts which have 
capitals looking rather of Early English character. The roof is of plain 
timbers. The chancel confined, and the east window closed by a poor 
screen. The internal fittings bad and cumbrous. The font has a cup- 
shaped bowl. The tower is low and mean, of debased character, with 
four pinnacles. The porch also debased. 

iHilmarton. Printed in Vol. xxxvii., 435.] 

200 Notes on Wiltshire Churches. 

Hindon. [30th July, 1849.] This Church is completely modernised and 
scarcely deserving any notice. It has a body, north aisle, south 
transept, and small tower on the south. The latter is original — having 
plain parapet and string, two stages of double lancet windows, and no 
buttresses. It may perhaps be of debased work. The west door is 
pointed with the hood and fair mouldings. All the rest is wretched 
(- 1) work. 

Kingston Deverill. St. Mary. [Aug. Vth, 1849.] This Church has 
recently been rebuilt, with the exception of the tower, but upon the 
same scale and with the same arrangement as before, and now presents 
a very good specimen of a carefully-restored village Church. It consists 
of a nave with south chapel, chancel, and tower, placed between the 
chancel and nave. The tower is not square, but wider from north to 
south. It has a large square stair turret attached to the north-west 
angle,which is surmounted by a large pyramidical pinnacle. The parapet 
is plain ; the belfry window of two lights, with stone lattice work. On 
the south side below this a single three-foiled window and a Middle 
Pointed two-light one in the lower part. The new windows are Middle 
Pointed, chiefly of two lights ; those at the east and west of three. The 
south chapel is divided from the nave by two plain pointed arches, 
springing from a central low octagonal pier. The western arch of the 
tower is pointed, dying into the wall ; the eastern has continuous 
orders. The Church is very well fitted up with open benches. In the. 
chancel is an effigy of a noble, with fine head of hair, temp. Henry III. 
There is an organ in the south chapel. The font is a new one of Norman 
character, much enriched. 

Kington St. Michael. [18th April, 1847.] The plan of this Church is 
a nave with aisles, chancel, south porch, and west tower, and there are 
portions of every style. Within the south porch (which is very poor) 
is a Romanesque doorway with shafts, altered into a late and debased 
Tudor form. The roofs of nave and aisles are flagged and of high pitch 
and there is no clerestory. In the south aisle is a First Pointed corbel 
table and string under the windows of the same style. In this aisle 
are some Middle Pointed windows of two lights, and at the east end of 
it a good one of three The north aisle has been much modernised and 
has bad windows. Over the east end of the nave is a bell cot for the 
sanctus bell. The chancel is stuccoed externally. The tower is late 
and debased, having an open parapet and eight pinnacles, with pointed 
details, but very debased, though the general effect is very good. The 
arcades of the nave are First Pointed, each of three bays ; the arches 
pointed. 'I'he columns circular, and capitals also, except one octagonal 
on the south side. The roof of the nave is coved with ribs ; the aisles 
have flat ceilings. The chancel arch is segmental, rather mis-shapen, 
and of Romanesque character, the west side most enriched, where 
there is bold zigzag work and shafts. On the east it is quite plain. 
On the south of it is an oblique hagioscope from the aisle. The chan- 
cel has on the north two trefoil-headed lancets, much splayed and 

By Sir Stephen Glynne. 201 

opening to the interior with a wide cinquefoil arch. On the south are 
two square-headed windows of two lights and Middle Pointed, one 
with a similar cinquefoil internal opening. The east window is a de- 
based one of two lights. Ou the south is a cinquefoiled piscina with 
good mouldings. In the south aisle is also a piscina trefoiled. The 
font has a banded cylindrical bowl, on a stem of like form. There are 
a few old benches, but the nave is frightfully disfigured with high 
pews. There is an organ in the west gallery. 

Xacock. [Jan. 18th, 1857.] An irregular Church, chiefly Perpendicular, 
but with earlier portions : cruciform, with north and south aisles 
to the nave, a north aisle to the chancel, a chapel adjoining 
the south transept, and a tower with stone spire at the west 
end of the nave, a porch being added to the west end of the 
tower. The whole of the exterior is in very good preservation and of 
excellent stone masonry. The tower is small and appears late, having 
an ordinary west window and belfry windows of two lights, a battlement 
and four pinnacles. The spire octagonal, without ribs, and not very 
lofty. The porch, which is attached to its west side is embattled and 
has fine stone groining. The south aisle of the nave has a moulded 
parapet. The clerestory and north aisle are embattled, with crocketed 
pinnacles and richly-sculptured gargoyles. Over the east end of the 
clerestory is a pierced parapet, but unfinished. In the gable of the 
west end of the north aisle is a niche. 'I'he windows of the north aisle 
are good Perpendicular of four lights and at the west end of five. 
These have blank paneling on each side of the window,, as at ( — ?). In 
the south aisle the windows are square-headed and plainer. The chapel 
on the south adjacent to the transept seems to be ot Elizabethan date, 
with domestic-looking windows. 

The interior loses much effect from being crowded with very awkward 
pews and galleries, but the nave has a lofty roof, nicely restored, coved 
with ribs and bosses and a cornice with Tudor flowers and foliage in 
its mouldings, A beam running across near the east end of the nave 
is also moulded in similar way The nave has on each side an arcade 
of three Perpendicular arches, with clustered piers of stilted shafts, 
having octagonal capitals. In the spandrels of the arches appears at 
the angles some cusping which is rather unusual. The clerestory 
windows are of three lights, and there is a larger six-light window in 
the east wall, over the entrance to the chancel, the chancel arch having 
disappeared The soffit of this window is enriched with foliage and 
figures of angels. 

The transepts open by taller pointed arches than those in the arcade 
of the nnve, and there are also arches opening from the transepts to 
tlie aisles of the nave, but the large arches are unfortunately cut by 
the flat ceilings of the transepts The transepts seem to be Decorated, 
and have windows of that style of three lights at the two ends, not 
very good, and also one of two lights at the west side of the north 
transept The chancel is poor and has been partially rebuilt, with a 
low flat roof, but the floor is ( — ?) The aisle or chapel on thf 

P 2 

202 Notes on Wiltshire Churches. 

north of the chancel is very fine late Perpendicular, opening to the 
chancel by two late arches, on pier of clustered columns, having 
rich stone groining with pendants, all coloured and gilt. There are 
also two large late monuments and between them a fine canopied niche. 
There is the trace of an altar under the east window, and a piscina. 
This aisle does not reach to the east end of the chancel. Its windows 
have flowered mouldings and the east end a fine pierced parapet with 

There is an organ in the west gallery. The font is a black marble 
cup, apparently modern. 

langley Burrell. St. Peter. [Oct. 15th, 1864,] This Church is of 
somewhat irregular form, has a nave with north aisle, porch and tower 
on the south of the nave, and chancel with south chapel. The arcade 
of the nave has three obtuse arches (semi- Norman) upon circular 
columns with capitals, in some of which foliage appears. At the west 
end of the nave is an Early English triplet, with trefoil heads and 
hoods, of a type found in Wilts. On the south of the nave, to the 
west of the porch, is a Perpendicular square-headed window of three 
lights. The north aisle is of good masonry, embattled and pinnacled^ 
in its western portion, but the work unfinished in the eastern 
part. The windows square-headed of three lights Perpendicular, 
but at the east of this aisle is an earlier window a triplet, with trefoil 
heads, like that at the west, but having a containing arch internally 
with good mouldings. The nave has a coved roof with ribs and bosses 
as seen in the west country. The aisle has flat pitched roof with 
moulded timbers and bosses. The tower arch on the south of the nave 
is a fine pointed one, with strong mouldings springing from the wall 
The chancel arch is pointed, with excellent mouldings and two orders 
of shafts with moulded capitals, of which one has fine foliage of 
Edwardian character. 

The chancel is long, has on the north two trefoil -headed lancets and 
one square-headed Perpendicular window of three lights. The east 
window has the trefoil-headed triplet before noticed, the hood follow- 
ing the lines of them. To the south-east beyond the aisle is a Perpen- 
dicular window. On the south of the sacrarium are two separate 
sedilia, one has a pedimental canopy crocketed and finialed and a finely 
foliated arch, there being between the arch head and the canopy a 
trefoiled arch. The other sedile is plain and cinquefoiled. Under the 
window a cinquefoil arched piscina. 

The chancel opens to the south chapel by a wide Tudor-shaped arch 
upon octagonal shafts with capitals of foliage. This chapel is wholly 
Perpendicular and has square-headed windows. The roofs of chancel 
and aisle are plain timbers. In the south chapel is a small piscina^ 
under a window. 

The tower is Decorated, has a moulded parapet and ball flower 
corbel table, and is divided by two string courses. The belfry windows 
are of two lights and good. Another window is a single trefoil-headed 
light. The hoods are on corbels of foliage. The buttresses at the 

By Sir Stephen Glynne. 203 

angles of good stone. The porch is large and good and has fine stone 
groining, the bosses and corbels (whence spring the ribs) have foliage 
and angel figures. The windows are of two lights and labeled. The 
outer doorway plain, that within the porch has a Tudor arch and 
paneled spandrels. There is a stoup in the porch, which has stone 
seats within, and externally bold gargoyles. The interior is poorly 
pewed and wants improvement. There is a slab, now set up against 
the tower, on which appear two heads in relief under small canopies 
with finials and trefoiled, a curious sepulchral remain, but it is difficult 
to say whether there has been more sculpture. 

latton. [1842.] This Church is cruciform, but without aisles, and the 
tower at the west end. The latter is of good grey stone, and rather 
curious. Its two lowest stages are Norman, with very round single 
windows, the two upper are late Perpendicular, but the belfry story is 
unusually narrow. The string courses dividing the stages are very 
strong, and there are grotesque animal figures for gargoyles. The 
belfry windows are of two J lights, and the whole is surmounted by an 
embattled parapet. There is no west doorway. Within the south 
porch is a fine Norman doorway with excellent arch mouldings upon 
shafts with cushion capitals. The outer moulding has the bead 
ornament, and a kind of special chevron down the shafts. The roofs 
are high and slated. The nave lofty and wide. The arch to the tower is 
semicircular and plain ; that to the chancel Norman and upon shafts. 
There is on the north side a lancet window containing some ancient 
stained glass. The transepts have at the two ends Decorated windows 
of three lights. On the west side of the south transept is a trefoil 
lancet. Another window lof the nave is late Perpendicular, The 
transept arches are very obtuse. The roofs are open, and there is an 
embattled cornice. In the north transept on the west side is a trefoil 
lancet window, the sides of which are covered with some original fresco 
painting, some of which appears also on the arch opening from the 
nave to the north transept. The chancel is modern Gothic, having 
lately been re-built, and it is to be lamented that a more correct style 
was not adopted by the well-meaning individual who caused it to be 
rebuilt. The font is modern, but of very orthodox shape and size — the 
form is square upon an octagonal shaft, with a proper drain — the cover 
is of wood carving of Perpendicular character. 

Xavingtou, East or Market. This Church has a nave with side aisles, 
a chancel, and a western tower. The latter is Perpendicular and em- 
battled, and has a west window and doorway set within one arched 
compartment. The mouldings filled with panelling, the window of 
three lights with a transom. The body has no battlement. The nave 
leaded ; the chancel tiled. There is a south porch, within which is a 
doorway with cinquefoil feathering. 

The nave has on each side three simple pointed arches with entirely 
plain square piers, without mouldings and the arches stopped by the 

204 Notes on Wiltshire Churches. 

pier. They are probably rather late, but not ornamental. The cleres- 
tory has some small windows with trefoil head and some late and 
square-headed. The windows of the aisles are square-headed, some 
late, some may be of transition character. 

There is a stone arch thrown (?) across part of the south aisle. 

In the north aisle is a trefoil niche within a good moulded arch, with 
a piscina having a quatre-foil flower orifice. The chancel has a small 
door resembling that of the nave. The east window is Rectilinear of 
three lights. The others in the chancel are Decorated of two and three 
lights, the latter on the south side are rather elegant. The font is a 
plain octagon. The tower contains a clock and chimes. 

Iiavington, West. This Church is built for the most part of good stone 
and consists of a nave with side aisles, north and south transepts, and 
a chancel with south aisle and a western tower which is Perpendicular 
with a battlement, and an octagonal stair turret on the south side ; the 
belfry windows of two lights with some good stone lattice work. The 
roofs are chiefly tiled. The aisles extend past the tower and range 
flush with its west wall. The south transept is adorned with pinnacles 
and has a small doorway, the arch of which is well finished though 
plain. The north and south aisles have been rebuilt at a late period. 
The wall of the south aisle appears to be of Elizabethan period, with 
gables and two tiers of windows, the lower square-headed with a string 
course above them. There is at the west end of the north aisle a win- 
dow of two lights (early Decorated) without foils. The nave has four 
arches on each side. Those on the north are rather obtuse and early^ 
with vast cylindrical pillars having curious capitals of foliage ; those 
on the south are more acutely pointed and spring from circular columns 
with moulded capitals. The nave contains several ancient seats with 
carved ends. The south transept has Perpendicular windows of three 
lights, and contains costly marble monuments to the Danvers. The 
north transept has a lancet on its west side and a three-light window 
of lancets under a general arch. The chancel arch has panneling and 
is of Perpendicular period, and a similar arch opens from the chancel 
to the south aisle, which latter is an evident addition and contains late 
square-headed windows. In the south chancel wall and opening into 
this chapel are the original lancet windows, together with a door and a ; 
low side window, square-headed with Rectilinear tracery. The lancets i 
have beneath them a string course. In the south chancel is a plain i 
trefoil niche with a drain. The windows of the chancel are bad and 
modern. Under the east window in the wall is a square recess or 
cupboard. The font is a plain octagon on a paneled pedestal. In the 
south transept are two arches in the wall, of Perpendicular character, 
under which it is probable that there were monumental effigies. 

Liddington. All Saints. [April 26th, 1859.] This Church has a nave 
with north aisle, chancel, and west tower. The nave is remarkably 
broad and has a very good high pitched open roof. The arcade to 
the aisle is of three pointed arches with octagonal pillars, which having 

By Bit Ste'phe'rt Glynne. 205 

nail-head mouldings in the capitals, are Early English. The walls 
seem to have been renovated throughout, and the chancel as good as 
rebuilt. On the south of the nave are some pretty Decorated win- 
dows of two lights. In the north aisle are some trefoiled lancets, at its 
east end a triplet trefoiled, contained under a general pointed arch on 
shafts with capitals having toothed mouldings. At the west end of 
the aisle is a two-light Decorated window with the rear arch foiled. 

The chancel is much narrower than the nave and the chancel arch 
is not in the centre, and is pointed and low. The tower arch is pointed, 
upon octagonal shafts. The chancel has trefoiled lancets on the north 
and south and a Decorated east window of three lights, either new or 
reproduced. The chancel is stalled and appears to have been rebuilt 
in memory of Lady Martin. 

At the east end of the north aisle is an oblong recess and a trefoil 
piscina. In the wall of this aisle are two sepulchral arched recesses 
with feathering and short shafts with capitals. The font is Norman 
of circular form, diminishing downwards, with chevron moulding round 
the top. The tower is very low, so that the high roof of the nave 
comes about up to the parapet. It has corner buttresses, plain battle- 
ment, and two-light belfry windows. 

There is a large new lychgate. 

Lydiard Millicent. All Saints. [June 24th, 1870] This Church has 
nave with south aisle, chancel, south porch, and west tower. 

The arcade of the nave has three stilted pointed arches rising from 
octagonal pillars with capitals and respond of the same character. The 
nave and aisle are lofty, of equal height, with separate roofs. The 
tower arch is pointed, springing at once from the wall and stilted like 
the others. The roofs of nave and aisle are coved and ribbed. The 
nave is fitted with open benches of oak. The chancel arch is inefifective, 
with continuous mouldings and no capital, The east and west windows 
of the aisle are Decorated of three lights, and another on the south is 
also Decorated of two lights. On the north of the nave the windows 
are Perpendicular of three lights. 

Over the chancel arch facing west are four stone corbels, and on the 
south of it a small pointed squint. There are also some stone corbels 
over the south arcade. The chancel has coved ribbed roof with 
bosses, and is wholly Perpendicular, having east window of three lights. 
The lateral windows are square-headed. There is no trace of piscina 
or sedilia. The pulpit has good wood carving. The porch plain 
Perpendicular. The font is Norman ; the bowl, circular, has some 
intersecting arches and set upon a circular stem upon two steps. The 
tower is late Perpendicular, with corner buttresses and pierced parapet 
with quatrefoils, divided by two string courses ; belfry windows of 
two lights, and a single light in the middle stage, a three-light window 
and door on the west side, and four plain pinnacles. In the church- 
yard is the tall octagonal (shaft) of a cross, mounted on three steps. 

[Lydiard Tregoze. Printed Vol. xxxvii., 446.] 

206 Notes on Wiltshire Churches. 

Xyneham. St. Michael. [27tli April, 1850.] This Church is wholly 
Third Pointed, and situated within a churchyard of unusual extent. 
It consists of a nave and chancel with north aisle extended along part 
of the latter only, a west tower, and a south porch. The chancel is 
lower than the nave. The nave has an arcade of four bays, the piers 
of four shafts in the frequent western form. 

The third arch is supported by wood framework. The windows are 
of three lights in the nave, in the chancel square-headed of two lights. 
The east window of the north aisle is ugly. 

The chancel arch is closed by wainscoting in the upper part. The 
chancel opens to the north aisle or chapel by a paneled arch of small 
size, but elegant workmanship, having ribs as well as paneling. There 
is some poor late screen work. The priest's door is on the south, and 
there is a sacristy on the north of the chancel lighted by a slit. Part 
of the rood screen remains but mutilated and encroached upon by the 
wainscoting above. 

Maiden Bradley. All Saints. [August 1st, 1845.] This Church has a 
nave with aisles, chancel, western tower, and south porch. There are 
both Middle and Third Pointed portions. The roof of the nave is open 
with tie (?) beams. The arcades irregular and ungraceful. On each 
side four arches, of which the first and last are low ; the mouldings on 
the south side continuous, and the piers without capitals. On the 
north the western arch is very plain ; the eastern moulded and dying 
into the wall. The piers on this side are square with imposts. These 
arches and piers appear to be debased. The windows of the aisles are 
Middle Pointed and have lately been restored. The tower arch pointed, 
on octagonal corbels. The chancel arch is pointed and continuous 
The roof of the chancel is flat. The east and south windows debased, 
and none on the north. The east window contains modern stained 
glass. The chancel is fitted up with stalls. The south porch is Third 
Pointed, the outer door labeled. The roofs are tiled. The tower is 
plain, has a Middle Pointed west window, a moulded parapet, and an 
octagonal turret at the north-east, which has an open parapet and 
pinnacles. There are buttresses at the angles, and the belfry windows 
are of two lights. 

The font is Norman, the bowl square, moulded with a range of 
semicircular arches ; there is a cylindrical stem, and four legs set on a 
square plinth. The Church contains a gorgeous monument to Sir 
Edward Seymour, who died 1707. 

Malmesbury Abbey Church. The Abbey Church now parochial is a 
magnificent structure, though the nave alone remains of the original 
building. This is principally of Transitional Norman work, with win- 
dows inserted of later dates ; but the details of the Norman work are 
of singular beauty and richness. The scale of the nave is very large 
and grand, but part of the west end is destroyed. The west front is 
very fine and evidently was intended to have two towers ; part of the 
southern remains and exhibits some fine Norman arcades, one of in- 
tersecting arches, and one tier having the arch mouldings continued 

By Sir Stephen Glynne. 207 

without shafts, but filled with lozenge ornament. The string courses 
are enriched with the rope and the billet mouldings. The west door 
is in a sad state of mutilation but part of the semicircular arch remains. 
It has shafts and very rich sculpture in its arch mouldings, which 
appears to have represented the zodiacal signs, but they are much 
mutilated. The side aisles of the nave are perfect and there is a large 
south porch. There is a good deal of admixture of semicircular and 
pointed arches, but the ornamental features are of singularly elaborate 
character. The porch is very large and entered by a splendid semi- 
circular arch which is perhaps the finest specimen existing in the 
country, and which has no less than eight courses of ornamental mould- 
ings enriched with varied sculpture. Three of these exhibit medallions 
enclosing a procession of figures in bas relief, representing different 
subjects from the Old and New Testament, the life of Christ in ( — ?), 
but it is not eas}'' to make them out fully. The other five mouldings 
have foliage and interlacing ( — ?) work beaded. There are no shafts, 
but the mouldings continued entirely down to the ground. The inner 
door within this porch is also very fine, and has the mouldings filled 
with scroll work and twisted ornaments and continued to the ground 
as in the other door. The tympanum of the arch above the door con- 
tains a piece of sculpture, representing Christ, supported by angels. 
Near the door is a ( — ?). Each side of the porch internally has an 
arcade of four semicircular arches, above which are figures of the 
twelve Apostles, six on each side. 

The aisles, clerestory, and porch have a pierced ( — ?) parapet of 
Decorated character. To the clerestory are bold flying buttresses ; and 
square pinnacles surmount the buttresses of the side aisles. Some of 
the windows are of Norman form unaltered, and some have had 
Perpendicular tracery inserted. The arches spring from shafts. Other 
windows are Decorated insertions of three lights, of which character 
are those of the clerestory, which have shafts with foliated capitals in- 
ternally. The west window is Decorated of six lights. Externally 
under the windows of the aisles is a range of intersecting arches. 

Between the clerestory windows are some of the original flat-faced 
buttresses. There are portions of the walls of the transepts, and a 
fragment of the north wall of the aisle of the choir, and the west and 
north arch of the central tower remain, both semicircular and very 
lofty and grand ; somewhat of horseshoe form. The arches being of 
dissimilar span, the tower must have been a parallelogram, like that of 
St. John's, Devizes. The whole is built of very fine stone. 

The interior is extremely grand. There are six obtusely pointed 
arches on each side, some of which have billet ornament in the hood 
mouldings, and are altogether finely executed. The columns are 
€ircular and very massive, with circular capitals more Norman in 
character. The eastern arch on each side is narrower than the others, 
and has a curious moulding of square pieces. 

The triforium in each compartment is a large semicircular arch with 
chevroned mouldings, within which are four smaller round-headed 

208 Notes on Wiltshire Churches. 

arches springing from large cylindrical shafts. The larger arch springs 
from clustered shafts. The roof of the nave has rich stone groining with 
intricate ribs and foliated bosses, upon clustered shafts which are 
from the capitals of the main pillars. This seems to be of Decorated 
character. The side aisles have pleasing (— ?) Early English stone 
groining, the ribs simply crossing and rising from large shafts. Under 
each of the aisle windows ( — 1) a range of three semicircular arches 
with chevroned hood moulding springing frojn shafts. The east end 
of each aisle is enclosed by wood screens of good Perpendicular character- 
In one space of the triforium on the south side is a kind of stone 
balcony or gallery, projecting and of four sides, crowned with a small 
battlement. It is very plain and with plain square openings. It may 
have been the minstrels' gallery as (was) a projection in the same place» 
but more ornamented, in Exeter Cathedral. 

There is a large west gallery of stone lately erected with arches in 
the Norman style. The altar screen seems to be composed of ancient (?) 
material and (contains ?) a modern picture given by Lord Suffolk. 
There is an altar tomb, with the effigy of what appears to be a king, 
with crown and royal robes and over his head a very elegant canopy 
with the under side groined. 

The pews, pulpit, altar rails, are of modern Gothic and neat. 

There is a fine market cross of Perpendicular character, resembling 
that at Chichester, octagonal in form, with pinnacles at the angles, and 
surmounted by an elegant kind of ogee turret on flying buttresses, 
The arches on each side are open and the interior has good stone 

Near it is the plain tower and stone spire of St. Paul's Church, the 
rest of which has been demolished and the Abbey Church made 
parochial in its place. 

The spire is squared at its base to cover the area of the tower and 
ribbed at the angles. The bells are hung in this steeple. 

St. Paul's Church has disappeared, save the steeple, which was evidently 
at the west end of the north aisle, as may be seen from the form of the 
roof against its east face, which also has a pointed arch into the aisle, j 
The steeple is plain Perpendicular, has no buttresses, but an octagonal ) 
turret at the north-west. On the west and north sides a Perpendicular ) 
window of three lights, belfry window square-headed of two lights, | 
spire of broched form and ribbed. The body of the Church is gone, j 
and the site occupied by houses. ' 

Malmesbury, Westport. St. Mary. [Oct. 16th, 1864.] This Church 
seems to have been wholly rebuilt about 1750, on the old site, and 
consists of two equal aisles divided by an arcade of Tudor-shaped i 
arches, with mouldings on plain pillars without caps. The windows} 
are square-headed and debased and there is a modern bell cot over thej 
west end. It is plainly seated, has a gallery and harmonium. No^ 
remarkable features survive. 

By Sir Stephen Glynne. 209 

llanningford Abbot. [I4tb May, 1859,] This Church is scarcely larger 
than Manningford Bruce, which it resembles in its general features, and is 
of similar arrangement except that the apse here is wanting. The 
belfry is almost exactly the same as at Manningford Bruce. The 
chancel arch is Norman of the same plain early kind, but has a chamfer, 
and on its west side a quasi shaft. In the chancel is a curious Norman 
piscina, on a shaft with cushion capital and square base. The chancel 
has small single lancets north and south. The timbers of the roof cut 
the chancel arch. The east window is Perpendicular and square-headed 
with label and singular tracery, an odd sort of tooth-like ornament 
introduced. On the north of the nave is a round arched doorway, and 
some mutilated square- headed windows. The west window is modern. 
The porch ditto. The font has a small octagonal bowl on similar stem. 
On the east gable of the nave is a cross mutilated. 

KCanningford Bruce. St. Peter. [May 14th, 1859. A small Church 
of insignificant appearance having only a nave and chancel, with a new 
south porch, and a wooden bell cot over the west end. The chancel 
is Norman ; its arch very plain with imposts. The east end is a semi- 
circular apse with plain small windows, and in its north wall is a semi- 
circular recess. The west window of the nave is of the Hereford fashion, 
three lights without tracery, and the centre one not arched. On the 
south of the chancel is a Decorated window, and south of the nave a 
Perpendicular one, each of two lights. 

Uarlborough St Mary. [1843.] The Church has a west tower and a 
body with side aisles, but in consequence of damages received during 
the wars the original state of the body has been much changed for the 
worse. The south wall is perfect in its original condition, but the 
north side has been mutilated and altered and the interior sadly dis- 
figured by the entire removal of the northern range of arches, and the 
re-erection of the southern in a mongrel style ; the columns circular 
with a kind of Arabesque capital, the arches circular with keystones, 
the south aisle is of good stone and excellent plain Perpendicular work, 
and has a fine battlement, and good windows of three lights. On the 
north side some upper windows have been added of square form. The 
east end at present has an ugly appearance, and seems to have been 
clumsily re-constructed without a central east window. 

The tower is of plain Perpendicular work, with a battlement and 
square-headed belfry window. The west window of four lights. On 
the west side remains a fine Norman doorway, but much worn, having 
two ranges of moulding, the inner, continuous chevron without shafts ; 
the other has rich chevron with beads and shafts with varied capitals. 
The dripstone has cable moulding. In the tower are six bells. The 

I south doorway has a label and paneled spandrels. The arch to the tower 
is plain and pointed, on circular shafts. The pews are very ugly, but 
shortly to be remodelled. There is a gallery along the whole west end 
with a tolerable organ. The altar is set in the middle of the east end, 
but from the absence of one row of columns looks odd. The font is 

210 Notes on Wiltshire Churches. 

octagonal with good lozenge paneling, and foiled ; the stem also oe- 

JVEarlborough St. Peter. This Church is wholly Rectilinear, of good 
uniform character, and built of very good stone, save a few portions of 
flints. It consists of a nave and chancel, each with side aisles, and a 
square tower at the west end of the south aisle, with a battlement and 
four octagonal turrets at the angles. The west window of the nave is of 
five lights and handsome, as is the east window of the chancel. The 
others are principally of three lights. The whole Church has an em- 
battled parapet, but no clerestory. The south porch is of two stories, 
without a battlement, but has a stone groined ceiling. The west wall of 
the north aisle is oblique, and not in a line with that of the nave. The 
tower, too, is singularly placed, at the west end of the south aisle but 
encroaching on the nave. The tower is evidently late in the style, and 
though of excellent masonry is not well finished in its details. The belfry 
windows are small and dissimilar, and the west window also rather small 
in proportion ; in fact rather a want of openings is manifest, except 
that there is a three-light window on the south side of the lower part 
of the tower. The pinnacles are very tall and plain, but that at the 
north-west angle is different from the others, being nearly circular, and 
the others octagonal. The nave has four pointed arches on each side, 
the piers light (?), having a shaft at each angle and the intermediate 
spaces moulded. The ceiling is coved C?) and paneled in the nave. 
The chancel has a stone ceiling very elegantly groined in the Perpen- 
dicular style with ribs and bosses. Part of it, however, is in bad repair, 
and opens to each aisle by one pointed arch. At the west end is a 
handsome organ, erected 1820. The font is octagonal and paneled. 
There are candlesticks on the altar ; a gallery only at the west end. 

Melksham. St. Michael. The Church of this town is a spacious struc- 
ture, consisting of a nave with side aisles, north and south porches, a 
north transept, a chancel with south chapel, and a tower rising from 
the centre, between the nave and chancel. The whole is built of ex- 
cellent stone, and there are features of all the three later styles The 
chancel has some early portions, flat buttresses, and a string course of 
billet ornament which is in some parts interrupted by inserted windows, 
both Decorated and Perpendicular, which are of two lights. There 
is also at the west end of the nave an Early English toothed string 
course stopped by an inserted window of later date. The west windows 
of the aisles are lancets with trefoil heads. The chancel has a tiled roof 
and plain parapet, but its south chapel, a later Perpendicular addition, 
has a rich paneled battlement, with crocketed pinnacles surmounting 
the buttresses, and a rich cross in the east gable. The corbel table 
below the battlement has various grotesque figures of animals. The 
windows of this chapel are of four lights. Most of the other windows 
are Perpendicular, and some square- headed. The clerestory windows 
are of three lights and above them is a fine enriched battlement with 
small pinnacles, which is continued across the west end beneath an 

By Sir Stephen Glynne. 211 

earlier gable end. The south doorway is Early English. The north 
porch Perpendicular and very large, with (— ?) above and a handsome 
groined ceiling of stone, but in other respects rather plain. The tower 
above the roof is Perpendicular, of rich but rather singular character ; 
it has a battlement, four crocketed pinnacles,! and the whole of each 
face is one complete series of paneling, the three central compartments 
forming the belfry windows, and adorned with rich and beautiful stone 
lattice work, as is not uncommon in this neighbourhood. 

The interior does not correspond in beauty to the exterior, being 
much encumbered with ugly pews and galleries. The nave is divided 
from each aisle by four Early English arches, rather acute in form, 
springing from cylindrical columns having moulded capitals. The 
arches supporting the tower are probably of Early English origin, but 
have been cased and much altered. There is an organ of considerable 
size. The font is a plain octagon. 

The chancel opens to its south chapel by a single wide Tudor arch. 

Cere. St. Michael. [July 30th, 1849.] A fine Church chiefly Third 
Pointed, but with some Middle Pointed portions. It comprises a nave 
and chancel, each with aisles, a western tower, north and south porches. 
The interior is handsome, though too much encumbered with pews and 
galleries. The arcades of the nave, each of five tall narrow Third 
Pointed arches, with light lozenge piers having four shafts with moulded 
capitals and moulded intervals. The clerestory windows on the south 
have lost their tracery ; those on the north, of three lights, and Third 
Pointed. In the south aisle are Middle Pointed windows of three lights 
without foils. The roofs of the nave and north aisle are coved, with 
flowered cornice ; that on the south aisle is flat. The western arch on 
each side dies into the wall. The chancel arch is a paneled Third 
Pointed one. The rood screen remains in a perfect state and is extended 
across both aisles. In the northern and southern parts the loft remains 
with paneling, but (in the 1) central part a heavy modern gallery has 
been erected on it A.D. 1699. In this portion the tracery is Third 
Pointed, each division of six lights having transoms with foliated 
spandrels and groining below the gallery. The north portion of the 
screen has some tracery which appears to be Middle Pointed. The rood 
door is on the north. There is a ponderous west gallery with a large 
organ. The chancel has the ancient wood stalls and in fair preservation. 
On the south side of the chancel are two pointed arches with mouldings 
dying into the pier. On the north, also, two pointed arches, but dis- 
similar, the eastern dying into the east wall and springing from an 
octagonal pillar, the western tall and narrow, dying into the two piers. 
The chancel has a clerestory, of which the windows are square-headed, 
of two lights. The roof of the chancel is coved and ribbed. The east 
window Third Pointed of five lights ; the south-east window square- 
headed and Middle Pointed. East of north arcade of the chancel is a 
window in the wall, open to the north chapel. There are two piscinas in 
the chancel, the eastward one (— ?), the other contains a shelf. Within 
the arcades of the chancel are good ( — ?) screens, and there are pointed 

212 Notes on Wiltshire Churches. 

arches between the aisles of the nave and those of the chancel. Both 
chapels of the chancel have raised altar platforms at the east end. The 
southern is peculiar and rather late Middle Pointed, the east window 
of four lights, the south-east window of three lights, having curious 
tracery which appears to be of Flamboyant character. Another south 
window is square headed, of five lights, also advanced Middle Pointed. 
The altar pace is laid with encaustic tiles. Upon it is a fine monumental 
brass to the founder of the chapel. The effigy is an armed knight, 
with sword and dagger, and at his feet an animal. _ 

The inscription — "Hie jacet Johes Bettesthorne quonda dns de 
Chadenwyche fundator istius cantarie qui obiit VI die Februarii anno 
dni M°(1C^C. XCVIII. litera dominical' E. cui' aiep'piciet' Deus Ame 

Tu qui trasieris, vidias,^ta^plege, plora. 

Es quod Eram et eris qd su p me precor, ora." ^ Eemarkable for its 
dominical letter. 

There is also another mutilated brass and a Third Pointed altar tomb. 
In this chapel also is a Third Pointed piscina with cinquefoil feathering, 
a moulded shelf and octofoil orifice, which has a stopper. The north 
chapel has a Third Pointed east window of five lights, and on the north 
a square-headed window of four lights of the same Middle Pointed 
character as several others in this Church. In these are considerable 
fragments of stained glass. The font has octagonal bowl paneled with 
shields and quatrefoils of Third Pointed character. 

The exterior is pleasing. The aisles have moulded parapets. In the 
south chapel of the chancel is an octagonal stair turret, which, as well 
as the parapet of the chapel, is pierced with oilets. The clerestory and 
chancel have slated roofs. The south porch has a stair turret and a 
groined ceiling. Over its door is a quatrefoil opening into the interior. 
The north porch is large, has elegant groining with bosses, the gable 
flanked by pinnacles, and an octagonal stair turret attached. The 
inner door has an obtuse arch, the outer is continuous, over it is a 
canopied niche containing a statue. 

The west windows of the aisles are mutilated. The tower is a lofty 
and handsome Third Pointed one, late in the style, resembling that of 
S. Peter, Marlborough. It has large octagonal turrets at the angles, 
surmounted by large plain pinnacles, and is three stages in height, with 
paneled battlements. The two lower stages exhibit rather too much 
of bare wall on the north and south, but on the west is a good door 
with nice mouldings and a four-light window over it, above which 
appears a figure of the Archangel, and two stages of two light windows 
besides those of the belfry, which are of three lights on each side. 

Mildenhall. The plan a west tower, nave, and side aisles and chancel. 
The tower low, with a stone battlement and belfry story of Perpen- 
dicular character, but the lower portions are probably earlier, and on 
the north side there is in the second stage a double opening, apparently , 
truncated, with a central shaft. The tower opens to the nave by an ' 

^ Boutell, Monumental Brasses., p. 142. j 

By Sir Stephen Glynne. 213 

Early English arch of plain character upon imposts. The nave has on 
each side three semicircular arches, and one small low one next to the 
chancel ; the character semi-Norman, the columns are circular, those 
on the south have scolloped capitals, like those at Collingbourne 
Kingston, with heads attached in some instances, and well sculptured ; 
those on the north have the capitals elegantly moulded. The clerestory 
has chiefly square-headed Perpendicular windows of two lights, some 
modernised, and on the north is a single trefoil. The windows of the 
aisles are late I'erpendicular. The chancel arch is Early English upon 
corbels. The east* window of the chancel is Perpendicular of three 
lights, its other windows are chiefly Pet pendicular, but one now closed 
on the north was Decorated of two lights. The roof of the nave has 
plain tie beams. The interior was fitted up at some expense about 
twenty years ago, but though neat the arrangements are not in the 
most satisfactory style, or as they would have been carried into effect 
at a subsequent period. The pews are too high, there are two rival 
pulpits, the chancel is paved with marble and wainscoted in modern 
Gothic work, of which style are also two large pews inset. The chancel 
roof is (coved ?) and paneled within, and over its east gable externally 
is a cross. In a west gallery is a seraphim. The font is a modern 
octagonal bowl. 

miinety. St. Leonard's. [April 26th, 1858.] A neat Church entirely 
Perpendicular, having a nave with north aisle and chancel, tower 
engaged in the west end of the aisle, and south porch. The Perpen- 
dicular work is rather late, the external masonry very good, and the 
material very fine stone. The roofs are leaded, of low pitch. The 
chancel is embattled and also south side of nave, but not the north 
aisle, on which side is a flying buttress. Windows on south side of 
nave square-headed of three lights with tracery rather earlier and better 
than the others. West window and those of north aisle are with 
Pointed arches of three lights, that of the east of the aisle of two lights. 
Nave has arcade of four Tudor shaped [arches T\ beyond the tower which 
spring from concave octagonal piers with capitals. On the front of 
two of these piers is a bracket or pedestal. The tower rises on two dis- 
similar arches opening north and east. The former is of Tudor form 
and continuous, the latter not of the same form but continuous and on 
strong piers. In the tower on the west side is a three-light window. 
The west window of the nave has some stained glass. The roofs are 
plain on stone corbels and with spandrels of pierced tracery. The nave 
is fitted with open seats Ihe pulpit is of fine Jacobean woodwork, 
AD. 1627, enriched with arches and panels. On the sounding board 
is inscribed : — " We come to God by the prayers of our hearts." On 
the pulpit panels :— " Anno Domini 1627 W.G , R.P., Ch.wdns. Preach 
the word. Be instant in season." Also "Fides ex auditu, auditus 
autem verbum Dei," ^ The chancel arch is continuous. Over it is an 

' The inscription " We come i<> God," &c., is on the panel, and the Latin 
Fides ex auditu" is on the sounding boaid.'' [Ed.] 

214 Notes on Wiltshire Churches. 

iron screen with leaves and tracery. The east end of the aisle is 
enclosed by Perpendicular wood screens. Near the east window is an 
angel [angle ?] bracket, and in this enclosed chapel a small brass 
representing kneeling figures of a man and woman, Nicholas Powlett 
and Mary P. 

The chancel has a new roof and poor stalls. East window of three 
lights, others of two. Shallow piscina and the window-cill extended 
forms a sedilia. The corbels in chancel represent crowned heads and 
are bold and large. The font has an octagonal bowl with quatrefoil 
paneling on stem of similar form. The porch has a stone seat and 
two-light open windows. The doorways have continuous arches and 
the door some good wood tracery. The tower is not lofty, has a 
battlement, and four small crocketed pinnacles and corner buttresses. 
It contains six bells. 

Monkton Deverill. [Aug., 1849.] A very small Church, with nave 
and chancel undivided and a low western tower. The body is all re- 
built, without distinction of chancel. The windows all Third Pointed 
except a plain lancet on the north and south of the chancel, which are 
original. The interior very neat, and fitted with open benches. The 
font is Norman, a circular bowl upon a cylindrical stem. The tower, 
which is small, is Third Pointed, having a moulded parapet, a belfry, 
window, single and trefoiled, on the west side a three-light window.. 
The tower opens to the nave by a pointed arch dying into the wall. 

\To he continued.'\ 

; post of the E. end of the ditch, the first was at 997 inches, and from that 
jothers at 94 (loose), 399, 3769, 5709, 63-27 (loose), and 8261 inches. The 
imean diameter of the hill from the Ordnance Survey is 6240 inches. The 



_ Chalk 5o3i 

U" -— 

■^'° Contour 



AUGUST, 1922. 

By Prof. W. M. Flinders Petrie, F.R.S. 

From the 14th to the 30th of August, 1922, I made some examination of 
Silbury Hill, with the kind co operation of Mr. A. D. Passmore. 

The two necks of land connecting it with the Bath Road are well known. 
The eastern neck proved to be solid chalk levelled down, and subsequently 
piled with chalk rubble, to form a smooth gradient from the road down to 
the neck. Accepting the nearest corner of the njeadow as 49 1 O. D. the chalk 
of the neck is at 496ft. lOin. Opposite to the two sides of the eastern 
neck, trenches were cut in to the hill down to unmoved chalk, which was at 
496 in the east trench, and at 497.2 further in. The west trench has chalk 
at 500, where the cutting was carried forward 40ft. into the hill, as far as 
520 level contour, or 60 feet from the middle of the neck. From the end 
of this cutting a tunnel was cut 20ft. eastward, past the end of the east 
trench, so as to intercept any possible line of passage in continuation of the 
neck. No break was found in the chalk surface. Similarly a trench was 
cut from the outer end of the east trench towards the west, but without 
meeting any difference in the chalk base. In no case was a turf -band left, 
which shows the surface to have been cut down. 

In the middle of the south face, equidistant from the two necks, a trench 
was cut up the side of the hill on solid chalk up to 503ft. 6in., where the 
top of the chalk was found without any turf-band. The untouched down 
surface opposite the notice board is at 526ft. On this ground fifteen 
flowering plants were identified, twelve of which occur also on the shifted 
ground of the hill ; but eleven other plants are far commoner on the hill, 
and give it an entirely different aspect from the untouched down. 

In these various cuttings it was notable bow little trace there was of 
rubble slipping down, contrary to what seems to be a general impression. 
In no case was there any proof that the rubble face was not as originally 
laid ; in one case a level clay band ran along to the base of the turf : in 
other cases the clay bands came within a few inches of the turf. From the 
hardening by showers, on the face of the loose rubble that we threw, it 
seepas unlikely that any face at the angle of rest would subsequently slip. 
Moreover the angle of rest of our tip was 33°50,' while the hill slope is 
27^° to 34° 

Around the hill Dean Merewether records seeing eight sarsen stones, 
seven of which we identified, five earth fast and two loose. He states that 
they were 18ft. apart in some places, but there is no such interval between 
these. What we noted were in the following positions From the N.W. 
post of the E. end of the ditch, the first was at 997 inches, and from that 
others at 94 (loose), 399, 3769, 5709, 6327 (loose), and 8261 inches. The 
mean diameter of the hill from the Ordnance Survey is 6240 inches. The 

216 Report of Diggings in Silhury Hill, August, 1922. 

question arises whether these stones are remains of a regular circle) there 
are about thirty re-used for a cartway across a ditch), if they were, the 
numbers of the stones counting from the first would be 1, 5, 48, 73, 81, 106, 
and there would have been 250 intended for the whole. On this scale the 
radius of the mound would be 40. Thus the proportion of diameter to 
circle would be 1 to 3g, instead of 3'141. The unit of this scale would be 
78 inches (= the French architectural cmine), which might be the fathom 
of the northern foot, usually 79. This was the base of our land measures, 
10 to the chain, 100 to the furlong, 1000 to the old mile. This unit had a 
long history, the foot being the most usual measure in medieval England, 
the Roman standard in the Decumates agri on the German frontier, and 
having a long history before that. 

A section of the whole hill was measured, where the shelf around the top 
is best preserved. The form of the sides was noted by offsets at each lOft., 
from sight lines sloping from top to bottom. Before excavating, levels 
were taken from the "491 " O.S. datum, up to 500, 510, and 520ft., and each 
level marked out along the hill side by a row of pegs. The positions of 
the pegs were taped and planned, to show the contours above the neck, 
where the hill is distinctly concave. These pegs served as reference marks 
for plan and level in all the excavating. 

The tunnel cut in 1849 was also examined, and the old turf surface was 
connected with the external levels. From the external level of 520ft. at 
103ft. inward from the face of the mound (where the turf is first seen clear 
of roof-falls), the top of the clay on the turf is at 522ft. 5in., or the base of 
the turf is 520ft. 9in. At 168ft. inward the top of the clay is 518ft. 2in. 
As the old down outside is at 526 opposite the tunnel, it appears that there 
was only 4ft. fall in 180ft., and 4ft. again in 65ft. further. That is to say, 
the mound was centred on a long almost level spur of down, which fell 
away sharply on the east, 1 8ft. in 1 10 distance to the middle of the south face. 

A cut was made on the east side at 1750 from the beginning of the railing, 
at about 497 — 502 level, and about 3ft. inward ; but only rubble was found. 
It would be well to try on the north face for the tail of the original spur. 

At the head of the west trench there was a pocket of larger blocks, limited 
sharply along a S.S.W. — N.N.P]. line by dense rubble. This was searched 
6ft. further into the hill ; the floor of it, and the top of the loose blocks 
rose on going inward. It was concluded to be only an accident of the 
original piling. 

Pieces of deer-horn picks and a few flint flakes were found in the rubble, 
mostly about 8ft. to I Oft. beneath the surface. These are mostly labelled 
with the levels and placed in the Devizes Museum. 

After drawing the section, with the chalk levels, an approximate estimate 
was made of the volume of the piled work, at 8.7 million cubic feet (or 
cubes lOoft. each way). An estimate of the amount of material removed, 
above the meadow level, gives 2.6 million feet; and the fosse appears to 
have been l50oft. long, 20ft. deep, and not over lOOft. wide, or three million 
feet. There is thus a deficit of three million feet, which must have been 
supplied by the wider fosse on the west, perhaps two millions, and by 
general lowering of the hill to the south. 

The direction of the digging was carried on by tenting on the spot with 




TO N. E. 


By Prof. W. M, Flinders Petrie, F.R.S. 217 

my son, from first to last ; Mr. Passmore was also generally on the ground 
during the working hours. 


1. The strata of chalk and yellow clay being usually horizontal, or else 
slightly tilted either way, show that the mound was heaped in level layers, 
and not added to on the sloping face. This points to the size being originally 
so designed, and not casually accreted. 

•2. The large diameter of the fosse (15ft. to 22ft- deep), leaving only a 
narrow berm around the foot of the mound, also shows that the size was 
thus designed. 

3. The absence of any slipping, or sloped piling, shows that the work 
was regulated with care, probably by a level cord stretched from the central 
tree found in the shaft of 1777. The angle averages 3° flatter than the 
angle of rest ; but this may be partly due to consolidation. 

4. The sarsens around the base suggest that two hundred and fifty were 
to be placed a fathom apart, in a circle 80 fathoms across : the fathom being 
a short form (78in.) of the usual northern fathom (79in.) 

5. The chalk surface about the S.E. was all stripped of turf before any 
rubble was thrown on it, and cut down to between 497 and 500 O.D. The 
neck left across the fosse was cut to the same level. 

6. For a gangway at the S.E. a rubble bank was thrown up on the neck 
of 497ft., to join the road at 512ft., while the field on the opposite side is 
508. This shows that access for heavy work was needed on this side. The 
slope of the gangway is one in 4 (I2|ft. in 50ft.), and the flat width 10ft. 
The present road has doubtless largely degraded, being on a slope, and 
much used in all ages. 

7. The slope of the outer side of the fosse on the south, being in line with 
the slope outside of the fosse, east and west of that, points to an intention 
•of completing the fosse by removing the necks across it. This suggests 
"that the work was never completed. 

8. The trenches and tunnel now cut, prove that there is no access to a 
•chamber near the eastern neck. 

9. The mound was based on a long, almost level, spur of down, running 
N. from the present spur of old down which forms the western neck. This 
spur fell away on the eastern side at a slope of at least 1 in 5. 

10. The position of Silbury, so low down that it is hidden in most 
•directions by the nearest hills, would be most unlikely for a great monument, 
.as barrows are usually in prominent positions. The low situation can only 
be due to the need of making a water fosse round it. ^Such a feature strongly 
■supports the view that the fosse of Avebury was likewise intended to be 
flooded. A promising line of enquiry now would be to seek on the Continent 
for great earthworks which are not defensive, but which have a wet fosse 
■around. Any such works would indicate a direction of origin for the 
•constructors of these great monuments. 

I have to thank Lord Avebury and H. M Office of Works for the ready 
permission to make this examination. From the digging of the shaft to 
the cutting of the tunnel was seventy-two years, from the tunnelling to my 
<5Utting was seventy three years ; are we to wait seventy-two years more for 
further exploration ? 

Q 2 

218 Report of Diggings in Silhury Hill, August, 1922. 

For earlier work see the Salisbury volume of the Royal Archaeological 
Institute, 1851 ; papers by Dean Merewether, p. 73, and by C. Tucker, p. 
297. Also Wilts Arch. Mag., 1887, vol. xxiii., p. 245, on the pits sunk in 
the fosse by A. C. Pass. 

Note by Mr. A. D. Passmoee. 

During the excavation many fragments of deer horn picks were turned 
up, all of which bear signs of very rough usage, the tines being broken 
away from the shafts probably in digging the rubble from the great ditch 
below. There were a few bones ; these have been kindly examined by Dr. 
C. W. Andrews, F.R.S., who definitely determined them as red deer and 
pig. A few flint flakes — like the bones and horns — occurred at all 
depths ; they are very rough waste chippings with no secondary work,, 
stained grey by contact with the chalk, but dull and lustreless. In the 
top soil of the east neck was one piece of coarse pottery containing much 
broken shell and flint, probably native of the Roman period. The difference 
in herbage mentioned above by Prof. Petrie is probably explained by the 
fact that nothing bigger than a rabbit depastures the hill. In all the 
cuttings there was a remarkable absence of silting, the horizontal layers of 
rubble coming right out to the edge. This suggests that the hill was turfed 
over as made, thus any tendency of the loose rubble to roll down or to be- 
washed down was effectually prevented. 

I have sent photos to the Devizes Museum which illustrate the latter 
remark and show the work of excavation at different stages. 



By the Rev. A. W. Stote, M.A., Camb., F.S.G., Lond., 
Sometime Vicar of Holy Trinity, Trowbridge. 

In 1910, by permission of the late Canon H. C. Coote, then Rector of 
Trowbridge, I transcribed for Phillimore's "Wiltshire Parish Registers" 
somewhere in the neighbourhood of 7000 entries of marriages solemnized in 
the Parish Church of St. James,Trowbridge, between 1538 and the end of 1812. 
Less than 700 Churches in England have preserved registers dating from 
the year of Thomas Cromwell's " Injunctions," and Trowbridge is one of 
them. It possesses a fine series of volumes of registers, and, as is most 
commonly the case, the entries for the first seventy years or so in the first 
volume are not the original entries but copies of them made by order on 
parchment from the original (? lost paper) book, and all written in the same 
Early Jacobean hand. Trowbridge is rich in an unusually large number of 
Commonwealth entries owing, I think, to the fact that the Royalist Rector 
remained in his cure right through that distressful period and on into several 
years after the Restoration. There is a note on p. 218 of the induction of 
Mr. Thomas Pelling as Rector on the 23rd of Nov., 1621. His marriage 
occurs five years later and his burial is recorded in 1664. On p. 217 there 
is a memorandum dated 25th June, 1648, that three Keyes of the Parish 
Chest were delivered one to " Thos. Pelling y^ minister " and one each to 
the churchwarden and the overseer of the poor. An amusing story in 
Walker's " Sufferings of the Clergy " explains why there was no " Intruder " 
at " Strabridge." Walker, by the way, gives him the degree of D.D. Dr. 
Pelling, was passing along the street of Trowbridge with his wife and 
children, having just been dispossessed of his rectory, plundered and turned 
out of doors, when he met an old friend in the Colonel of the Parliamentary 
Army, who finding that he had been ejected for not taking the Covenant, 
sent for the fellow who had executed the order of ejectment. Taking a 
copy of the Covenant from him, he gave it to the l^ector and bade him put 
it in his pocket. The Colonel w^ent to " the men then in power," asssured 
them that on his own knowledge Dr. Pelling had "taken the Covenant," 
and so obtained an order for reinstating him into the living, " which he 
was afterwards permitted to enjoy." I cannot help thinking that Trow- 
bridge Church records owe much to this timely meeting and to the Colonel's 
friendly subterfuge. 

Some of the earliest entries refer to clergy. Amongst the burials are, e.g.^ 
*' Thomas Molens parson of Truebridge " 15th Nov., 1558 (Rector in 1528) ; 
*' John Rundell a priest " 29th Dec, 1558; and "John Vaughne mynister k 
gentlma' " 25th Nov., 1599. " Mr. Thomas Webb rector of Truebridge died 
the 10th dale of June and was buried the 2nd dale of July following 1595." 
This is rather remarkable ! and so is the double entry in 1672 : Aug, 13th, 

220 Some Notes on Trowbridge Parish Church Registers, 

" Ricardus Randall of Trowbridge clericus sepultus fuit," and Aug. 15th^ 
"Robertus Hawkence Rector sepultus fuit." Robert Hawkins, B.D., was 
inducted, according to a note in the register, 17th Feb., 1664. When one of 
the same name was buried in 1611 a marginal note recorded "given by y^ 
same John Hawkins to y^ use of y^ pore the some of xxli." 

It is much to be regretted that the pre-Jacobean entries, being copies 
from a lost record, were in all probability much abbreviated by the scribe^ 
who would naturally wish to lessen his labours. But an entry of 23rd Jan., 
1584, gives one of those personal touches that occasionally peep out of the 
pages, when it records the burial of "Mistris Joane Longe widowe, a woman 
of greate devotion." Possibly she passed on her devout habits to descendants, 
for on 20th May, 1680, the unusual note of "holy thursday " is appended 
to the marriage of Anthony Long and Marie Hunt. Notable burials occur, 
such as, 5th August, 1607, " Frances Rodney the sonne of S'. John Rodney 
in the countie of Somerset Kt.," and 7th Sept. 1665, "The R'. Ron^^' Charles 
L*^. Seymore Baron of Trowbridge was interd in his valt in Trowbridge 
Church." But far more interesting than these are the burials in 1702, of 
"William Singer Aa six hundred man," and in 1703 of "Simon Sloper a 
six hundred pound man." A marriage record of 1702 has probably the 

same meaning — " John Davis and Marie Spicer a 6 hundred po " The 

explanation is that by the Act of 1694 (6 & 7 Wm. III., c. 6) taxes were 
imposed, "for the carrying on of the war against France with vigour," by 
which the revenue profited by 20s. for every burial of a person leaving real 
estate of ^50 and upwards or personal estate of £600 and upward. A 
Duke under this Act cost £50 in taxes for burial, the same for his marriage, 
and at the birth of his eldest son he paid ^30. In these good old days 
bachelors over 25 and widowers paid a tax of 1 s. per annum for the privilege 
of remaining unmarried, whilst a bachelor Duke was mulcted in £12 10s.. 
Curiously enough, one of our Wilts deeds, which I found amongst some 
documents that Mr. W. Haden, of Trowbridge, presented to the Society's- 
collection, has the signatures and seals of two of the above "600 men." 
This deed is also signed and sealed by the then Rector, Robert Kelway 
(who was buried 6th March, 1716), and is the conveyance of some land, the 
trust deed of the Bisse Charity for the apprenticeship of poor Trowbridge 
boys. The churchwardens of St. James' still administer the charity, but 
their counterpart of the deed appears to be missing. So that a reference 
to our Wilts Collection of deeds may at any time become of real practical' 

About 1696 there are many marginal notes to the entries, such as, " this- 
is paied" ; "paied to the King" ; "Exam'd p me H. Flow Survey'." (1699- 
marriages) ; " Surveyed p me Wm. Owen " (1703 burials) ; " Sarah Comley 
buried 16th Aug., 1702 to pay at lacock." In 1712 some burial entries are 
marked "g." " L," " parish," " y* 5th Bell," ; " by y" Parish," or " by y« 5th 
Bell," the explanations of which may be guessed. 

Of course we have the usual centenarian whose real age cannot be verifiedH^ 
in an entry under 7th June, 1697, " John Thornicroft a hundred and seven | 
years ould by report." Probably he was not born in Trowbridge, 

Tuckers and Bulls appear frequently in the registers — they still exist 
there, and Tucker is, of course, a cloth-trade name. One Tucker who 

By the Rev. A. W. Stote, M.A., Camh., F.S.G., Lond. 221 

flourished in the sixteenth century was, apparently, like Leah, afflicted in 
the eyes, for the burial entry in 1547 is of " Blynckinge Tucker's wife " ! 
John Bull existed in duplicate in Trowbridge in 1666, for " Margery wife 
of redheaded John Bull" was buried then. 

There is a page of the register (p. 344) devoted to the burials of " decenters," 
and lists of "dissenters births" are given down to 1720. Baptisms are 
recorded until Oct., 1653, after which " births " are noted very fully and 
some from 26th March, 1655 are copied from Vol. i. into Vol. ii. The next 
" Baptism " occurs after the Restoration, and is dated 1 7th April, 1661. No 
marriages are recorded between 1653 and 1659, and very few between 1645 
and 1653 ; and no burials between June, 1642 and Feb., 1645. But otherwise 
the Commonwealth period, when the registration duties were taken out of 
the hands of the clergy by the Act of 1653, is well represented. 

A "freak" entry occurs on the "births" page (p. 21 1) of 1674 — 9, as 
follows : — "December the 15th, 1692, Anthony Bull Boft a hors of Edward 
Shovell the prise 1 — 6—0 to pay the money July the 25th." And there is 
pathetic misery behind the record " Francis a basse child of Joana Noman 
was baptized the 4th day of Jan. laste, 1623, born at Studley as the mother 
was walkinge on the highe waye." 

There are several entries apparently in clumsy imitation of the early 
script, written in different ink, and by another hand, e.g., " 1587 Nov., 
William Wallis son of Mr. Thomas Wallis was baptized y^ 19th day." Some 
other Wallis entries look equally doubtful. 

Curious names and eccentric spellings occur in all old registers. Amongst 
strange surnames I noted Whithaier, Goodhaiers, Wildgoose, Pobge 1684 
(='/ Bobjoy, still a Trowbridge name), Ghy (=? Guy), Godpath 1585, Patvyne 
als Cuthberd, 1583, Holdeberde, 1582 (=? Wholebeard), Broadhed, Brodrib, 
Drinkwater, 1688 (still a Trowbridge name), Tiladames, 1580, and With the 
1685 (= Withy). Robert Whichchurch, 1691, struck me as a typical Trow- 
bridge man. At any rate, I remember finding a letter from a former Rector 
of Trowbridge amongst my papers when Vicar of Holy Trinity, Trowbridge, 
which showed that about 1839 the churchmanship of Trowbridge was of 
such a fluid character that, as the Rector plaintively remarked, the Sunday 
school teachers at Holy Trinity thought nothing of teaching one Sunday in 
the Church school and the next in the Chapel Sunday school ! But then,. 
in those days the children were taught to read and write and do sums on 
Sunday, the superintendent freely wielded the cane, and there was little 
distinctly religious teaching given. Perhaps it was a marriage made in 
heaven when John Peace wedded Grace Sweetling in 1693, and possibly 
marriage was a failure when in 1782 Miss Weakly became Moody on her 
wedding day ! In 1755 a Uriah Witcomb married a Bathsheba Chapman ! 
Feminine names are sometimes curiosities. Frissy Dicks was later " Frid- 
iswead" when buried in 1711. I suppose it is a corruption of the saintly 
name of Frideswide. Other uncommon names are Persela, Dianishia, 
Quirinia, Yeadeth (Edith), Bethia, Damasen, Achsah, Hipsa, Burce, Bince, 
Repentance, and (o vara avis) Silence Hales. Boys' names are not so 
peculiar, but I noted " Standuppe son of Alex. Smith als Gorier " in 1609, 
" Zorobabell Webb son of Nathaniel Webb " in 1595, I^owtherweek, 1677, 
became Jjotherick in 1685, and an Adham Skull lived in 1691. Two families 

222 Some Notes on Trowbridge Parish Church Registers. 

of Smith are constantly distinguished by an alias, Smith als Gorier and 
Smith als Singer. 

Double Christian names were rare amongst the commonalty in early times, 
so that " Orange Robert son of Stephen and Elizabeth Renolds bap. 18th 
May 1720 " was a distinguished boy, though he would be much more re- 
markable had he been born fifty or so years earlier. The entries of the 
sixteenth century and the closing years of the seventeenth century are 
often distinguished by the addition of a man's trade. Among the cloth 
trades I noted the early entry of 1650 " John Bull broad weav' " (= broad- 
weaver, Trowbridge being formerly famous for its broadcloth) ; 1698 " a 
cloth drawer," "William Tucker, a scrubler" (elsewhere scribler), and " a 
duccke tucker"; 1699 "a burler " (who picked out the knots and loose 
threads from the cloth) ; 1701 " a clother " (clothier) ; 1702 " William Crab, 
a shearman" (Crabbs appear in N. Wilts to-day, but the Poet Crabbe, 
Rector of Trowbridge, was not of Wiltshire origin) ; 1702 "a wever " and 
*'a spiner"; 1703 "a spiner of duck" and "a slaymaker " (a slay, or sley, 
was a weaver's reed for striking the web together); 1705 " a f eltmaker," 
*' Henry Crabb a clothworkrer," "a cordmaker," and " a wever's printer" ; 
and 1706 " a cardmaker " probably for carding the wool, not playing cards). 
I am- not certain what " a liner " and " a backer " were, but " milman " is 
clear, as is also "corier," or "curier," whilst " staerman," " cacher " (? of 
rats!), "coler" and "banner" are puzzles, and I am not sure that the 
" fariner " of 1702 was a foreigner, though he may have been a non-resident. 
Sam Doons, the " scolmaster" of 1 702 was probably better known than "John 
Smith a souldier belonging to Coll. Windham's regemV who died or was 
killed in 1 685. The " faierman " and " horsdriver tout " were possibly rather 
more respectable members of society than the "bigard" ( = ? beggar) of 
1698. Besides the many examples of common trades such as " John Clark 
of the Gorge, a seler of beare" (buried 1707) and the tinker, the "tylor," 
the taylor, and "pothecary," we have a " druget maker " (otherwise " drou- 
chet," " drucet," and " druetmaker,") a " bodismaker," and a " doubet maker." 
I hardly think that John Clark a "gener " in 1698 was "generosus," and I 
suppose that a "molter" made malt. 

In these rather scrappy gleanings from the Trowbridge Parish Registers 
I have taken no note of such things as burial in woollen ; but imperfect as 
they are, they may, I hope, serve to indicate some of the interesting results 
which an examination of old registers is almost sure to produce. 

In conclusion I may note that a former Rector of Trowbridge went to 
considerable expense in employing a clerk to compile a large and generously 
conceived index to these Church registers- This index is well bound and 
beautifully written, and is frequently consulted in the vestry room at St. 
James'. But its value as regards the first volume of the registers is dis- 
counted by the fact that the clerk made many transcriptional errors owing 
to his faulty reading of the ancient script, so that references from this index 
should always be verified from the original entry. 

In 1912 I sent a complete transcript of the marriage entries in the old 
Trowbridge registers to Messrs. Phillimore & Co. for publication in their 
Wiltshire Parish Registers Series, but the War intervened. At present 
there does not seem to be any prospect of an early resumption of the 

By the Bev. A. W. Stote, M.A„ Camb,, F.S,G., Bond. 223 

publication of these marriage registers, but the Editor of Phillimore's 
Wiltshire Series, Mr. John Sadler, writes to me that he is very hopeful 
that it will be possible before very long. Apparently about twenty more 
subscribers of 10s 6d. per annum would ensure this excellent work being 
resumed. Mr. Sadler's address is 10, Woodville Road, Ealing, W. 5. He 
has temporarily returned the MS. to me. 

Stray Notes of some Trowbridge Records. 

The following were copied by me in 1910 when examining the contents 
of the safe in which the old parish registers of St. James', Trowbridge, are 
kept :— 

(1) A Letter dated 1675. " Mr. John Daues this is to give notes y* James 
Mayshman hath bin with mee a bout his prentes boy y^ next weeke you 
shall have y* seteuecat & y^ Handes & selles of y^ Church wardens & 
over seeres of y^ poore to take him a gayne if hee profe Charytabel. 
this is y^ needfully at p'sent ffrom your Lo: ffriend 

Will Barton. 
Westbury y« 26 Septemb 75." 

(2) A Warrant to levy rates dat. 29 Sept., 1679. 
Signed(with three armorial seals) by Ed w: Hungerf ord ? J. Mall, Jo: Aishe. 

" Arrears. Imprs. Nicholas Temple 



Sheffton Waite 


Jasper Luise 


John Turner 



William Archard 


John Thurnell 


Francis Webb 


Thomas Adlam 


James Priest 


Thomas Pin chin 


Anthony Smith 



Thomas Witchell 


William Moody 


Hugh Chivers 


Jeremiah Asten 


Roger Deuerell 



Edward Bayly 



<3) An account of 1708. 

" Paid EUesebeth Barencs for her Ling Ie 

L & y 

^ Midwyfe . 


Itm. for y^ ffirst Montes subsistance ffeb: 


1708 Hi 

Is 6d 

fifor y^ secon^ March 13 

6 : 00 

ffor y« third Month: Apill 10: 

: 6 : GO 

• ffor 3 wickes Male 

. 4 : 06 

1 :18 : 0" 

The Story of a Runaway Apprentice. 
" Wilts : To the Worshipp^^ his Majesties Justices of the Peace att their 

224 Some Notes on Troiuhridge Parish Church Registers, 

Speciall Session held att y^ George in Trowbridge January the 5th 1727. '^ 

" These are to inform your worshipps that Thomas Webb of Hilperton 
Bound his Son George Webb an apprentice unto William Hendbest of 
Trowbridge Carpenter for 7 yeares Ebdjohn (?)^M ereweather and Joseph 
Cray filld up the Indentures one filld up one of them and the other 
filld the other Indenture and saw them signed sealed and executed this 
is all as they Can say or know / he is now desireious to know where he 
must be Parishioner att Hilperton or Trowbridge." 

[Another document, undated ? 1727.] " Thomas Webb of Hilperton bound 
his son George apprentice to William Henbest of Trowbridge carpenter 
for 7 years he served about two years runnaway sold himself to the 
Plantations in America stole away there from his master & came to 
England to Bristell where the Merchant that sold him took him there 
again and putt him in Prison intending for to send him over again to 
his master into America: his friends hearing this Goes Downe to 
Bristoll and buys him off from the Merchant brings him up to 
Trowbridge to Thomas Coleys there they buys himm off from his 
Master Henbest gave 2 Gineys for y^ Beast of his Time and Burnt 
their Indentures Tis alsoe said that these Indentures was Neaver 
Sent up to the Stampt officer to be signed & there was four Pounds 
gave with the apprentice to his master Tho: Coley John White Mary 
Steevins & others Can witness this of called thereunto : Now this 
apprentice is since maried one Child allready and another allmost 
Come he is living att Bath & Bath people Requires a discharge he is 
desireous to know where he is a Parishioner to Trowbridge or Hilperton." 

(5) A Settlement Record of 1728. 

"An Account of what Thos. Read can collect relating to the settlement 
of Rich^. Poole, 
ffarmer Rober / Who saith that he well knew the s*^ Richard Poole 
Barthof Bainton ) that he was an apprentice to Andrew Long, a Shu- 
note he is no ) maker of Steeple Ashton that since he & his family 
paymaster to ) intruded himself in to the parish of Edyngton his wife 
parish Rates S & familly being visited with sicknesse was for a con- 
Charles Watten S siderable time relieved by the parish of Steeple Ashton 
attests the same \ & further saith that his sister tended the family when 
No paymaster to \ sick of the small pox & was paid for doing that by the- 
parish Kates \ parishioners of Steeple Ashton/ 

"My Jjord Powlett having reccollected himself about the Affair of 
Pools wife & children doe think it incumbent for the Parish of Edington 
to assist the Parish of Trowbridge in maintenance of their order as far 
as possible & will give directions pershuant thereto, this message was 
sent me by ffarmer John Apprise 3"^ Aug. 1728. 

" In the month of Sept. 1691 the p'ish of Edington promised an order 

for the removeing of Richard Poole from Edington to Steeple Ashton/ 

" And in the month of Oct. 1691 the s"^ Richard Poole was carried 

^ Probably Abjohn Merewether, of Hilperton, son of John Merewether, of 
London, gent., and Mary, his wife. (A. W. S.) 

By the Rev. A. W. Stole, M.A„ Camh., F.S.G., Zond. 225 

with his family to iSteeple Ashton & delivered to the proper officers & 
the parish of Steeple Ashton never appealed against the said order. 
This if occasion be will be attested by Thomas Reed of Edington who 
was the overseer of the said parish./ 

"Edington Register sets forth that Hugh Poole son of Richard Poole 
was baptized the 22"** day of April 1693. Mr. Read's Instructions." 

(6) " A Go2'>py of Certificate of Wm. Hervey. Date 1740. 

1767 from Trowbridge To Bradford. 

Wilts Ss j To the Ch: Wardens & O'seers of the Poor of Bradford in 
( the said County & to each or either of them. 

" We whose hand & seals are hereunto subscribed & set being the 
Major part of tire Churchwardens & Overseers of the Poor of the P'sh 
of Trowbridge in the County of Wilts aforesaid Do hereby Certifie that 
we do Own and Acknowledge William Hervey Broadvv'eaver Elizabeth 
his wife and Sarahtheirdaughter And also John Woodward Broad weaver 
Ann his wife & William their son to be Inhabitants Legally settled in 
our said Parish of Trowbridge. And we do hereby promise for our 
Selves & Successors to receive them into our said Parish whensoever they 
shall become Chargeable to your said Parish of Bradford. In Witness 
whereof we have hereunto Respectively set our Hands & Seals the 23"^ 
day of August in the Year of our Lord one Thousand seven Hundred 
& forty in the 14 year of His Majesty's Reign. 
Sealed & subscribed Churchwardens P^."^' Temple (Seal) 

in the presence or IHichard Cottle (seal) 

John Davison q g „p fjnoathan Reynolds (seal) 

John Morice his mark \jn° Read (seal) 

" We whose names are hereunto subscribed Two of his Majesty's 
Justices of the Peace for the said County of Wilts do allow of the above 
certificate & Do hereby certifie that the abovenamed Jo. Morrice made 
Oath before us that he with Jo. Davison the other Witness Attesting 
the Execution of the above Certificate did see the Churchwardens & 
Overseers of the Poor of the Parish of Trowbridge aforesaid severally 
signe & seal this certificate & that the names of the said Jo. Davison &, 
Jo. Morice are their own proper handwriting and mark given under 
our hande the 25'^ day of August in the year 1740 

A True Copy J. Cooper 

J. Bush. J. Thrasher" 

A Wiltshire Labouring Man's Pedigree. 
, It is not often that a working man can produce a proved pedigree of ten 
I generations. Such was shown me by a former parishioner of mine, Obed 
* George Sellwood, living in 1915 at 23, Park Street, Trowbridge, and born 
about 1845 at Upavon. I had to sign as Vicar a certificate that he was 
(alive in order that he might draw a small annuity that he inherited under 
ithe will of a collateral ancestor ; and I copied as given herewith part of a 
'docuhient which he possessed proving his descent. It runs as follows , . . 
"The wsaid John Sellwood now of Upavon in the County of Wilts also 
imaketh oath that He is related by ties of consanguinity to John West late 

226 Some Notes on Trowbridge Parish Cliurch Registers. 

of London gent., Deceased, in such manner as the Pedigree or account of 
the saihe hereunder written appears ... as follows That Mrs. West, 
deceased, whose maiden name was Stare, late mother of the said Mr. John 
West, had a sister by name Jane Stare, which said Jane Stare married to 
Joseph Randle, & had issue John Randle, which said John Randle by 
Anstice his wife had issue one daughter named Anstice, which said Anstice 
Randle married with May and had issue one daughter named Anstice, 
which said Anstice May married with Thomas Hendry and had issue one 
daughter named Anstice, which said Anstice Henday married with Thomas 
Evans & had issue one son named Thomas, which said Thomas Evans 
married with Bridget Coles & had issue Thomas Evans, who married with 
Jane Springford & had issue one daughter named Mary, which said Mary 
Evans married with John Sellwood, this deponent's grandfather, by whom 
he had issue one son named John, this deponent's father, who married with 
Sarah Sutton & had issue this deponent, Obed George Selwood." 




In the Wiltshire Gazette^ of July 17th, 1899, was printed the paper read 
by Mr. (now Lt.-Col.) W, Hawley, at the recent meeting of the Wilts 
Archaeological Society. I am allowed by the kind permission of Col. 
Hawley to print an abstract of the most important parts of this paper, 
which he has seen and approved. The objects found were afterwards given 
by him to the British Museum. In our own Museum at Devizes are a 
large number of bronze and iron objects, tools, &c., from Rushall and 
Wilsford Downs, some of which may have come from the sites excavated 
by Col. Hawley. (See the index to the Catalogue of Antiquities in the 
Museum at Devizes, Part II.). Ed. H. Goddard. 

The site of the first village excavated is described as on a high point of 
down about one-and-a-half miles west of Compton, in Enford, apparently 
on the eastward point of the promontory of down between the two main 
branches of " Water Dean Bottom." Three-quarters of a mile further west 
stood the second village, considerably larger than the first, on the same 
spur of down, overhanging a deep valley on the north and north-west sides. 
As at this point a distance of about one-and-a quarter miles covers the 
narrow strips of five parishes, Enford, Upavon, Rushall, Charlton, and 
Wilsford, it is not easy to say in which of these the two sites are situated. 
Perhaps they may cross the boundaries of more than one parish, but the 
smaller village appears to be in Upavon parish and the larger in Rushall. 
Casterley Camp is not far off. 

In May, 1897, a man who had been employed by Col. Hawley in digging 

brought him what he called a shield, which had been found ploughed up by 

his nephew. This was the Roman pewter salver now in the British M useum. 

It is of the same character as those from the Manton find, now at Devizes. 

Col. Hawley found that the arable field from which it came was everywhere 

I strewn with Romano-British and some Samian sherds of pottery. On the 

I ground above this sloping field a number of rectangular banks and en- 

I closures, and depressions were clearly visible. This was the site of the 

I larger village, the furthest from Compton. Four portions of a rim of a 

I rather smaller pewter salver were subsequently brought to Col. Hawley, 

j and he was told that two or three had been found there formerly and thrown 

I about the field until lost sight of. This site was on Mr. Stratton's land. 

1 The site of the smaller village near Compton, was on the land of M r, Howden 

! and Mr. Arnold, Excavations were carried out on both sites by Col. Hawley. 

i Roman coins are found in considerable numbers all over the neighbourhood 

of these sites. Those found by Col. Hawley, numbering about a hundred 

and twenty, extended from Gallienus 260 — 268 (a silver coin) down to the 

close of the Roman occupation, and included coins of Maximian, Postumus, 

AUectus, Tetricus, The Constantines, Constans, Constantius, Victorinus, 

Gratian, Theodosius and Valentinian. Two of Maximian were very little 

228 Romano -British Villages on Upavon and Rushall Downs. 

worn, and the impressions sharp. One was silvered. Both were sent to 
the British Museum. These were the only ones of consequence. Col. 
Hawley was told that small hoards of coins had been found formerly. 

Pottery included coarse handmade ware found round the highest part of 
the large village. Of this none was found in the smaller village. Of the 
distinctly Roman pottery found both in the larger and the smaller village, 
no whole vessel occurred, and in only a few cases was it possible to put 
together any considerable portion of one. More than half of the pottery 
came from New Forest kilns. A bowl and a shallow dish and mortarium 
of Samian, a mortarium of imitation Samian, a jug of New Forest ware, 
fragments of colanders, fragments rounded for counters, and fragments of 
amphorae or jars of large size, some perforated with holes, were the principal 
things found. There were also flat bricks and roof tiles of pottery as well 
as stone. Of these latter some were of sandstone and some of oolite. 
Fragments of stone were common, but most of it appeared to have been 
dug up and carried away for building purposes. Querns, all fragmentary, 
occurred in numbers. Of sculptured stone there were found only a small 
capital, and what was at first thought to be another capital, but proved 
later to be a small altar ; square in shape with large concentric rings on 
four sides. On the top was a round depression for the offering. This is 
at the British Museum. At the larger village " a curious figure of a face 
cut in chalk," was found. 

Of iron objects nails were common, and there was a curious article 
consisting of a chain having two implements attached to it, now recognised 
as keys. 

Knives, sandal cleats, fragments of a fine two-pronged hoe, a pruning 
hook or small sickle, a flat pan like a frying pan, a large spoon or ladle, parts 
of horseshoes, an iron fibula, awls, and styli, and "some remains of miners' 
gads (or perhaps picks), which had been cut into pieces of scrap iron by 
the smith, for converting into other objects." 

The bronze objects were chiefly parts of fibulse and armillae, two perfect 
examples of each were found, some of the " armillae " being so small that 
Col. Hawley suggests they may have been earrings rather than bracelets. 
" A piece of bronze chain and a bronze hook, and an iron one in close 
proximity, which perhaps belonged, and formed a chain for looping together 
the costume at the neck." Finger rings and " a heel tip of a sandal." There 
was also found a bronze ferrule for the butt end of a spear, shaped like a 
door knob, resembling Fig. 426 in Evans' Bronze Implements. This is of 
the Bronze Age, and is the only example of the type known from Wilts. 

Glass was rarely met with, and consisted of fragments of a large square 
bottle, a thin beaker, and small bottles. Only two glass beads were found. 

The worked bones were few. A point with rivet hole for attachment to 
a shaft, as an arrow or spear head, and a deer horn pick were found in as 
pit ; a knife handle, a large needle or stylus, and an object like a shoe horni 
were the chief things found. Red deer and roe deer horns were found, the 
former much the commonest ; bones of pig, small oxen, and sheep occurred 
everywhere. " In the larger village I came upon a rectangular pit, 8ft. long 
by 5ft. wide, and 7ft. deep, filled with the bones of various animals, chieflj 
oxen and sheep and red deer, and nothing but bones, except a stray bit o 

Excavated hy Lt.-Col, Haivley, F.S.A. 229 

pottery here and there. It would almost seem as if, the village being 
littered with bones, an edict had gone forth from the head man that all 
bones were to be collected and buried. I know of no other way to account 
for it." 

Col. Hawley especially mentions the finding of mineral coal about 3ft. 
below the surface at the spot where the sculptured capitals were found in 
the larger village, about 150 yards above the spot where the pewter salver 
was found.^ Be suggests that possibly it may have been brought there in 
small quantities for use in sacrifice or some other religious purpose. Oyster 
shells occurred in numbers, at one spot two hundred were found together. 
Mussel and Periwinkle shells were also found. 

Col. Hawley remarks that the soil on the village sites is everywhere 
black, that the roads through the villages, and in some cases, the narrow 
lanes between the dwellings can be traced. He found a number of pits 
which he regards as dwelling pits in the higher part of the larger village, 
varying in depth from 6ft. to 9ft., the sides in some cases being slightly 
undercut. Traces of fire occurred at the bottom of all. " Close to a cluster 
of three I found a small shallow one about 4f t. wide andabout the same depth, 
in the centre of which was a mound of puddled clay and chalk, having a 
ring of about a foot all round between itself and the side, in which traces 
of fire were observable. This, I have not the slightest doubt, was used as 
an oven, for after the mound in the centre had been made nearly red hot, 
cakes could have been placed over it to bake and the mouth of the hole 
dosed whilst the operation went on." These pits Col. Hawley regards as 
the dwellings of the earlier inhabitants, as opposed to the rectangular above- 
ground huts of the Romano- British period. 

Under these later houses several examples of the T-shaped hypocaust 
were found. These consisted of a main flue, 12ft. to 16ft. in length and 2ft. 
wide, branching at the head into two side flues at right angles 1ft. wide. 
The sides of the flues were of good masonry, sometimes of flint, sometimes 
of squared chalk, and in one instance of large slabs of stone, and mortar 
was used in all cases. The fire was lighted at the base of the T, and the 
smoke probably was carried off from the ends of the cross flues by chimnies. 
Col. Hawley thinks from the number of bones, &c., found near the fireplaces 
that cooking was carried on there.^ He notices " In the enclosures where 

^ I have since met with mineral coal at Stockton and other Romano- 
British sites, but only a few fragments and very lustreless from age. 

W. Hawley (1923). 

' " It was not until digging at Stockton that I became aware of the nature 
of the ' hypocausts ' and could see that they were used as ovens and perhaps 
for other uses, such as decorticating grain, or even for malting. Besides 
their use for baking bread they were probably used for cooking food, many 
bones and oyster shells being present. Charred remains of grain and straw 
are almost invariably found in the flues. The heat from the cross flue at 
the end was deflected back by means of tiles inserted in the wall at the end 

230 Romano- British Villages on U'pavon and Bushall Downs. 

the newer houses stood, one frequently comes across a round pit excavated 
in the chalk about 4tt. deep and 3ft. wide — too small for a dwelling pit, for 
which it was certainly not intended, for the excavated clean chalk was 
carefully put back and rarely contains anything. These, I noticed, were at 
a lower level than the house, and I think were used for soak drains to keep 
the place dry, for rain water would accumulate in the depressed enclosures 
and be difficult to get rid of." 

The area of the small village is about nine acres, and was surrounded by 
a ditch and bank, no doubt stockaded. The main road led up to the village 
and across it just inside and along the bank on the east side, passing out on 
the north side and down to a point where a well still exists, no doubt the 
source of the water supply. On the east side an area larger than that of 
the village itself is surrounded by a bank, the ends of which join the north 
and south banks of the village, no doubt a cattle enclosure. 


Incidentally Col. Mawley notices two sections which he made of the 
Eoman road at Conholt, in 1898. " The crown of the road was put together 
with the greatest possible care ; the flints imbedded in a substance which 
held them so tightly that it was with great difficulty that they could be 
moved ; below this there were layers of gravel and coarse sand, and one 
which deserves special attention, for it was five inches thick and composed 
of calcined flint of a very uniform granulation, amongst which were black 
ashes of the wood used in process of calcination. Below this again was 
more gravel, and the whole ended in a nicely smoothed base of clay, sloping 
away to the ditches on either side. The object of this construction evidently 
was to ensure filtration, and prevent water settling in any part of the road, 
which, if frozen, would cause expansion and affect the solidity of the road." ' 

about 6in. or Sin. above the cross flue. I suspect a dome to have been made I 
over the oven floor, but as this was nearly, if not quite, on ground level, all | 
further evidence of these places has been swept away. I found seven at ! 
Stockton, but the finest specimens were found at Kockbourne by Hey wood 
Sumner, one of which had three divergent flues from the fire. With the 
exception of one with chalk blocks at Rushall, all were lined and covered 
with slabs of oolite ragstone. The same applied to two found at Beckett, 
in Berks, and although I found none of these ovens at Corhampton, Hants, 
slabs of oolite had been carried even that long distance eastward, but in 
smaller pieces. They are not earlier than the second century, as Romano- 
Gallic ware is present in nearly all instances, and at Stockton a coin of 
Tetricus was embedded in the stucco composing the oven floor above the^j 
long flue. In some instances I could detect the lines of walls of the buildings} 
these places stood in, but being little below ground level they had nearly 
disappeared. — W. Hawley. 1923." 

^ This section was made for Mr. T. Codrington, who came to examine the 
road, and was opened by myself and a man. — W. Hawley. 





j By J. J. Slade. 

I It is significant of the position of Devizes as the capital of North Wilts, 
that, although it has never had a large population, judged by modern 
standards, it at one time published three weekly newspapers from inde- 
pendent offices (there are three yet, but two are published from one office). 
These three were the Devizes and Wiltshire Gazette, the Wiltshire Inde- 
pendent, the Devizes Advertiser ; and they were being sold every market 
day (Thursday) from 1858 to 1876. Two of these, the Gazette and Advertiser^ 
have been dealt with in previous articles. 

I The Wiltshire Independent is in a class by itself. It was not one of the 
jearly ventures — pre-19th or early-19th century — which were the pioneers 
(of Wiltshire journalism. Neither was it one of the more numerous 
Iclass which came into existence when the mid-century was passed, when 
easier conditions as to stamp duty and advertisements duty, combined 
with the facilities of partly-printed news sheets sent down from London, 
made the publication of a newspaper a less onerous undertaking than 
it was in earlier days. When it came into existence five-pence was a 
normal price for a weekly paper. At the same time newspapers had ad- 
vanced well beyond the comparatively tiny sheets of the first decades of the 
century, and they had acquired a form which the older generation 
'now living easily remembers. Looking through its files, therefore, the 
Independent has not the quaint appearance of the Devizes Gazette or the 
Salisbury Journal of twenty years earlier. Of these files, it may be added, 
[the only set known is that which is in the Depository of the British Museum, 
near Hendon. Enquiries in likely quarters i|i Wiltshire brought to light 
only two copies of the whole forty years' issues. No doubt other copies 
are lying, forgotten, among the relics of bye-gone days in old cupboards or 
chests. The files which presumably were kept in the office of the paper 
seem to have disappeared. 

! The Wiltshire Independent's' cm %%x began when William IV. was king, 
'but broadly speaking it synchronised with the first four decades of the 
reign of Victoria. Its first number appeared on November 24th, 1836 ; 
\m the following June the girl-Queen was called to the throne. It was 
'published avowedly as the mouthpiece of the Liberal Party in North Wilts, 
but the names of it§ principal backers are not on record ; the only one 

j which has been recovered from obscurity, by a casual allusion in the Gazette, 

\- — — _ __ , 

i ^ For previous Parts see Wilts Arch. Mag., xl., pp. 37—74, 129—141, 318, 

j— 351 ; xli., pp. 53—69, 479-— 501. 


232 Wiltshire Newspa'pers — Past and Present, 

is that of Mr. Benjamin Anstie, a member of the well-known firm of snuff 
(now tobacco) manufacturers, of Devizes, and grandfather of Mr. E. Louis 
Anstie and Mr. Edmond G, Anstie. The paper was practically the same 
size as the Devizes and Wiltshire Gazette — four pages, six columns to a 
page, length of column some 22^ inches. As it was avowedly in competition 
with the older journal it endeavoured to overcome the handicap by coming 
out at 4c?., the Gazette being bd. 

A peculiarity of The Independent at the start was the printing of the 
name of the Editor immediately under the title on the front page. As was 
mentioned in a previous article (on the Trowbridge Chronicle)^ it was not 
very exceptional to incorporate the name of an editor-proprietor in a title — 
"Simpson's Salisbury Gazette"; "Eerrow's Worcester Journal " ; "Felix 
Farley's Journal" come to mind at once. But in this case the name of the 
Editor was an addendum : " Edited by Charles Hooton, Esquire, author of 
Bilberry Thurland, etc., etc." The publisher's name (as in the case of the 
Trowbridge Chronicle) was given the same prominent position — " Printed 
and published by Thomas Scarlet, at the office in Wine Street, Devizes." 
The title was embellished with the Royal Arms, with the motto " The Truth 
and the Right." 

It is to be feared that Charles Hooton as an author did not make an 
enduring name for himself, and that " Bilberry Thurland " did not find a 
place among the English classics, whatever may have happened to any of 
his " etceteras." All that is known about the book is that it was published 
by Bentley, as shown in an advertisement of Bentley's books appearing in 
the Independent ; it is described in the list as being in three volumes, post 
octavo, with plates ; the price is not stated. The only information available 
concerning this first editor of the Independent is found in an article in 
" Tait's Magazine," from which he quoted with becoming modesty in the 
third issue of the paper. " Tait's Magazine " was a leading Radical organ 
of the time, and this article dealt with the increase in the number of Liberal 
newspapers due to the reduction in the Stamp Duty. Reviewing the position 
in Wiltshire the article names the Salisbury and Winchester Journal as the 
only Liberal paper ; besides which there were two Tory papers, one at 
Salisbury [the Salisbury and Wiltshire Herald] and the other at Devizes 
[the Devizes and Wiltshire Gazette]. " But a second Wiltshire Liberal 
newspaper is about to appear in the latter town. The Editor is a gentleman 
of superior abilities and a writer of great vigour on political subjects. 
Unless restrained by a fear of too abruptly dealing with the prejudices of an 
agricultural district hitherto undisturbed by anything like rough handling, 
the Editor of the new Devizes paper will' soon make Wiltshire resound 
with those reforming doctrines which have made such progress in other 
districts of Merry England." 

The sequel to this commendatory introduction was disappointing. In the 
third number of the paper the statement that its Editor was the author of 
" Bilberry Thurland" vanished from the heading. This must have been an 
indication that the star was on the wane, for in the fifth number (for 
December 22nd, 1836) the name of the Editor also disappears, and there is 
the laconic announcement that "the proprietors of the Wiltshire Independent 
take leave to inform the public that Mr. Mooton is no longer the Editor of 

By J. J. Slade. 233 

the paper." It is permissible to conjecture, in view of the curtness of the 
statement, that there had been some unpleasantness. In the same issue 
the name of the publisher is taken away from the title ; henceforth it is 
printed only in the usual position, at the foot of the last column. This 
imprint, as it appeared in the first number, was as follows : — 

" Printed and published every Thursday afternoon, price Fourpence, 

by T. Scarlet, at the office of The Independent, Wine St., Devizes, 

by whom and by the following agents advertisements, communications 

for the editor, authenticated articles of intelligence (postage free) will 

be received." 

The list of agents showed that the management of the new paper was 

casting, or endeavouring to cast, its net over a wide area ; they were 

at Amesbury, Bradford, Bath, Bristol, Corsham, Calne, Chippenham, 

Cirencester, Cricklade, Frome, High worth, Hungerford, Malmesbury, 

Melksham, Marlborough, Kamsbury, Salisbury, Swindon, Shaftesbury, 

Trowbridge, Warminster, Westbury, Wootton Bassett. The paper was 

also regularly filed by Messrs. Newton & Co., Warwick Square, Mr, 

Keynell, Chancery Lane, Mr. Starie, 59, Museum Street, Bloomsbury, " and 

by all provincial agents." The list of towns and agencies fluctuated from 

time to time ; but it is not necessary to record these minute changes. 

The scale of charges for advertisements, as given, ranged from 3s. Qd. for 
three lines as a minimum to £i Is. for 100 lines, and 6d. for every ad- 
ditional three lines, duty included, with a reduction of 15 per cent, when 
(there was more than one insertion. 

The most important item in the first issue (from the point of view of the 
present article) was the " Prospectus of the Wiltshire Independent," which 
came at the head of the first column on the first page. It said : — 

" In the County of Wilts the establishment of a thoroughly Liberal 
newspaper has long been demanded by the public. At the present 
time it is most particularly so — that demand the "Wiltshihe 
Independent" will endeavour to supply. 

" Besides perfect and extensive reports of all London and provincial 
t markets and fairs and all other transactions of importance that can 
f interest the farmer and trader of the county, the " Independent " 
will contain such a complete and interesting summary of every Parlia- 
mentary, Domestic, and Foreign intelligence as cannot fail to render it 
superior to any paper at present published amongst us. 

" The extensive circulation already obtained for this paper, combined 
with the reduced scale of charges which it has adopted, will secure to 
advertisers facilities hitherto unenjoyed. 

" By the establishment of agencies in every place of importance in 

. I the county for the weekly transmission of local news (to which as well 

I as to the advocacy of all local improvements most particular attention 

will be paid) it must at once appear that while giving to all a complete 

body of information from every part of the county, the "Independent" 

I may in fact be considered as ensuring for each of these respective towns 

' the same purposes as would a newspaper of its own. 

" In all other respects we hope to deserve the patronage of every class 
of society. With the rising intelligence of the people the character of 

R 2 

234 Wiltshire News'pa'pers — Past and Present. 

the newspaper ought also to be raised and instead of being a merely 
■mute and pointless register of events it ought to call all human energies 
into action for the advancement of science, of morality, of sound 
knowledge, and through these of the great cause of national improve- 
ment in which so many of our fellow-countrymen are employing the 
whole resources of the human mind. 

" With these views, and carefully banishing all offensive details from 
our pages, we shall undeviatingly seek to render the " Wiltshire 
Independent " a good family newspaper. 

" Besides affording every requisite information to the man of business, 
in its literary and miscellaneous departments the thing will be both 
interesting and improving ; — the gay will find matter for amusement, 
and the serious be furnished with materials for profitable reflection. 
ISTay, and neither expense nor labour will be spared to render the 
" Independent " a desirable acquisition for the table of the drawing 
room and a welcome weekly visitor at the fireside of the politician, the 
agriculturist, the tradesman, and the general reader. 

" Having said this much on the Plan of our paper, now for a word 
on its Principles. In politics we shall take a most decided position 
in the Liberal ranks. And though we enter the field with the fixed 
determination to direct our heaviest artillery against all defence of public 
evils and abuses, yet shall we be ever ready to receive any measure 
calculated to improve the social and political conditions of the country 
be they offered by the hand of whatever party they may. Personalities 
will be most scrupulously avoided. That respect which we desire to 
have entertained for our conscientious opinions calls upon us also to 
evince an equal respect for the conscientious opinions of others. 
Whenever and with whom we may differ we shall differ as friends ; as 
friends we shall argue ; as friends endeavour in all christian spirit to 
reconcile and adjust ; but never in our columns shall be discovered the 
malignity and bitterness of mere party opposition. 

"In general the "Independent," while aiming (as nearly as the 
work of man may aim) to fulfil the pure and unperverted precepts of 
the Immortal Mind when first pronounced — " Peace on Earth, and 
Good Will to Men," distinct from all sects alike, yet advocating the 
Christianity of all, our religious feelings will be characterised by 
humanity, charity, and universal toleration." 
The contents, "make-up," and printing of the paper were creditable. I 
Unlike the many papers which sprang into existence twenty years later I 
with the assistance of half-printed sheets, it was all " composed " in the 
Devizes office. Its general features corresponded with those of the papers : 
of the time. They comprised Agricultural and Commercial intelligence I 
(extending over three columns) including what was, apparently, a specially- 
written " Agricultural Keport for the Neighbourhood of Devizes ; 
Foreign news ; " Spirit of the Press " (extracts from the editorial opinions | 
of other papers) ; miscellaneous matter ; Latest Intelligence ; and a fair I 
amount, for the time, of local and district news, chiefly in paragraphs. The j 
advertisements were sufficiently numerous to encourage the promoters of 
the new venture, assuming they were paid for on the scale as advertised, and 


By J. J. Slade. 235 

the inclusion of one of respectable length inviting tenders for Armj' contracts 
suggests that there was influence at work in some Government quarters. 
As was usual in the papers of those days, the Editor did not confine his out- 
look to his county ; he gathered news from farther afield if it suited his pur- 
pose. Thus, there is a satirical report of a meeting of the West Norfolk Con- 
servative Association ; and, in the following week, a column and a-half 
report of a meeting in favour of the Poor Law as far off as County Clare ! 
The editorial matter included an " Address to the Public " of a full 
column. It is too long to quote, nor is quotation necessary, as it was 
mainly a declaration of political faith, two of the chief points being Reform 
of the Church and Reform of the Peerage. Further, there were two lead- 
ing articles, one on Municipal Elections, the other on Rural Police 
Commissions. The editorial pen was also busy with an article (in large 
type) on " The Old Militia, a Chapter in the History of Devizes ; by the 
author of Bilberry Thurland." " The Notice to Correspondents " is 
suflSciently piquant to quote :— 

" Communications must be brief and pithy. The fewer words the 

better. Even for their own sakes we entreat our correspondents not 

to suffer themselves on any occasion to become prosy. It will injure 

their constitutions by confining them too long in a leaning position 

over their desks. We also beseech them in the matter of metaphors 

and other figures of speech to curb their pegasusses as much as possible 

and on no account whatever to mention the names of Morpheus, 

Somnus, Venus, or any other common god usually to be met with in 

a newspaper. In short they will be pleased to write common sense in 

common language." ' 

The writer might have specified also Old Sol, Jupiter Pluvius, and 

Terpsichore, which to this day obtrude themselves into the paragraphs 

written by some aspiring young reporters ! 

A literary tone was given to the pages of the " Independent^'' no doubt 
partly because of the tastes of its first editor. It is interesting to note that 
its literary extracts included one from " Posthumous Papers of the Pickwick 
Club,' then (January, 1837) in course of appearance ; a reference to 
Washington Irving's " Astoria," also a contemporary publication ; and an 
announcement of the forthcoming issue of that admirable periodical " Bent- 
ley's Miscellany." 

The founders of the Independent, local men, realised the importance of 
receiving, if possible, the patronage of the agricultural community, as the 
review of the contents of the paper above will indicate. There was also a 
direct bid for this support in the following declaration : — 

" The Devizes Corn Market has for centuries held a high rank among 
the markets of the Kingdom. During the present century especially it 
has been gradually but steadily progressing. To ignore the improve- 
ment of the roads, the increase of the population of the town and 
neighbourhood, have all' tended to advance it to its present magnitude 
and importance, but unquestionably its prosperity is chiefly attributable 
to the very honourable and gentlemanly conduct of the farmers and 
dealers who attend the market ; the unbroken uniformity of which has 
won for it the character and name of " the respectable market of 

236 Wiltshire Newspapers — Past and Present. 

Devizes." It requires but two things to render it a most complete 
market — a glass-roofed market house and a correct system for return 
of sales. To the former only can we now allude, though we hope ere 
long to call attention to it, upon the latter we wish to say a few words." 
Who immediately succeeded Mr. Charles Hooton as editor we do not 
know ; but the successor either had not read the " Prospectus " or he 
gave a very liberal interpretation to the promise that " personalities 
will be most scrupulously avoided," and that " whenever and with whom 
we may differ we shall differ as friends." In the autumn of 1837 there was 
an election, and the candidates for North Wilts were Mr. Walter Long, Mr. 
Paul Methuen, and Sir Francis Burdett. The two former were the old 
members, the one a Tory the other a Whig ; Sir Francis Burdett was a 
second Tory candidate, a convert (or pervert) from the Radicals. With a 
tolerably extensive acquaintance with electioneering criticism, we do not 
remember quite so excoriating lashes as those which the Wiltshire Indepen- 
dent rained upon Sir Francis Burdett. " The candidate who opposes an old 
and tried representative (says one editorial article) has a double dye of black- 
ness attached to his character. To the tyranny of Toryism he adds the infamy 
of an apostate : an apostate, be it remembered, very far more deeply sunk in 
degradation than any of the servile herd to whom he was the last and most 
signal addition." Reference was further made to the " suicidal conduct of 
this decrepid and infatuated man " — to " imbecile Tory prints " — to " con- 
tamination with a person immersed in political infamy and moral degrada- 
tion," — to " the unspeakable servility of a clique who are ready to muster 
round the soiled banner of a creature so emasculated in mind and so 
degraded in character." It was disconcerting that after this. Sir Francis 
was returned at the top of the poll, even over Mr. Long ; and it is not sur- 
prising to read that the editor was " greatly disappointed at the result." He 
comforted himself with the reflection that it was due to a conspiracy of 
clergymen, landlords, country gentlemen, and farmers, " aided by a gang 
of miscreants." When Sir Francis died, in January 1844, the editor of 
the Independent observed the motto, as far as he consistently could, De 
mortuis nil nisi honum ; he merely quoted the obituary notice which 
appeared in the Sun newspaper. This opened with an expression of 
*' unfeigned regret " ; it went on to refer to Sir Francis's defection from 
the cause of reform, but it was not undiscriminating in its condemnation. 
It is expedient to explain that this episode is alluded to without the 
least political bias. It is recounted because the vigorous polemics of the 
Independent in its early days ought not to be overlooked in reviewing the 
history of the paper. It has been suggested that Dickens got his idea of 
the Eatanswill press (in " Pickwick Papers ") from Devizes. It is true that 
the names of the Eatanswill papers (the Gazette and the Independent) 
coincide with the names of the Devizes papers. But the Eatanswill 
election, and the furious cut and thrust of Mr. Pott and Mr. Slurk, the i| 
respective editors, occur in the earlier part of " Pickwick," which must have j 
been written before this particular object lesson was available to Dickens. 
Besides which, the topography of the narrative, and Dickens's experiences 
as a reporter of elections (in 1835), fit in with the theory of Eatanswill 
being in one of the eastern counties. It is, however, a fact that the Devizes 

By J, J, Slade. 237 

Liberal journalist flourished his tomahawk as mercilessly over the head of 
the " imbecile " Conservative editors as he whirled it around his opponents 
on the political hustings. The editor of the Gazette exercised more re- 
straint, as became the dignified position of a well-established newspaper 
assailed with the lively sallies of a juvenile competitor ; but on one occasion 
at least he " let himself go " as the saying is. It was when, at the beginning 
of the year 1838, the Independent raised the delicate question of the re- 
spective circulations of the Wiltshire newspapers. 

In those days the Stamp Duty was an approximately correct index to 
circulation— "approximately," because a newspaper proprietor by purchas- 
ing his stamps for a longer or shorter period ahead, would convey by the 
figures of these purchases, a greater or less exaggerated idea of the number 
of his sales. This is what the Independent did in the closing months of 
1837, and thus it was able to show that with the exception of the Salisbury 
Journal (the figures for which he discreetly omitted to quote) it had a larger 
circulation than any of the other (three in all) Wiltshire papers. This 
stung the Gazette into giving a severe rebuke, and exposing the device by 
which the circulation figures of its rival were " cooked." At the same time 
the Conservative editor broadened the field of criticism. The Independent 
had been making inroads on what are termed "oflicial" advertisements, 
and it was declared that — • 

" its shareholders have long been endeavouring to benefit themselves 
at our expense. They have not only taken advantage of their offices as 
commissioners of public trusts and guardians of the poor to procure 
advertisements — thus making use of their public situation for their own 
private emolument— but they have, through a member of Parliament 
(who has acted not a very creditable part) prevailed upon the Govern- 
ment to withdraw from our paper certain public advertisements, trans- 
ferring them to their own paper. And now, forsooth, they are fishing 
for the advertisements of trustees of turnpike trusts, boards of 
guardians, etc." 
j It was further declared that there had been gratuitous distribution of the 
\lndepende7it to farmers coming in for the market (thus fictitiously ex- 
jpanding the circuation), — " but how many of these farmers read it we will 
not pretend to say ! " 

The retort of the Independent to the charge of "influencing" advertise- 
ments was, that its readers had a claim to the information they contained. 
The free distribution of the paper was admitted, for the first few issues, in 
order to'introduce it to the public. The charge of including in its circulation 
figures a parcel of stamps brought down from London at the close of the 
iperiod reviewed, and not used until later, was not specifically denied, or 
jeven referred to. The impeached totals continued to be prominently printed, 
jand their moral was enforced with a column or two of further journalistic 
jbludgeoning. The resources of the writer in sustaining his torrent of 
jvituperative eloquence extorts one's admiration ; not less so does his closing 
ieffort, when he concludes his final volcanic outburst and concentrates the 
jfury of his emotions in one expressive monosyllable — " Bah ! " 
j The Gazette of Devizes was not the only Conservative newspaper which 
the vivacious Liberal journalist attacked. The Wilts and Gloucestershire 

238 Wiltshire JYewspapers — Past and Present. 

Standard (then published at xMalmesbury) came within the orbit of his 
vision, and was accused of " following in our wake somewhat after the 
fashion of a hungry shark for the purpose of making food of any stray 
material which might chance to fall overboard suited to his maw." 

These editorial amenities may now be dismissed. The spirit of rivalry 
between the older and younger papers no doubt continued, but it did not 
find so animated expression in their columns in the later years. 

The circulation thus claimed by the Independent, it may be added, was 
eleven hundred a week, after allowing for gratuitous distribution. 

This excursus on editorial methods has led to a slight over-running of 
dates. At the end of October, 1837, the enlargement of the paper, giving 
seven columns to the page, was announced, and the larger form appeared on 
November 2nd. At the same time the price was increased from 4:d. to 5d., 
and to the title of Wiltshire Independe7it was added the sub-title "and 
General Advertiser for the Counties of Berks, Hants, Dorset, Somerset, and 
Gloucestershire." The following week (November 9th) the words "the 
counties of " were omitted to make room for Oxfordshire in the list. The 
conductors were ambitious. 

At this time the columns were lengthened as well as increased in number, 
— and several subsequent additions to the length were made, the full depth 
eventually becoming nearly 26 inches. 

After the Independent had been in existence two years and nine months 
it changed hands. On August 8th, 1839, it was announced : — 

"We beg to inform our readers and the public that the Wiltshire 
Independent, which has hitherto been the property of a company, has 
been purchased by its editor, by whom it will be conducted in future 
on the same principles which have guided it during the two years he 
has been connected with it." 
And the imprint the following week was this : — 

" Printed and published at the Wiltshire Independent oflSce in Wine 
Street, in the borough of Devizes, by William Burrows, of the hamlet 
of Dunkirk, in the parish of Eowde in the borough of Devizes aforesaid." 

A few months later the office of the paper was transferred from Wine 
Street to the Market Place, the imprint with the new address, first appearing 
on May 28th, 1840. Which house in the Market Place was not stated, but 
enquiry of Mr. Edward Kite brings the following :— " I do not remember the 
Wiltshire Independent printed anywhere during its editorship by William 
Burrows than at the house in the Market Place now occupied by Messrs. 
Fortt (grocers. No. 36). The tenant of the house was Nathaniel Bakewell 
Randle, a bookseller and printer, and the printing offices up the yard were 
occupied by both Burrows and Handle. When John Fox took over the 
editorship [see further] the printing office was removed to No. 39, the site 
of which is now absorbed in Lloyds Bank. I do not quite know wbich 
house in Wine Street was likely to be the Independent office, unless it be 
that now Mr. Perkins' (No. 3)." 

Mr. William Burrows, it may be here stated, was a Suffolk man, of good 
family, who in his earlier days was owner of a pack of hounds ; he had 
lived rather too expensively. His son was a surgeon who died on the West 
Coast of Africa. His grandchildren are still living at Dunkirk. 

By J. J. Slade. 239 

The only change noticeable as a result of the new proprietorship is that 
a fortnight later the word " Devizes " precedes the date in the date line 
underneath the title, and the next week (Sept. 5th, 1839) it was made clear 
that the time of publication was the " afternoon" of Thursday. 

The price of the paper remained at fourpence, even after the abolition of 
the stamp duty in 1855 ; it was " Stamped 5rZ., unstamped 4tZ. " ; the extra 
penny was for postage, not duty. But in February, 1862, there came a 
reduction in price and a change in proprietorship simultaneously. The 
reduction was of two-pence — 3d. stamped, 2d. unstamped, and the announce- 
ment as to the new proprietary was as follows :~ 

" The ownership of the above old-established newspaper having 
changed hands the present proprietor, J. R. Fox, in commencing his 
new undertaking respectfully solicits the co-operation and patronage 
of the inhabitants of Wiltshire and neighbouring counties. As a first 
step towards improving the position of the paper it has been decided 
to reduce the price as announced above, thus placing it within the 
reach of all classes— the proprietor feeling confident that the large 
circulation thus ensured cannot fail to make it second to no paper in 
the county as a medium for advertisers, with whom character and 
number of subscribers must necessarily be of the greatest importance. 
. . . That nothing may be wanting to ensure a full share of public 
support, the paper used will be of the best quality, printed with new 
type by new and superior machinery, and advantage will be taken of 
the advanced state of public journalism to render the Wiltshire Inde- 
pendent worthy of the high position to which it will henceforth aspire." 
This appeared in the last issue for February, 1862, and the following 
week, March 6th, the promise of new type (which was needed) was fulfilled. 
Otherwise, the paper appeared much the same as it had been. The imprint 
was as follows : — 

" Printed and published at the Wiltshire Independent Office, No. 39, 

Market Place, in the Borough of Devizes, in the County of Wilts, by 

John Russell Fox, of Devizes aforesaid." 

Apparently the word " Russell " was misprinted ; the copy of this issue of 

the paper in the British Museum file has the name written over the printed 

one, and obliterates it. 

Concerning Mr. J. R. Fox a few details may be stated. He belonged to 
a family which was prominent in Devizes. The son of Mr. J. J. Fox, who 
carried on the drapery business in St. John Street now known as the London 
Drapery, he was apprenticed in the office of the Independent to Mr. Burrows. 
He subsequently went to Andover, where he commenced business as a 
bookseller and stationer ; he also started the Andover Advertiser, a paper 
which still exists and flourishes, with an important part of its circulation 
in the eastern area of this county. He soon afterwards returned to Devizes, 
to become proprietor and editor of the paper on which he began his 
journalistic career. He died in February, 1918. His daughters continue 
to reside in Devizes. 

By this time (1862) the list of agents who were named as selling the 
Independent was reduced in number ; and the area claimed to be covered 
by the agencies also was more modest, and the London addresses where the 

240 Wiltshire News'pa'pers — Past and Present. 

paper was filed had dropped out. This restriction of scope was characteristic 
of most of the older publications ; newspapers had multiplied, and readers 
were served from closer home than in former days. 

No doubt the reduction in price of the paper was, at least in part, a 

matter of necessity. The Devizes Advertiser had started as a penny paper 

by another former member of the Independent staff, Mr. Charles Gillman, in 

1858, and as it made its appeal to the same political party (Liberal) as the 

Independent, it is obvious that the fourpenny paper, even though it was 

superior, would have to adapt itself to the new situation. The Gazette^ 

finding its support among a different class of the community and from the 

opposite political party, was able to keep its price higher ; but it also made 

successive reductions after the turn of the century. In two years' time the 

Independent dropped again, and put itself on a price level with its Liberal 

competitor. On February 26th, 1 864, appeared the following announcement : 

" The Wiltshire Independent has been established now nearly 30 

years and has become a thoroughly established popular favourite in 

Wiltshire and the adjoining counties. Taking advantage of the abolition 

of the paper duty the present proprietor two years ago reduced its 

price to 2c?. Since its publication at twopence the increase in the 

circulation of the Independent has been of so gratifying a character as 

to embolden the proprietor to make a still further reduction in price, 

and on and after Thursday next, March 3rd, the "Independent" will 

be published at One Penny. Neither pains nor expense will be spared, 

notwithstanding this reduction, to keep it a first-class paper placed 

within the reach of all classes of the community. . . . An edition 

will be printed on superior paper at Twopence for the convenience of 

such subscribers as wish it." 

There was an apparent inconsistency. Although the price for a stamped 

copy was to be 2c?., the announcement in the line under the title, and again 

over the editorial (leading) article was that the stamped copy was 2>d. At 

the end of April the latter announcement was corrected, but the statement 

on the front page was not altered until another three months had elapsed, 

when the prices agreed wherever stated — " stamped 2c?., unstamped Ic?." It 

is probable that the inconsistency was apparent rather than actual. 

The week following the introduction of the penny it was announced that 

where credit was given the price would remain at 2c?. The customers for the 

copies sent by post were probably mostly credit customers. At the beginning 

of October, 1870, the half-penny newspaper post was introduced, and it was 

no longer necessary to impress the stamp upon the paper itself. 

There is little else to record of the Wiltshire Independent except its end, 
which is narrated in the following extract from its issue for September 21st, 
1876 :— 

"With the present number the ' Wiltshire Independent ' will cease 
to exist, or rather it will merge in a new and larger paper to be called 
the ' Wiltshire Times.' In taking leave of his readers the proprietor 
tenders to them his cordial thanks for the support they have given him 
during the time he has been connected with the ' Independent.' The 
regret he feels at relinquishing the active duties of journalism is 
mitigated by the reflection that his place will be taken by a large anci 

B^j J. J, Slade. 241 

powerful company which will be able to produce a newspaper which 

will be an organ worthy of the Liberal cause and one which in its size 

and in the variety of its intelligence will he believes be second to none 

in the county." 

The following week appeared the " Wiltshire Times'' " Printed and 

published for the proprietors, the Wiltshire Times Co., limited, by Henry 

Barrass, at 39, Market Place, Devizes, also published by William T. Helmsley 

at 47, Kegent St., New Swindon." It was no longer the Independent, 

The Times was an 8-page paper of small pages; whereas the Independent 

to the last was a 4- page paper of large pages. In its forty years of existence 

the latter had never varied the title except for the addition of the sub-title 

in the year following its foundation. Mr. Fox, however, adopted a slightly 

bolder fount of type for it. It retained throughout the Royal Arms and 

the motto "The Truth and the Right." 

The Wiltshire Times continued to be published for a year or two at the 
old Independent ofl&ces, and Mr. John Fox was associated with it. Presently, 
in May, 1880, it was removed to Trowbridge and the connection with Devizes 
came to an end. 



Capt. Paul Edward Wairoa Haynes, R.D., R.N.R., 

died Aug. 22nd, 1922, aged 46. Buried at Laverstock. A cadet on H. M.S. 
Worcester, he entered the P. & O. Steamship service )895. Nine years 
later he joined the R.N.R. as Sub-Lieutenant. At the outbreak of war he 
was serving on H.M.S. Hospital Ship Soudan, attached to the Grand Fleet, 
In Nov., 1914, he was appointed Lieut.-Commander of H.M.S. Peel Castle, 
on patrol duty. Promoted to Commander Jan., 1917, and in March, 19! 8, 
to Acting-Captain, R.N.R. He acted as Commodore of convoys of troop 
ships from America and Canada until convoy work ceased, when he was 
appointed in command of Osiris II. and afterwards as assistant to Commodore 
Superintendent,Dover,till Feb., 1 920. H is name was mentioned for valuable 
services and in July, 1922, his rank was confirmed. At the time of his 
death he was in command of the P. & O. Steamship Padua. 
Obituary notice, Salisbury Journal, Sept. 1st, 1922. 

Rev. Greorge Mallows Youngman, died Sept 4th, 1922, 

aged 65. Buried at Shooters Hill Cemetery. B. at Saffron Walden, educated 
at a Cambridge school, after a few years of commercial life, he went to 
Worcester College, Oxford. B A. 1883 ; M.A. 1887 ; Deacon 1883 ; Priest 
1884 Bochester. Curate of Greenwich J 883— 1902 ; Vicar of Idmiston with 
Porton, 1902 to 1914 ; Curate in charge of Greenwich 1914 to 1919, when lie 
retired to live at Woolwich. An admirable parish priest, greatly esteemed 
at Idmiston. '* But it is as a scholar that Mr. Youngman was best known 
to the world at large, for his labours in textual criticism, particularly with 
regard to the Latin versions of the New Testament, gained him a European 
reputation " " Bishop Wordsworth in his new critical edition of the Vulgate 
New Testament, received very great assistance from him ... He 
collated manuscripts in London and Paris, and transcribed the whole New 
Testament from the famous Book of Armagh, at Dublin ; as years went on 
he was more and more consulted as to the types of text exhibited by the 
various families of Vulgate MSS. . . . There was a time when he gave 
almost every available leisure moment to his beloved manuscripts." 

The Times had an obituary article on him entitled " Scholar and Mystic." 
Long obit, notice, Salisbury Diocesan Gazette, Oct., 1922. 

Dr, Richard Kinneir, died Oct. nth, 1922, aged so. B. at 

Cirencester, 1841. L.B.C.P. Edin. ; M.R.C.S., London; and L.M., Edin. ; 
He began practice in Malmesbury 1867, retiring in 1903. He was unmarried. 
He had a large practice and held many appointments at Malmesbury. " He 
was in every way 'The people's doctor,' 'a true good Samaritan.'" His 
father was born at Cove House, Leigh, Cricklade. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Oct. 12th, 1922, \ 


Wilts Obituary. 243 

Helen a Court Penruddocke, F.G.S., died Dec. leth, 

1922. Buried at Tellisford (Som.), 4th d. of John Hungerford Penruddocke 
and his wife P^lizabeth (Ludlow), who lived many years at Seend and after- 
wards at VVinkton, near Christchurch, Hants. She had travelled widely 
and contributed many articles to magazines and papers. 
Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Dec. 28th, 1922. 

Hon. Charles Holmes a Court, 4th s. of the late Hon. W. L. 

Holmes a Court, and brother of Lord Heytesbury. Killed whilst riding to 
the meet at Iron Acton, Dec. 21st, 1922, aged 55. Buried at Stone. Well 
known and very popular in the district. 

Portrait, Daily Sketch and Times, Dec. 2.3rd, 1922. 

Rev. Edward Walter Walshaw Payne, died Dec. 26th, 

1922, aged 67. Buried at Bath wick Cemetery. Educated at Chancellor's 
School, Lincoln ; Deacon 1880 ; Priest 1881 (Lincoln). Curate of St. .John's, 
Mansfield, 1880-82; St. Luke, Southampton, 1882—89 ; Vicar of St. Luke, 
Jersey, 1889—97 ; Vicar of Hilmarton, 1897 — 1918, when he resigned, and 
I retired to Bath, and afterwards to Bournemouth, where he died. 

William AttWater, died Dec, 1922. Born Nov. 5th, 18.35, at 
j Britford, s. of Thomas and M ary Anne Attwater, of one of the oldest families 
i in Wiltshire. As yeomen they have been connected with Britford and 
Bodenham since Will. Attwater married Ann Gordon at Britford in 1578, 
I and the name occurs much earlier at Salisbury. Mr. Attwater had farmed 
i at various farms, chiefly in Gloucestershire, and had since 1900 lived at S. 
! Cerney. He was well known in S. Wilts as the manager of the Britford, 
I Salisbury, and Wilton Sheep Fairs for many years. 
Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette^ Dec. 21st, 1922. 

W. S. Bambridge, died January 20th, 1923, aged 79 ? s. of William 
|Bambridge, of Windsor, born in New Zealand. Held the post of music 
[master and organist for nearly half a century from 1864 at Marlborough 
I College, resigning ten years ago. In Freemasonry he held a very prominent 
I position, having been Grand Organist of England in 1911. He came of a 
i football family, three of his brothers having been internationals. For nearly 
1 30 years he was Captain =of the Savernake Forest Cricket Club, and was 
! President of the Marlborough Football Club at the time of his death. He 
jwas one of the founders of the Wiltshire Football Association. He took a 
jprominent part in the civic life of Marlborough, having been elected an 
[alderman 40 years ago. He twice served as mayor. 

, Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Jan. 25th and Feb. 1st ; portraits, Times 
and Dadly Sketch, Jan. 22nd, 1923. 

George Kerr Mc Call, died Jan. 26th, 1923. Buried at Limpley 
IStoke. S. of Gilbert Mc Call, of March House, Leonard Stanley, Gloucs., 
lie came to Trowbridge in 1897, and started the cloth-making business of 
Mc Call Brothers at the Upper Mill, purchasing the Victoria Mill in 1911. 

244 Wilts Obituary ^ 

He was at one time a member of many committees and was especially in- 
terested in the County Textile School, of the committee of which he was 
chairman. He lived at The Orchard, Hilperton. Much esteemed in 

Obit, notice and portrait, Wiltshire Times, Feb. 3rd, 1923. 

Charles Eddowes, M.R.C.S., died Feb. ivth, 1923, aged 85. 

Buried at Maddington. He came to Haddington cir. 1868, and carried on 
his practice over a large district of the Plain until he retired in 1918 and 
went to live at Devizes. The " old doctor " was well known, and held in much 
esteem on the Plain. 

Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, Feb. 22nd, 1923. 

Alfred Cook, died March 6th, 1923, aged 79. Lived at Salisbury 
and Porton for many years, and more recently at Southcott Lodge, Pewsey. 
Many letters and articles, generally connected in some way with Pewsey, 
his birthplace, have appeared in the Wiltshire Gazette of late years from 
his pen. He was well known in the Pewsey neighbourhood, and was often 
present at the annual meetings of fhe Wilts Archaeological Society. A 
member of the Society of Friends he left directions that he should be buried 
on Pewsey Hill, on the N. side of Victory Clump. The coflSn was conveyed 
to the down in his own farm waggon and his farm men acted as bearers. 

Wiltshire Gazette, March 15th, 1923. 

Rev. John Arkell, died March 21st, 1923, aged 87. Buried at 
Ham. Son of Thomas Arkell, of Boddington (Glos.). Educated at Durham 
School and Pembroke Coll., Oxon. B.A. 1859; M.A. 1862; Deacon 1860; 
Priest 1861 (Rochester). Curate of Boxted, Essex, 1860—67; Rector of 
Portishead 1867—78 ; Rector of St. Ebbes, Oxford, 1880—1900 ; Rector of 
Ham 1900 to 1919, when he resigned. "He was," says 2'he Times, March 
4th, 1 923, " One of the oldest if not the oldest of rowing ' Blues,' and certainly 
one of the greatest . . . During his university career he was one of 
the mainstays of Oxford oarsmanship." He rowed in the University Boat- 
race in 1857, 1858, and 1859, and also at Henley in 1857 and 1859 in the 
Grand Challenge. The Times gives a long list of the triumphs and prizes 
that he won. , 

Dr. John Campbell Maclean, died April 3rd, 1923, aged77.j 

B. in the island of Mull, took his degrees at Edinburgh, and came to Swindon 
as assistant to Dr. John Gay in 1869. Married Emily, d. of Thomas C. Hine, 
F.S.A , of Nottingham, who, with their only daughter, Mrs. Blyth, survives 
him. He had a large practice at Swindon, and was for over 40 year^ 
medical officer for the Swindon and High worth Union. He was a prominentj 
Mason, and had for many years filled a leading place in Swindon. 
Obit, notice, Wiltshire Gazette, April 5th, 1923. 

George Perry Abraham, died April 10th, 1923. Buried aj 
St. John's, Keswick. S. of George Abraham, of Devizes, foreman fo 
Messrs. Sainsbury, coal merchants. Born in Devizes, 1846, apprenticed t] 

Notes, 245 

Samuel Marshman, of High Street, the first photographer in Devizes, he 
went to London and thence in 1866 to Keswick, where he set up for himself 
in a small shop in Lake Road, which gradually grew into the large establish- 
ment which has become one of the best-known institutions of Keswick. 
Both as a climber and a photographer of the mountains he was known to 
everybody in the Lake ]Jistrict. His wonderful mountain photographs, 
indeed, were known, it may be said, throughout England and beyond it to 
all who loved the mountains themselves. He took a prominent part in the 
public life of Keswick and wa,s twice Chairman of the Urban District 
Council. He married Mary Dixon, and leaves four sons and one daughter. 
One of the sons is a District Commissioner in Nyassaland, and two, George 
and Ashley, still carry on the business at Keswick, and are acknowledged 
authorities on all mountaineering matters. 

Obit, notices, with portrait, in the Lakeland Herald and the Wiltshire 
Gazette, April 19th, 1923. 

Bronze Age Cinerary Urn found at Knowle, Little 

Bedwyn. In May, 1922, men digging gravel at Knowle uncovered a 
small Bronze Age cinerary urn containing burnt bones. The discovery was 
I made known to the Rev. H. G. O. Kendall, and with his kind co-operation 
I the urn and its contents were secured for the Society's Museum. 
I The urn, which fell to pieces on being taken out, had been buried inverted 
I in the gravel, about 3ft. below the present surface. The ground is under 
\ cultivation, and if a barrow ever existed over the burial it has been entirely 

! levelled. 
The gravel pit in which the urn was found is just over five miles from 
Marlborough, close to the northern side of the main road to Hungerford, 
' nearly opposite a road turning ojQf to Great Bedwyn ; the line of this latter 
I road is continued north of the main road as a farm track leading to Knowle 
I Barn; the burial was about 100 yards east of this track, and about the 
isame distance north of the main road. (6in. O.S. Wilts, Sheet xxix., S.E.). 
j The urn is of Thurnam's " moulded rim " type. It is well made of rather 
Ithin ware ; the surface, reddish in colour, has been tooled ; the paste is 
jblack in its inner part and is mixed with pounded flint and vegetable 
matter resembling chopped straw. 

I The rim is covered externally with a series of lines of the " impresssed 

|cord" type, forming a lattice pattern ; round the shoulder similar lines form 

a herring-bone pattern. The neck is slightly concave with a considerable 

idge at the shoulder. The urn has been mended and is now practically 

omplete ; its height is 9|in., rim diam. 7jin., base, 4in. 



The bones belonged apparently to one individual, young and slight, but 
whose second teeth had been cut ; the bones were all broken up into small 

Bronze Age Cinerary Urn found at Knowle, Little Bedwyn. 

[It is apparently usual to find the bones of Bronze Age cremated inter- 
ments in smaller pieces than can be accounted for by the actual burning. 
It seems that there is a custom among some Hindoos of ceremonially 
breaking the bones after cremation. Dr. Eric Gardner has suggested the 
possibility that a similar custom prevailed among the Bronze Age inhabitants 
of Britain.] 


A Saxon Spindle Whorl with Cabalistic Sig^ns. 

In the Society's Museum at Devizes there is a small conical shaped spindle 
whorl made of a very fine grained limestone that was found in the church- 
yard at Bishops Cannings in 1891. The whole surface of the whorl is 
lightly incised or engraved with a series of signs representing Alpha and 
Omega, repeated over and over again, inverted, reversed, sideways, and 
even in monogram. These cabalistic signs were probably intended as a 
charm against evil, especially sickness. This interesting whorl has been in 
the Museum almost ever since it was found, but the meaning of the en- 
graved symbols has only recently been elucidated through the kindness of 

Notes. 247 

Mr. W. J. Andrew, F.S.A. Mr. Andrew has in his possession a whorl of 
similar material with carved lettering copied by an illiterate craftsman 


^c^^XDCiO CO 

Cabalistic symbols inscribed on Spindle Whorl found in Bishops Cannings 


^rom a coin of Athelstan. In answer to his enquiry as to whether there 
were any analogous whorls in the Society's Museum, the whorl above 
mentioned was sent to Mr. Andrew for examination, and we are indebted 
to him for the interpretation of the hitherto unrecognised symbols. The 
whorl is' probably of the Christian Saxon period of the 8th or 9th century 
A.D. In an Anglo-Saxon manuscript of the 8th century the letters Alpha 
and Omega appear in the same form as on the whorl. 


Barrow 16 (G-oddard's I>ist), Winterbourne Monk- 
ton. O.S. XXVIII. N.W. Smith, p. 127, X. H.III. n. This large 
bell-shaped barrow is the last of a line of four to the N.W. ; the remainder 
:are small and bowl-shaped. It has been carelessly excavated and no record 
Temains of the work. A large cup -shaped cavity has been left in the top. 
In August, 1921, it was noticed that rabbits were throwing out bits of 
pottery and burnt bones, and by the kindness of Mr. Greader the writer, 
■assisted by Mr. A. J. Jones, was able to excavate with the idea of tracing 
the source of the cremated bones. Close to the present top of the mound, 
•seven feet from the centre, and 20 degrees E. by S. therefrom, was found a 
large urn inverted over cremated bones, but badly crushed by sarsen stones 
that had been piled around it. The stones had been split into long flat 
flakes purposely for the protection of the urn (as it appeared to us). Under 
it was a small bed of clay, the only patch of that material noticed in the 
-excavation. Rabbits had unfortunately selected the interior of the urn as 
■a meeting place of three burrows with the result that half of it had been 
•dug away and the bones scattered. The urn as restored measures 16in. high 
I)y I4in. in greatest diameter, flower pot shaped till within two inches of 
the top, where the sides incurve, ending in a slightly everted lip. It is in 
tny own collection. 

A short distance S. W. of the tumulus is a rubble pit in which was found 
•at the same time a small urn-shaped pot of coarse pottery and of Roman 
•date but native manufacture. A man digging rubble found it perfect but 
allowed it to stand about and get broken beyond repair. It contained 
three oyster shells of large size. 

A. D. Passmore. 

248 Notes. 

Barrow 25 (Goddard's 1.1st), Winterbourne Stoke. 

To the north of the Winterbourne Stoke group of barrows and immediately 
east of the Salisbury — Devizes Road are three barrows roughly in line and 
numbered 6, 7, and 8 in Hoare's Map of the Stonehenge District. Thf^ 
most easterly of the tumuli (No. 8) has at some former time been dug away 
(probably to obtain material to level gallops), the whole of the east side and 
centre having been destroyed. In December, 1916, an oflScer sheltering- 
from a gale noticed in the north side of the interior excavation an urn which 
was exposed owing to a recent fall of earth. It was 4ft above ground level 
and inverted over about "two pints" of burnt bones. The vessel was- 
removed in nearly a complete state, but having been afterwards stored in 
an exposed place it was attacked by damp and frost and consequently 
crumbled to dust. However a sketch taken at the time of the discovery 
has been placed in my hands by the owner, from which I gather the following 
details. The urn was of the Deverell- IJimbury type, unornamented, roughly 
12in. in height, 8in. base diameter, 12in. greatest diameter, and lOin. at top. 
Only one other example of this type has so far been recorded as having 
been found in Wilts {W.A.M., vol. xxxviii., p. 316) : they are common in 
Dorset and have been found there in quantities not only in barrows but in, 
plain ground. To make quite sure of the above facts I approached indepen- 
dently the person who was left in charge of the urn and asked that a sketch 
of it might be made. Without hesitation a recognisable drawing of the 
Deverell-Eimbury type was given me. Subsequently the barrow was visited 
and a number of human bones were gathered from rabbit scrapes on the 
south side, and about half-way up that part of the mound, probably indicating, 
a secondary inhumation on that site. 

A. D. Passmore. 

Perforated Maul or Hammer of Greenstone. This 

maul, purchased at the sale of Sir Lucas White-King's collection, is formed 
from a roundish pebble of greenstone much like axes of that material in 
my collection, and is weathered in just the same way. It measures Sjin* 
by 3^in. in diameter, taken at right angles, and l|in. thick (or high, when^ 
standing in the normal position), the perforation is 11/ 1 6ths in diameter 
inside, but is widely splayed on both faces to ifin. on one side and l|in on. 
the other. It has been a long time in use, because the inside of the hole is 
worn very smooth by the handle. It is simply labelled " Late Neolithic 
perforated hammer, Wiltshire," and numbered 403. I looked this up in the 
private catalogue in the handwriting of Sir Lucas White- King and find that 
he simply records it as a Wilts specimen but gives no exact locality. It 
cost him 7s. 6d. It weighs 16^ ounces. 

A. D. Passmore. 

Earthwork on Sugar Hill, Wanborough. On the slope! 

of Sugar Hill facing north east on the southern edge of Wanborough parish 
immediately south-west of Half- Moon Plantation, is a large oblong earth- 
work not marked on the Six Inch Ordnance Map, 1 900 [ Wilts XXIII , N.E.].| 
It is surrounded by a single bank and ditch outside it. The bank is about 
3ft. in height, and the ditch is almost silted up. At each corner of the 



bank is a mound 4ft. 6in in height, above the present bottom of the ditch. 
At the west corner (C) the bank is carried across the ditch, perhaps to form 
a narrow gateway. The only other entrance is a narrow one on the N.E. 
face, 185ft. S.E. of the N. corner. In the central line [N.W. to S.E ] within 
the enclosure are two flat mounds, one (B) a little S.E. of the centre of the 
area is 33ft. long by 21ft. broad and 3ft. high. The other mound {k), 60ft. 
from the N.W. face of the earthwork, is Soft, square and 2ft. high. Parts 
of the N.W. and S.W. sides were damaged about 1905 in forming a gallop 
for racehorses. A measured plan, of which a reduction is given here, has been 
placed in the Society's library. The measurements of the bank from the 
centre of the corners are 490ft. X 336ft. 

A. D. Passmore. 

-mm mm ^' ' '-n 


Plan of Earthwork on Sugar Hill, Wanborough. 
Barrow 2 (Goddard's List), Ebbesbourne Wake, 

opened 1922, Round barrow on Ebbesbourne Down, west of Fifield 
Down, east of Church Bottom and three-quarters of a mile from the Hidgeway. 
Not in Ancient Wilts. This barrow was shallow and depressed in the centre 
and showed signs of many former rabbit holes. A 4ft. trench was dug, 
running S.E. and N.W. The ditch surrounding the barrow was well defined, 
2ft. deep in the solid chalk, and 2ft. wide. Several pieces of coarse pottery 
and a nicely chipped flint knife were found 1ft. 2in. below the surface at a 
distance of 14ft. from the middle of the ditch. A clean cut cist 4ft. by 2ft. 
by 1ft. 2in. deep was found 17ft. from the middle of the ditch (the diameter 
of the barrow was approximately 40ft.). The cist was empty and the earth 

s 2 • 

250 Notes. 

above it showed signs of having been disturbed. About 1ft. east of the 
south end of this cist and 1ft. 2in. above the chalk level were several pieces 
of a large cinerary urn and a piece of burnt bone and some charcoal. A 
rabbit's hole had loosened the soil here and had caused some large flints to 
fall and crush the pottery. The ornamentation of the urn was a zigzag 
running round the top, with, below it, a horizontal line of finger tip im- 
pressions, then a single horizontal line and next a row of lozenges formed 
by parallel incised lines, made with a blunt tool gin. wide, with finger tip 
impressions in the centres. There is no cord ornament. 

R. C. C. Clay. 

Barrow 1 (Goddard's Iiist), Sutton Mandeville, 

opened 1922. Round Barrow in the fir clump on Buxbury Hill, 
Sutton Mandeville, A. W. 1., 248-, St. VIII. & IX. O.S. 70, N. W. Rabbits 
have done much damage to this barrow, which is approximately 43ft. in 
diameter. A 3ft. trench was dug, running E.S.E. and W.N.W. through 
the estimated centre. Just within the barrow was a clean cut ditch, in 
which was found a piece of rim of typical Bronze Age pottery. At a distance 
of 13ft. from the middle of the ditch was a small depression in the chalk 
floor and near it some pieces of light brown pottery and two fragments of 
burnt bones. A cist 2ft. 9in. by 2ft. 9in. by 1ft. 2in. deep was found \l\h. 
from the middle of the ditch. The soil above it was lined by many former 
rabbit burrows, in which were found portions of the lower jaw and other 
bones of a female (?) and portions of the skull and ribs of a child. Near 
were several pieces of well-baked pottery ornamented by two horizontal 
lines with a row of dependent triangles beneath each. One piece had a 
perforated lug — the perforation being vertical. This ware was of the 
"Drinking Cup, or Beaker" type. The objects found in this and the 
Ebbesbourne barrow are in my own collection. 

R. C. C. Clay. 

Skeleton at Broad Chalke. On Dec. 20th, 1922, the son of 

iMr. Sidford, of Broad Chalke, unearthed a skeleton whilst digging chalk 
from the pit situated on the side of Church Bottom, Bury Hill, about 100 
yards from Bury Orchard Corner. The skeleton was lying extended on 
the chalk with the head to the S.W. and the feet to the N.E. There was 
no cist, and I could find no signs of pottery. The bones, which were in a 
bad state of preservation and had been damaged by unskilful excavation, 
appeared to be those of a female, of early adult age, whose height was 
approximately 5ft. 4in. There was only one carious tooth. The sound 
ones showed no signs of having been worn away by gritty food. Un- 
fortunately the skull was too much destroyed to allow of the cranial index 
being estimated. R, C. C. Clay. 

A Drawing of Malmesbury Abbey from the N.W., 

in lead pencil, by J M. W. Turner, was sold at Sotheby's, Nov. 28th, 1922, 
for .fe22. It came from the collections of Charles Stokes andThos. Hughes. 
Wiltshire Gazette, Nov. 30th, 1922. 

Notes. 251 

Copper Cross found at Cherhill. Many years ago a 
copper cross was found in the farm yard adjoining the west end 
of Cherhill Church, and has since then been preserved in the parish 
chest. It was submitted by the then Rector, the Rev. W. C. Plenderleath, 
to the authorities of the British Museum, who pronounced it to be the 
emblem held in the hand of some image of a saint, the hole near the base 
being for its secure attachment to the clothing of the figure. Doubtless it 
was turned out of the Church with the image to which it belonged either at 
the Reformation or in the troubles of the Civil War. The Rector, the Rev. S. 
Firman, and the churchwardens have now given it to the Society's Museum, 
to which, considering the rarity of medieval metal work, it is a valuable 
acquisition. It is of cast copper, the limbs of the cross, like the shaft, are 
of cylindrical section, and end in rounded knobs, the centre is squared and 
flat. The base is of square section tapering to a point, obviously to fit 
into a socket. It is in an excellent state of preservation. It measures 
13^in. in length, and weighs Sjozs. E. H. Goddard. 

Bones found at Slaughterfor d. In 1 922 a party of Boy Scouts 
discovered in a cleft or hole in the rocks at Slaughterford a large quantity 
of bones, chiefly fragmentary, of which they brought away a number. 
These were secured and sent to me by the Rev. C. F. Burgess, Vicar of 
Easton Grey. As there were obviously human fragments amongst them I 
sent them on to Prof. S. H. Reynolds, F.G.S., of Bristol University, who 
with his colleague, Prof. Fawcett, very kindly identified the following : — 
Man. Frontal part of skull, probably female. Three parts of femurs. 
Right temporal. Left ulna. Metatarsal, vertebra, innominate 
Sheep, chiefly young. Vertebrae, tibia, humerus. 

Pig. Portion of mandible and several teeth, femurs, ulna, part of skulL 

A quantity of modern rabbit bones, and some bird bones, and many 

unidentified fragments. 

The cleft (?) is described as being filled with a kind of Breccia with many 

bones. It is hoped that this place may be more fully investigated. No 

pottery or other objects were amongst the things brought away by the Boy 

Scouts. E. H. Goddard. 

Gold ** Ring Money " from Bishopstone. The example 

found in 1887, between Bishopstone and Broad Chalke, S. Wilts, and now 
in the possession of Dr. H. P. Blackmore, of Salisbury, was kindly lent for 
the purpose of having electrotype facsimiles made of it, for our own and 
the Swindon and Salisbury Museums. It is a very perfect specimen 
weighing rather less than ^oz. av., but a small hole on the back of it shows 
that it is really a copper or bronze penannular ring plated with a thin gold 
covering. This plating, if looked at carefully, especially with a lens, is 
marked throughout with a regular series of rings or narrow bands of pale 
gold and silver, alternately, precisely like a curled-up caterpillar, though 
the surface is quite smooth. Mr. Reginald Smith, of the Ih'itish Museum, 
tells me that these alternate bands of gold and silver are common on ring 
money. Its outside and longest diameter is fin. E. H. Goddard. 

252 Notes, 

Old Chest, Great Bedwyu Church. " The earliest chests of 

which we have any knowledge date from the middle 13th century. The 
tops nearly always open on pin hinges, that is, on two pins fixed at the ends 
of the back under-clamp of the top, and socketed into the uprights of the 
sides. These are rarely, if ever, found in the 1 4th century, heavy iron 
clamp-hinges being substituted. Fig. 1 (vol. II., p. 2, Early English 
Furniture and Woodwork, by Herbert Cescinsky and Ernest Gribble, 1922, 
4to)is the 13th century type of chest, from Great Bedwyn Church, Wiltshire. 
It is roughly constructed yet in a characteristically 13th century manner. 
The front is a solid board of oak of great width, roughly finished with the 
saw marks left in its surface, tenoned into heavy uprights. These project 
over the ends and are united from front to back by two heavy cross pieces, 
the tenons of which are carried through to the front. The lower one 
supports the bottom of the chest, which is made from stout wood to carry 
heavy weights. The ends are housed into the heavy styles, and are fixed 
to the cross pieces. There is no attempt at ornamentation, although, 
originally, the bottom of the upright styles may have been carved with 
simple cusping. The ironwork at present on the chest is all of much later 

Extract from Cescinsky's Hist, of Woodivorh and Furniture. 

British Village at Hill Deverill. The Rev. J. W. R. 

Brocklebank, Vicar of Longbridge and Hill Deverill, writing Dec. 26th, 
1921, says:— "The 'British Village* has two fosses left, the one on the 
north 100 yards long, the one on the west 74 yards long. liately six cottages 
have been built within the enclosure and 75 yards of the north fosse will 
be as good as levelled and ploughed over to make gardens. The depth of 
the fosse I judge to be 3ft, 9in. to 4ft. When the workmen were digging out 
the places for foundations they were instructed to be on the watch for any 
pieces of pottery, iron, etc. Nothing whatever of any value was turned up, 
I may add that doubts are thrown on it being a Britis^ village at all ; by 
some it is thought that the village of the middle ages and later times stood 
somewhere about here. It seems to have been destroyed in the Parliamentary 
Wars by being burnt together with the Rectory and the Tithe Barn." 

John Rose, of Amesbury. An interesting note by the Rev. 
E. Rhys Jones, Vicar, on John Rose appears in t\iQ Amesbury Parish Mag.^ 
Oct., 1922. Celebrated as having grown the first pineapple in England, he 
is represented as presenting this pineapple to King Charles II. at Dawnay 
Court, near Eton, the residence of the Duchess of Cleveland, in a picture 
of which an engraving was given in the Journal of Horticulture and Cottage 
Gardens, Jan. 16th, 1878. The picture from which this was taken is stated 
to be in Kensington Palace. But a similar picture (? a replica of that in 
Kensington Palace) had belonged to M r. Loudon, the gardener, the "servant " 
of John Rose. His heir bequeathed it to the Rev. Mr. Pennicott, of Ditton, 
who gave it to Horace Walpole in 1780. This appears in the Strawberry 
Hill Catalogue p. 115, and was sold at the sale in 1842. It was sold again 
at Sotheby's in July, 1920, as "attributed to Danckers," for v£850 to Messrs. 

Natural History Notes: 253 

Agnew, and subsequently by them to Sir Philip Sassoon, and was described 
in the Illust. London News, Sept. 23rd, 1922. Hose was gardener to the 
Duchess of Somerset, and afterwards to King Charles II. at St. James's 
Palace, tie bequeathed lands in Somerset to found a grammar school at 
Araesbury, but the notice in the Ameshury Parish Mag. says " This land 
was sold a good while ago, and the purchase money was vested in Govern- 
ment funds, the dividends of which, together with those of the " Harrison '* 
benefaction, now go to provide the " Rose and Harrison Scholarships." 
Rose also left ^620 for the purchase of gilt altar plate for Amesbury Church, 
which was all melted down and remade at the time of the restoration of 
Church by Mr. Butterfield in 1853. Rose published " The English Vineyard 
Vindicated" in 1686, with a preface by Mr. Evelyn. Switzer, a con- 
temporary gardener, in his ^'' Iconographie" says : — "He (Rose) was 
esteemed to be the best of his profession in those days, and ought to be 
remembered for the encouragement he gave to a servant of his, who has 
i5ince made the greatest figure that ever yet any gardener did, I mean Mr. 
Loudon." Rose died in 1677. He is stated by Mr. Jones to have been a 
native of Amesbury. [For some of the above information I am indebted 
to MSS. notes by the late Mr. J. E. Nightingale, F.S.A. E. H. Goddard.] 

Biddestone. When the Church of Biddestone St. Peter was 
destroyed, cir, 1840, the altar table of the time of Charles I. was preserved 
at Corsham Court. Lord Methuen has now given it back for use in the 
Church of Biddestone St. Nicholas, and at the same time gave the bell 
hanging at the Flemish Houses in Corsham to the Church of Slaughterford, 
where he himself rang it for the first time on Sunday, March 10th, 1923. 

The Stoneheuge Mauls. The Illustrated London News, Jan. 
13th, 1 923, gives three photographs of the great obelisk at Assouan, in Egypt, 
recently excavated, as it lies in the quarry. One of these shows lying 
beside the obelisk " Some of the stone balls thrown to knock away loose 
debris." These appear to be precisely the shape of the large Stonehenge 
*' Mauls," though perhaps not quite so large, and were doubtless used for 
the same purpose, the dressing of the surface of the stone, in the same w^ay 
that small " MuUers " were used for dressing querns. E. H. Goddard. 


The Old Wiltshire Sheep. In July, 1917, Mr. R. S. Newall, 
who had been interesting himself in the matter of the old Wiltshire breed 
of sheep, sent two photographs of pictures of these sheep for the Society's 
Library, now inserted in Vol. A A. of Drawings, Prints, &c- " They are in 
the possession of Messrs. Waters & Rawlence, 49, The Canal, Salisbury. 
Mr. Mountford, of this firm, is secretary of the Hampshire Down Sheep 
Society, that is why they have them. They were painted by Sydenham 
Edwards in 1810 ? The size of the two I sent is, I fancy, 12in. x Bin. The 

254 Natural History Notes, 

one with head to right I take to be a ram about two years and the other ar 
wether. The third picture, the photograph of which turned out so badly^ 
contains a full grown ram, ewes, and lambs, and is a little larger." 

The Comma Butterfly. The Rev. D. P. Harrison, Rector of 
Lydiard Millicent, writes, Dec. 20th, 1 922 : — " I have seen the remarks on th& 
Comma in Wilts Arch. Mag. It may be worth while to state what I think ia 
the status of that butterfly in this district. From the time I came here in 
1905, I saw an odd specimen or two at long intervals and heard of others, 
always in September or October. But in 1 9 1 8, from July 6th— 30th, in a wood 
near here, in Purton parish, I saw between thirty and forty and caught as^ 
many as I wanted. All these were the pale form var. Hutchinsoni. In the 
autumn of that year I saw one on a stone heap by the road in Lydiard on. 
Oct, 24th, In 1919, in July, I saw only three or four Hutchiiisoni, but at 
least a dozen C. album in September and October, most of them in my garden. 
In 1920 and 1921 Hutchinsoni were numerous, about twenty or thirty were 
seen. Of the autumn brood none in 1920. About a dozen in 1921. This 
year, 1922, no Hutchinsoni in July, but large numbers in Aug., Sept.> 
and Oct., especially in the last month. There were nine one morning 
on a Buddlea bush in my garden. Of course all the autumn ones 
were of the dark form, though in the August specimens the under- 
side was uniformly tinged with brown ; the September almost black ; 
in October very black, with green streaks. It is curious, but when there 
is a July hatch of Hutchinsoni^ the late autumn specimens are few. When 
July is a blank, the autumn hatch seems to be more numerous. Ever since 
1918 I have been able to find a certain number of hybernated males in May, 
or end of April, but I have never yet been able to identify a female in the 
spring, which is exceedingly curious. Of course all the hybernated ones 
were of the ordinary or dark form. Hutchinsoni never occurs in autumn, 
nor have I ever seen the ordinary C. album in July. Prom what I can gather 
from Mrs. Story Maskelyne, Lady Bolingbroke, and others, the Comma 
has been seen sporadically in this district for the last twenty years at 
intervals in autumn. But it has certainly become much more numerous 
since 1918, and I know at least three woods where I can make pretty sure 
of finding a specimen or two any year, but my experience of Hutchinsoni 
is that it is confined to certain glades, and you may search the rest of the 
wood in vain. Those glades, however, are a certain find in most years; 
1 920 was an exception. The autumn brood is much more widely distributed. 
My conclusion is that the insect is much more common about here than is 
generally supposed, and that its non-detection has been due to the dearth 
of competent observers. 

" As to Colias Udusa, 1 knew 1922 was going to be a Clouded Yellow year, 
for I saw five females in May and early June. In August, especially 
August 28th, I found some forty specimens in a clover field next my house, 
all males. I did not see a single female the whole autumn, and I made 
sure by catching every one which gave me a chance, of course letting them 
go after examination, though as a rule the female is easy enough to dis- 
tinguish on the wing. 

Natural History Notes. 255 

Mr. R. G. Gwatkin notes that Commas were not so plentiful in the 
summer of 1922 as in the previous year. He noted, however, two at 
Potterne on Aug. 26th and Sept. 21st respectively, one on Aug. 10th at 
Bratton, and two at Tellisford on Sept. 21st. 

An example of the pale variety Helice of the Clouded Yellow was taken 
at Winterbourne Bassett in 1922 by Mr. Henry Kendall. 

White variety of Geranium Robertianum. For very 

many years, probably at least 30, a white variety of Herb llobert has 
maintained itself at Clyffe Pypard. Until within the last seven or eight 
years it grew exclusively on a small sarsen stone full of holes near the pond 
in the Manor grounds. From the plants growing on this stone I took seed 
and sowed it on the rockery in the Vicarage garden. Here it has flourished 
and increased and great numbers of plants come up every year from seed, 
all with pure white flowers without a trace of colour, and the whole plants 
leaves and stems alike, of a light vivid green, quite unlike the colour of 
normal plants of Herb Robert. It may therefore claim to have established 
itself as a permanent variety coming absolutely true from seed, I have 
never seen this white variety elsewhere, outside the two gardens mentioned^ 
though it certainly originated as a wild plant, and not from garden cultiva- 
tion. In 1922, however, I found a variety with white flowers in the Vale 
of Newlands, in the Lake district, but this differed from the Clyffe plant in 
having traces of the natural colour in the stems and the veins of the leaves 
and petals. Ed. H. Goddard. 

Edible Fnngi in Savernake Forest, The fungus season in 

1921 was an extremely poor one, owing to the dry weather. During August 
and September, however, the Vegetable Beef Steak (Fistulena hepatica) 
was very frequent on partially dead oaks, and experiment proved that when 
taken at the right age it was very good eating, having a distinct, slightly 
acid, flavour. In October mushrooms {Agaricus arvensis and campestris) 
were exceptionally abundant in pastures near the Forest. 

This autumn, 1922, has produced fungi in extraordinary variety and 
abundance, and it has been possible to try several kinds recommended for 
the table in books on the subject. Agaricus sylvestris Si,nd proce7^us, '' the 
Parasol," are both very good, resembling mushrooms in flavour. The 
Bent-Tuft (Agaricus mucidvs), which has been common on dead limbs of 
beech trees, is mild and delicate and distinctly good. The Helvellas {H- 
cr I s?9a and lacunosa) have a mushroom flavour, but are apt to be tough, 
while Boletus scaber, which appeared in some places late in autumn, is 
excellent. A. Joyce Watson. 

Rainfall in 1922. Mr. H. W. Green, in Wiltshire Gazette, Jan. 
4th, 1923, gives the rainfall at Devizes in 1922 as 30-39 inches, as compared 
with only 16-20 inches in 1921, and 3r74 inches in 1920. 



Great Crested G-rebe. Mr. R, G. Gwatkin writes. " Dec. 3rd, 
1915. I received a dead specimen from Mrs. Lovell, Cole Park, near Malmes- 
bury. The bird appeared on the moat about Nov. 24th. After a hard frost 
it had got under the ice and was drowned. It was in poor condition. The 
gullet contained a roach 5in. long, quite fresh, the eyes and fins were still 
bright. The gizzard contained a mass of green water weed, very fine and in 
very short lengths. From dissection I concluded it was a female. The top 
of the head had a raw place probably caused by knocking against the ice in 
its efiforts to escape." Miss E. P. Scott, writing on April 20th, 1923, reports 
that a Great Crested Grebe has arrived again this year at Westbury. It is 
earnestly to be hoped that it may be allowed to nest in peace, and not be 
shot by some " sportsman," 

Hawfinches. Jan., 1922. Manor House, Potterne. Two pairs 
came to some holly bushes near my windows and remained until all berries 
were gone. I noticed that they worked a good deal under the bushes pick- 
ing up fallen berries, which other birds do not touch. These are stale 
berries, and while other birds like them fresh ofif the tree, the Hawfinch, 
which cracks and eats the kernel, is not affected by this difference. 

laittle Owl, This seems to be increasing in Wilts. Dec. 14th, 1921. 
I saw one fly across the Melksham Road at the turning to Seend just before 
reaching the canal. Dec. 6th, 1922. One was shot at Spye Park, where 
they are said to be plentiful, perhaps because a pair were liberated from 
the Aviary some years ago. R. G. Gwatkin. 

Bernicle Geese. Dr. R. C. Clay writes that three Bernicle Geese 
were seen on the lake at Compton Chamberlayne Park on March 2 1st, 1923. 
There was no doubt, he says, as to their identity. Essentially a sea bird, 
only three examples seem to have been previously recorded in Wiltshire, on 
Feb. 25th, 1865 (Smith's Birds of Wilts, p. 465), 

Capt. George Penruddocke reports that a Buzzard was seen at Compton 
Chamberlayne on Dec. 28th, 1922. 

The Rev. D. P. Harrison, Rector of liydiard Millicent, writes, Dec. 20th, 
1922 :— " Woodcock are unusually numerous this year, Snipe on the other 
hand are conspicuous by their absence, also Fieldfares. Are these latter 
ceasing to visit the district 1 There have been very few about since 1916. 
This year not one as far as I have observed." 



[N.B. — This list does not claim to be in any way exhaustive. The Editor 
appeals to all authors and publishers of pamphlets, books, or views in any 
way connected with the county, to send him copies of their works, and to 
editors of papers, and members of the Society generally, to send him copies 
-of articles, views, or portraits, appearing in the newspapers,] 

Round about the Upper Thames. By Alfred Williams. 

London : Duckworth & Co. 

Cloth, 8iin. X 5^in., pp. 319. 12s. 6d. net. Four illustrations, of which 
Inglesham Church, and St. Sampson's Church and Cross, Cricklade, are in 
Wilts ; also a sketch map of the country round the head waters of the 
Thames in Wilts, Berks, Oxon, and Gloucestershire. The district dealt 
with in Wilts is that lying between Cricklade and Lechlade, with Lushill 
as the centre. The first chapter begins with four pages of excellent con- 
versation and description of haymakers at Castle Eaton, in which, as 
throughout the book, the dialect, of which there is much, is genuine 
Wiltshire without a suspicion of literary dressing up. The belief of the 
Lushill haymakers that stones, and also bones, buried in the earth " grow," 
that Oliver Cromwell made Blunsdon Camp, and that the earliest battles 
were those of King Alfred and the Danes are very characteristic of the 
elder generation of Wiltshire labourers. Old Highworth, its markets, fairs, 
its industries of bell casting, soap and candle making, coach and waggon 
building, rope making, and straw plaiting, and the excellence of its wooden 
ploughs, are described, and various legends of the eccentric old Squire 
Crowdy, and of Peggy Townley, accounted a witch, are given. At Seven- 
hampton the ghost of the hunting squire was laid in the fishpond. Inglesham, 
its Church and its Round House, and Old Elijah, aged 95, are the chief 
points of interest. The author has a good deal to say of the manifold 
activities of Squire Campbell, of Buscot Park (Berks), which aflfectedall the 
neighbourhood until the Crimean War stopped the many works he had 
initiated. John Archer, of Lushill, " A real old fashioned squire," who 
paid £3500 a year in wages, kept a number of teams of oxen, and was 
generally accounted as " The best man that ever trod in Cassal Aeton," 
is another of the heroes of the book. A curious legend is given of an 
earlier owner of Lushill a couple of hundred years ago, one Squire Parker, 
a notable stag hunter, and a demon stag which could never be taken. Ewen 
it appears is chiefly renowned for the feats of the redoubtable Cornelius 
Uzzle, who in the presence of living witnesses ate 12lbs. of fat bacon at 
one meal. Blunsdon had its " Slan Feast," when "Slans" (sloes) were 
picked to make a pudding and the festivities were kept up for a week, 
and rejoiced in an unusual number of local " Worthies," such as Squire 
Akerman, son of Moses Akerman, the farmer, Patcatcher Joe, Old Bet 

258 Wiltshire Boohs, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

Hyde, the famous witch, and Moll Wilkins, the wise woman, of all of whom 
traditional stories are excellently told. Of Poll Packer it is recorded that 
she was able (like Indian jugglers) to make a waggon line stand straight up 
in the air, whilst Bet Hyde, who lived near Coldharbour, was well known 
to have a familiar in the shape of a crow. At Bury Town (Blunsdon) 
Farmer Snook is said to have employed a quarryman for over two yeara 
digging up Roman foundations, including mosaic pavements, in "Town 

The story of the Wootton Bassett Elections of 1*774 and 1807, when the 
price of a vote was 30 guineas, and 45 guineas respectively, and the holding 
of the Court Leet at Cricklade still with 12 jurymen and a hay ward com- 
plete, are among the many matters of interest noted. There is a rich store 
of Folk Lore material throughout the book. The use of the " Lye dropper '^ 
for softening hard water, the method of making Potato starch, Rushlights 
whose wick was the peeled pith of rushes, candles made by filling dry teasel 
"gixes" with fat after drawing a string through the middle of them, 
" Barley -dodkins," or " Barley-bangers," " Frogwater " in place of tea, made 
by putting a " frog " (a toasted crust of bread) into the teapot and pouring 
boiling water on it), wine made from "peggles" and "ipsons," weather 
sayings, rhymes, riddles, proverbs, matters of luck, &c., &c., follow one 
another in extraordinary profusion. 

If you wish to produce warts wash your hands with water in which an 
egg has been boiled ; if you wish to get rid of them take an elder twig, 
strip it of leaves, drive it into the earth out of sight, and do not visit the 
place for seventeen days. It is in these and such-like things that the value of 
the book consists. The author is not always at his best in his notes on 
Natural History matters, but he does know the inside of the mind of the 
old fashioned Wiltshire labourer, and the language that he spoke, and, what 
is more, he not only knows these things, but he knows how to set them 
down for others, as few writers on country matters have known. The book 
was reviewed at length in Wiltshire Gazette^ Oct. 19th, 1922. 

The Iiion and the Rose (The Great Howard Story> 
Norfolk Line 957—1646, Suffolk Line 1603—1917. 
By £thel M. Richardson. London: Hutchinson & 

Co. [1923]. 8vo. Vol. L, pp. 296, 10 portraits. Vol. IL, 297-615, 
5 portraits and view of Charlton. 32/- net. 

The publishers of this book say " the story of the family of Howard is 
also the story of England. The author traces the thrilling history of thi& 
great line from the days before the conquest to the death of the nineteenth 
Earl of Suffolk in the Great War." It is, however, not a family history, 
there is not a single pedigree, and genealogists will not go to its pages for 
information which is not readily available in ordinary books of reference. 
On the other hand it will be read by numbers of people who would never 
think of looking into a serious family history. Moreover a serious family 
history of the Howards could not be compressed into 600 pages of rather 
large print, and would be the work of a lifetime to compile. The book is ar 
very readable series of sketches of English history as the background of 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles, 259 

the Howard story beginning with the revolt of Hereward the Wake, the 
legendary ancestor. 

The French Wars and Joan of Arc, the Wars of the Roses, Hen. VIIL, 
Sir Thomas More, Mary Tudor, Elizabeth and Mary Q. of Scots, the 
Armada, the Gunpowder Plot, are all dealt with at some length, and the 
part played by prominent Howards in each period is indicated, but in many 
cases the background seems to fill most of the picture. The first volume is 
taken up entirely with the Norfolk line, and therefore does not touch 
Wiltshire directly. Perhaps the most interesting thing in it is the account, 
extracted from the MS. at Pembroke College, Cambridge, of the expenses 
of Thomas, Duke of Norfolk, High Treasurer of England in 1526 — 27. The 
number of the guests at Framlingham Castle, and the amount of meat on 
ordinary days, and of fish on fasting days, provided for their entertainment 
is really astounding. The menu, too, of the difi'erent courses, given in detail, 
with the same kinds of meat, dressed in different ways it is to be presumed, 
appearing in course after course, is most curious and enlightening. On 
Christmas Day at least nineteen or twenty sorts of birds alone were served 
up at table. Space might well have been found for many more pages from 
this remarkable MS. On the other hand it is a pity that the " Kenil- 
worth " version of the story of Amye Robsart should have been given here 
again, without the least intimation that that version was proved to be en- 
tirely fallacious, on first-hand evidence from archives at Longleat, by Canon 
Jackson more than 40 years ago ( Wilts Arch. Mag., xvii., 46—93). Amye 
Robsart was never at Kenilworth, for Kenilworth was not granted to her 
husband till 1563, three years after her death, nor was she ever Countess of 
Leicester, and the allegation of foul play on the part of her husband rests 
on a very unsound foundation. 

The second volume is concerned with the Sufi'olk line and Charlton. 
Thomas, Ld. Howard of Walden, 1st Earl of Suffolk, married, secondly, 
Catherine, heiress of Sir Henry Knyvett, of Charlton, and began to build 
the house in 1604 or 5. Sir Hen. Knyvett's funeral at Charlton is described. 
The Civil War fills a chapter, but the Howards are hardly touched on in it. 
In the same way the story of the Duke of Buckingham fills many pages. 
Lord Robert Howard by his marriage with Lady Honora, widow of Sir 
Francis Englefield, became possessed of Vasterne Manor. He also owned 
Castle Rising and much other property, Vasterne was sold to Laurence 
Hyde, Earl of Rochester, son of Lord Clarendon, who lived there, and it 
remained in the Hyde family until it was bought dr. 1870 by Sir Henry 
Meux. Lady Betty Howard, sister of Sir Robert of Vasterne, married the 
poet Dryden, and their first son, Charles, was born at Charlton. Dryden 
and Sir Bobert together wrote the play "An Irish Queen." The Suffolk 
line is followed in fairly close detail, but the arrangement and the absence 
of a pedigree, and the frequent digressions on matters of general history 
make the family story difficult to follow. TLe portraits at Charlton 
are mentioned and some account is given of each succeeding Earl and his 
family. Of Charles William Howard, 7th Earl, it is noted that his " negro 
servant," Scipio Africanus, was buried in Henbury churchyard, Gloucester- 
shire, and his fool, Dickey Pearce, in Berkeley churchyard, with an epitaph 

260 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

composed by Swift. Henrietta, wife of Charles John, 9th Earl, was a 
prominent favourite at the court of Geo. II. and is introduced by Scott in 
the " Heart of Midlothian " in Jeanie Dean's interview with Q. Caroline, 
There is a long account of Sir Jerome Bowes (ancestor of Hen. Bowes, 4th 
Earl of Berkshire and 11th Earl of Suffolk), Ambassador to the Court of 
Muscovy, of whom there is a portrait at Charlton. Some account too is 
given of Moll Davis, the actress, whose portrait is also in the house. In 
1776 it was decided to pull down the present house at Charlton and build 
a new one, but the gallery ceiling seemed too good to destroy, so an attempt 
was made to take it up in sections from above, and on the 12th Lord Suffolk's 
death in 1779 the work was happily stopped. His posthumous son Henry 
(13th Earl) only lived two days, and it is recorded that as the workmen 
were finishing the ceiling of the Great Hall, on the sounding of the passing 
bell they left their work and it was never afterwards completed. A con- 
siderable number of letters cir. 1736, from Lord and Lady Tylney, of 
Wanstead House, Essex, to their daughter. Lady Emma (Child), wife of Sir 
Robert Long, of Draycot, are given. The book happily has a good index 
in which reference may be found to all names of any importance mentioned 
in the text ; it is attractively dressed in a very nice cover, is well printed 
and illustrated. 

Swindon's War Record, Prepared for the Swindon 

Town Council by W. D. Bavin. Illustrated. John Drew 
(Printers) Ltd., 51, Bridge Street, Swindon. 1922. 

Cloth, 4to., pp. 352 Sixteen good photo illustrations of which " In 
Memoriam " (the War Memorial) ; Off to India, the R.F.A. ; The Mayor of 
Swindon's farewell to the R.F.A. ; Ambulance Train built in Swindoa 
Works; 6in. Guns on travelling carriages in G.W.R. Factory ; Great Guns 
in Swindon Works ; and Portrait of the Earl of Suffolk, Wilts Battery of 
the 3rd Wessex R.F.A., directly concern Wiltshire, the remainder being of 
scenes in France and India in which Swindon men figured. This excellently 
printed book, with its clearly marked headings of all subsections and its 
adequate index is a model of what a war record should be. On a small 
scale Steeple Ashton and Whiteparish .have found admirable chroniclers, 
but there has been nothing at all published in Wiltshire, or so far as has 
come under the knowledge of the writer of this notice, in any other neigh- 
bouring county, which for completeness and accurate fulness of detail can 
be compared with Swindon's record. It concerns itself not merely with 
the soldiers who served, but with all those, men and women alike, who, in 
the railway town, were engaged during the years of the war in the hundred 
and one activities born directly or indirectly of the war. The work of the 
different war funds and committees and the totals of the amounts con- 
tributed and expended are described in great detail. Of course in all these 
matters there was nothing unique about Swindon's record. What Swindon 
did a hundred other similar towns doubtless did too, but Swindon has 
found its vates sacer in Mr, W. D. Bavin, as few if any other towns have, 
thanks to the wise liberality of the Corporation, and to his own unwearied 
skill in condensing the enormous mass of material into an orderly and 
readable account, the value of which will increase as years pass on, and 

Wiltshire Boohs, Parrfphlets, and Articles. 261 

the remembrance of Belgian refugees, and munition workers, and farm 
girls, and meat and butter and sugar rations, and prisoners' parcels, pass 
away. Part I., " Local affairs during the War," deals successively with 
1914, " First effects of the war. The Belgians in Swindon; 1915, Settling 
down to war conditions ; 1916, In the full tide of war work, The care of 
the Prisoners of War, List of Prisoners of Wilts Regiment supported by 
Swindon, 1917, Growing restrictions and unflagging work ; 1918, The year 
of rationing. The close of the war, Roll of Honour, Towards re-settle- 
ment. Women's work during the war." 

Part II. deals with the local military units. " The Swindon Company of 
the Royal Fortress Engineers (Terr.). The 1st or Wilts Battery R.F.A. 
(Terr.). The " D " or Swindon Squadron of Royal Wilts Yeomanry (Terr.). 
The Swindon Company of the R.A.M.C. (Terr.). The Wiltshires in India 
and Palestine, in France, in Turkey and Mesopotamia, and in iMacedonia. 
List of the men in the forces who returned. Altogether a work of which 
its compiler and the town of Swindon may alike feel proud, and for which 
posterity may well be thankful. 

The Andover District : an account of Sheet 283 
of the One-Inch Ordnance Map. By O. G. S. 

Crawford. Oxford University Press. Royal 8vo. [1922.] 

This memoir, written as a thesis for the Diploma in Geography in 1910, 
and to some extent brought up to date, is an elaborate and valuable study of 
the district concerned, which contains twenty-four parishes in Hants, one 
in Berks, and five wholly in Wilts (Chute, Chute Forest, Ludgershall^ 
Buttermere, Tidcombe and Fosbury), and portions of others. Ham, 
Shalbourne, Great Bedwyn, N. Tidworth, and the Collingbournes. 

The Geology, especially the Tertiary and Pleistocene gravels and clays, 
and the Eoliths found in the latter, are dealt with in some detail. Tha 
gravels near the heads of the valleys, as at Biddesden, consisting of unrolled 
and unworn flints, are explained as due to the gradual removal of the chalk 
in solution by the rain water, especially from the heavy rains in Pleistocene 
times, before the surface was covered with turf and vegetation, leaving the 
insoluble flints. 

The river systems and the watersheds of the district are described, and 
the types of parishes " River Basin," "Spring Line," " Forest," according as 
the site of the original settlements was decided by the existence of the 
streams, the springs (chiefly at the junction of the Greensand and the Gault),. 
or the forest country, are described. The larger settlements, which developed 
into market towns, such as Salisbury, Wilton, and Marlborough, are shown 
to be situated at the confluence of valleys. The writer makes the point, 
that in many cases, as with Savernake and Chute Forests, the areas 
afforested were those on the watersheds between diS'erent valley systems 
and their accompanying groups of settlements, and that the parishes such 
as Chute in such watershed situations, whether of forest or " Residual 
Downland," often differ in shape and characteristics (he calls them " In- 
trusive ") from the more general types. 
The natural vegetation of Neolithic times is reconstructed from existing. 

262 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

survivals of down, vi'oodland, or "Bush" country, with a photo of the 
latter with birch trees on plateau gravel near Bedwyn. 

As regards the lynchets on the sides of the downs he considers those forming 
long narrow strips with parallel sides as formed by the plough in medieval 
times, but the smaller irregular lynchets as quite unsuited to the plough 
and probably of prehistoric or Romano-British origin. Buttermere he 
thinks is a lineal descendant of a prehistoric hilltop village, and he agrees 
with Dr. Grundy in regarding the " Mere," in this case and many place 
names in the district as referring to artificial ponds. 

Ancient roads, prehistoric remains, earthworks, barrows, and casual pits 
are all carefully noted. The opening of three long barrows in Wilts is shortly 
described. Tidcombe Long Barrow, with its stone chamber, opened 1750; 
a long barrow of slight elevation, not on the O.M., a quarter mile east of 
Oxenwood, said to have been opened by the lady who owned it ; and the 
long barrow on Wexcombe Down, East Grafton, opened by the author in 
1914, close to the group of seven round barrows, of which five are not on 
the Ordnance Map. 

He quotes from Stukeley, Itin., VI., p. 132, " In the fields about Chute 
are bones dug up very plentifully, in a place called Blood field especially ; 
they likewise found there a stone coffin with a skeleton enclosed, and an 
arrow, a spear-head of brass, as described to me. There was a horse found 
buryed about three yards from the body. Whether this was Roman or 
British I cannot affirm : I am inclinable to think the latter, but it seems 
that a battle was fought here between 'em." 

The Anglo-Saxon boundaries of a number of Hampshire parishes are 
identified from charters, perambulations, &c., and the charters (from 
Cartularium Saxonicum, Birch, 1885 — 93) concerned with Great and Little 
Bedwyn, Collingbourne, Ham,and Burbage, are noted. The Perambulations 
of the Bailiwick of Hippenscombe in the Forest of Savernake, A.D. 1300, 
and of Chute Forest, [29 Ed. I.] are given. 

Amongst the early forms of place names are Co van Holt (13th century), 
for Conholt ; Crawlbush (18th century), for Crawlboys ; Hurpingescombe, 
Huppingescombe (13th century), for Hippenscombe. 

A short History of the Wiltshire Regiment (Duke 
of Edinburgh's) (66ncl and 99th Foot) from 1756 to 
1918. By Lieut.-Col. R M. T. Gillson, D.S.O, Wilt- 
shire Regiment, London : Gale & Polden, Ltd., 2, Amen Corner, 
Paternoster Row, E.G. 4. [1921.] 

Stiff covers, cr. 8vo., pp. 43. Price 2/- Coloured pktes : Non-com. - 
Officer and Private, 1914 ; Officers of 62nd Regt., 1828 ; Capt. W. Coleman, 
Royal Wiltshire Militia, 1803 ; photos of three men in battle order, 1918 ; 
group of 1st Battalion after their victory over the Prussian Guard at 
Thiepval, Aug. 25th, 1916 ; portrait of Capt. R. F. J. Hayward, V.C, 
M.C. ; Trones Wood. 

This is intended to be a short reliable history of the regiment from its 
original enrolment down to the end of the Great War, this latter period 
occupying half of the whole. The 1st Batt. was raised at Torbay in 1756 as 

Wiltshire Boohs, Pamphlets, and Articles^ 263 

the 2nd Batt. of the 4th Foot, but in 1758 it became a separate regiment, 
the 62nd. Three other regiments which had successively been disbanded 
had already borne this number, of which the first fought at Dettingen and 
Fontenoy and was disbanded in 1748. In 1758 half the 62nd went as 
'• marines " to Canada, and in remembrance of their services " Bells " are still 
struck as in the Navy, in place of the ordinary clock hours. They fought 
at Louisberg and the capture of Quebec, whilst the other half of the Regi- 
ment held the Castle of Carrickfergus, in Ireland, against the raiding 
French force under Thurot. In 1775 the Regiment fought under Burgoyne 
against the American colonists, and at the Battle of Trois Rivieres in 1776 
their activity in pursuit gained them the name of " The Springers." In 
1782 they became officially "The Wiltshire Regiment," a 2nd Batt. was 
formed in 1804, served in the Mediterranean in 1806, adopting the Maltese 
Cross as its badge, and in the Peninsular Campaign in 1813, being disbanded 
in 1820. The present 2nd Batt., however, was formerly the Lanarkshire 
Regt., and was affiliated to the 62nd in 1881. The Regiment's services in 
India, in the three great battles of the Sikh war, are noted, and the curious 
history of the colours, lost in the sea during the landing of the troops in a 
storm, and recovered eight months afterwards, and now hanging in Salis- 
I bury Cathedral, whilst the colours meanwhile given to replace them were 
burnt by accident in a boat on the Ganges. In 1855 the Regiment took a 
i prominent part in the siege of Sebastopol and the attack on the Redan. 

The 99th foot (the 2nd Batt. Wilts Regt.) was raised in 1824 as the 
Lanarkshire Regt. Four regiments bearing the same number had 
' previously been raised and disbanded, the first of them in 1760 at Salisbury. 
' Served in Australia and fought in the Maori War 1845, and at the capture 
i of Pekin 1860. Its title was changed to " The Duke of Edinburgh's Regt." 
I 1874, and it continued a Scottish Lowland Regiment until 1886. Fought in 
\ the Zulu War 1879, and the South African War 1900—1902. 
; The 3rd Batt., " The Wiltshire Militia." The Militia existed as early as 
1 1570, and 1200 trained men in companies were ready to resist the Spanish 
i Armada. In 1641, Lord Pembroke was appointed to organise them. In 
i 1685 they were at the Battle of Sedgmoor. In 1697 Wilts had four 
; regiments, amounting to 2366 foot men. In 1760 there were 10 companies 
of 80 men each. In 1759 the Wiltshire Militia was numbered 33 (as 
j on the colours now in St. James' Church, Devizes) in the order of prece- 
! dence of Militia Regiments. During the Napoleonic Wars a second Militia 
Regiment was raised in Wilts, known as the " Yellow Regiment," and their 
, colours hang in Salisbury Cathedral. The Militia volunteered for foreign 
i service in 1814, 1855, and 1901. In 1881 they became the 3rd Batt. of the 
t Wiltshire Regt., and in 1908 the title " Militia" gave place to that of " The 
} Special Reserve," and their colours now bear the battle honours of the 
I Wiltshire Regiment. 

I The 4th Battalion. In 1908 the old Rifle Volunteer Corps, raised origin- 
;ally in 1859, and organised in 1861 into the 1st and 2nd Battalions of the 
Wilts Rifle Volunteers, became the 4th Batt. of the Wiltshire Regiment. 

The great achievements of the seven Battalions of the Regiment, and 
their various sub-divisions, during the Great War 1914—18, in which they 

264 Wiltshire Bools, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

lost 4924 officers and men killed or died of disease, fills the last half of the 
book, which is an excellent summary of the history of the Regiment, short, 
clear, and readable. 

Some Old Houses of Devizes, No. 15. The House 

No. 22, 23, The BrittOX. By Ed. Kite. Wiltshire Gazette, 
Nov. 30th, 1922. 

Mr. Kite gives the early spellings of " The Brittox " as " La Britasche," 
1307—26; "la Brutax," 1417 ; " le Brytax," 1546; "The Bryttax," 1556: 
" The Brittox," 1567. The " Bretesque," the wooden tower or defences 
protecting the drawbridge at the entrance of the outer Baily of the Castle, 
which gave its name to the street, stood close to the houses here described. 
[Mr. Kite mentions that a field at Studley close to the site of Stanley 
Abbey, bears the name of " the Brittox," and suggests that it may perhaps 
mark the entrance to the outer precincts of the Abbey.] William Coventre 
is believed to have leased No. 22 in 1417 to Roger Birbur (the Barber) and 
later to have given it as part of the endowment of a chantry in St. Mary's 
Church. In 1558 — 9 the churchwardens leased it for 99 years to Robert 
Drew of Southbroom, and it was long occupied by the family of Fitzall or 
Fidsall, Mary Fitzall being the tenant, 1669—81. Here the Anabaptists of 
Devizes met in 1669, numbering then from sixty to eighty, and continued 
to meet for over a century, their head and teacher at first being Thomas Hicks. 
In 1664 Sam. Fitzall, clothier, obtained a new lease for 99 years. Joseph 
Wright, who died 1712, occupied the premises, and during the occupancy of 
John Filkes, in 1780, the congregation moved into their newly-built chapel 
in Maryport Street. Mr. Kite mentions the principal ministers ejected 
under the Act of Uniformity in 1662 who had charge of Nonconformist 
congregations in Devizes, John Frayling, Rector of Compton (Bassett?) 
preached with Obadiah Wills to an " Independent " congregation in 1669, 
in the house of John Freeme. Ben. Flower, s. of Roger Flower, Rector of 
Castle Combe and Little Cheverell, was ejected from Cardiff and became 
pastor of congregations at Chippenham and Devizes until 1709. Nathaniel 
Chauncey, b. 1679, s. of Ichabod Chauncey, minister of Redcliffe, Bristol, 
was a minister at Devizes for nearly -50 years, and is buried in St. Mary's 
Church. John Filkes assisted Ben. Flower from 1703 to 1709, dying 1723. 
Obadiah Wills resigning the Rectory of Alton Barnes in 1660 preached at 
Devizes. Timothy Sacheverell, ejected from Tarrant Hinton, Dorset, came ' 
to Devizes in 1672. He married, first, Mary, d. of John Conant Puritan, I 
pastor of St. Thomas, Sarum, and secondly, Bridget, (? d. of John Grayle, ■ 
of Collingbourne Ducis, and Rector of Tidworth). He was the uncle of i 
Joshua Sacheverell, Rector of St. Peter's, Marlborough, whose third son, ! 
Henry, became the famous Dr. Sacheverell. 

Some Old Houses of Devizes, No. 16. The Rectoryj 
House, and succession of Rectors. By Ed. Kite.l 

Wiltshire Gazette; Dec. 14th and 21st, 1922. ) 

The present Rectory was purchased cir. 1776, the old Rectory stood nearj 
where the Parish Room stands now, in or adjoining St. John's Churchyard 

Wiltshire Books, Pa77iphlets, and Articles. 265 

It had ceased to be the residence of the Rector before 1704, having ap- 
parently suflfered in the Civil War, for an entry in the " Commons' Journal," 
1646, xVJay 28th, " ordered that all such materials as are now remaining in 
the Castle of the Devizes, and which were part of, or belonging to St. 
John's Church, or to the Parsonage House belonging to the said Church, 
shall be forthwith restored to the Churchwardens there, for the re-edifying 
of the said Church and Parsonage House." In 1783 it was described as "a 
small Thatched Cottage " and a faculty authorised its entire removal. Mr. 
Kite gives a very useful list of the Rectors, with notes on each, from 1192 
to 1922, with details of their lives and family connections. 

Some Old Houses of Devizes, No. 17. *' The 

Croft," in SouthbrOOm. Wiltshire Gazette, Jan. 18th, 1923. 

"The Spital Croft " was the site of a Leper Hospital dedicated to SS. 
James and Dionysius (Denis), to which K. John granted in 1208 a two days 
fair annually on the Feast of St. Denis and the following day, for its 
support, but in 1226 Hen. III. grants to Bp. Richard Poore, Lord of the 
Manor of Bishops Cannings, a Fair at South Brome lasting four days, a 
grant confirmed in 1378 and 1395. This was evidently a continuation of 
the fair granted to the Leper Hospital, which perhaps had ceased to exist. 
This fair on the Green continued to be held on the feast of St. Dionysius 
(Oct. 9th) and five following days until the introduction of the new style 
in 1751, when the date became Oct. 20th, at which it is still held. Amongst 
the tenants or owners of the house at Spital Croft was Frederick Robbins, 
born at the Manor House, Woodborough, who in early life settled on an 
island on the north coast of Tasmania, still known as " Bobbins' Island," 
and later returning to Devizes became a partner in the brewery of '* Humby 
& Robbins," died 1896 at the age of 92, and is buried at Woodborough. 

Remarks on Mr. Stone's paper on the date of 
Stonehenge, and on the dating of Megalithic 
Structures by astronomical means By Hear- 
Admiral Boyle T. Somerville, C.M.G. Man, Sept, 1922. 

No. 77, pp. 133—137. 

Mr. Stone's paper in Man, Aug., 1922, was noticed in the Dec, 1922, 
number of the Magazine. In his criticisms Adm. Somerville lays stress on 
the difference between the "true sun " and the " apparent sun " at sunrise, 
as " true sunrise " takes place several minutes later than "apparent sun- 
rise," and at a distance from the apparent position. He further refers to 
to the difficulty of laying out an accurate axial line, " not only are the 
stones of Megalithic monuments themselves so rough in shape, and so large 
in dimensions that an accurate axial line can scarcely be laid out, but also 
they are seldom if ever found truly symmetrically placed." 

He also asks which actual point of the sunrise are we to take as that for 
which the ancient builders laid out their line? When the upper edge of 
the sun appeared above the horizon ? When it was half risen ? Or when 
it was wholly risen 1 At Stonehenge for example if the azimuth of the 
first appearance be taken, the date works out at 1840 B.C. If the azimuth 

T 2 

266 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

of the sun's centre when half risen be taken, the date is set back to about 
3310 B.C. If it be wholly risen the date would be 5200 B.C. He suggests 
a star as more likely to provide a correct result than the sun, and concludes 
that " to attempt to date either of the two circles (the blue stone circle 
and the sarsen circle, which he assumes are of different ages) at Stonehenge 
by the azimuth of the midsummer sunrise is useless, as the present con- 
dition of the ruin of the monument is too great to lay out from the ground 
plan of either circle an orientation line of sufficient accuracy. If, however, 
the orientation towards Silbury (Sidbury) Hill, eight miles distant, can be 
considered a probability, as it was by Sir Norman Lockyer, the limits of 
date given by him, namely 200 years on either side of 1680 B.C. are 
justified for whichever circle to which it related." 

Stonehenge. Notes on the Midsummer Sunrise, 
A reply to Man, 1922. 77. By E, Herbert Stone. 

Man, Nov., 1922, pp. 171—174. 

Mr. Stone replies to Admiral Somerville's criticisms, that the difference 
between "real" and "apparent" sunrise was allowed for in Lockyer's 
calculations, and that the axis of the structure and its prolongation in the 
centre line of the avenue was determined with great accuracy by both Petrie 
and Lockyer. As to the three stages of sunrise, the first gleam of sunrise 
above the horizon "is that which has been accepted as a matter of course 
by all previous investigators, as even apart from the question of a reasonable 
date we may consider the first gleam of the rising sun as that which would 
most naturally appeal to the builders of Stonehenge." As to the two circles 
of different ages — Prof. Gowland and Col. Hawley by their excavations 
have conclusively proved that in the monument as it now stands the two 
circles are contemporaneous and the axis is that of the sarsen circle. He 
sums up and defines the present position of the controversy as giving the 
date 2040 to 1840 B.C. 

The Age of Stonehenge. By T. Rice Holmes, Litt.D. 

The Antiquaries' Journal, Oct., 1922, Vol. II., pp. 344—349. 

This is a reply to Mr. Stone's paper in the Nineteenth Century, Jan., 1922, 
(noticed W.A.M., xlii., pp. 88, 89), wherein he set out to vindicate Sir 
Norman Lockyer's theory against Dr. Rice Holmes' criticisms. He rightly 
points out that 1840 B.C., the limit assigned by Mr. Stone himself, may be 
well within the Early Bronze Age, so that, even if the astronomical date is 
accepted, it does not mean that Stonehenge is necessarily of Neolithic origin 
He also makes the point that the midsummer sunrise " is rarely visible at 
Stonehenge," and that on June 21st, 1903, it was visible for the first time 
for nearly ten years. He then proceeds in a thoroughly unrepentant spirit 
to recapitulate his objections to what he regards as the " assumptions " 
necessary to support the astronomical theory. He remarks, too, that, 
"although as everyone who has studied the subject knows, from the point 
of view of an observer standing on or behind the altar stone, the sun's 
upper rim first appears north of the Friar's Heel and appeared still further 

Wiltshii^e Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 267 

north when Stonehenge was built, it does not follow that the Friar's Heel 
was not used for observing, or that Lockyer was right in leaving it out of 
his calculations." He also falls foul of the idea that the axis line was 
prolonged forwards to Sidbury Hill, and backward to Groveley. "Since 
no avenue was made towards Groveley Mr. Stone's supposition that ' the 
Grovely extension line was purposely set out' is a baseless guess." 

Stonehenge : Concerning the Four Stations. By 
E. Herbert Stone. Nature, Feb. nth, 1923, pp. 220-222, with 

diagram. Mr. Stone, in this paper, is concerned specially with the two 
earth mounds just inside the earth bank of Stonehenge. These two mounds 
exactly correspond with the two stones now standing just within the bank. 
In consequence of the finding of an interment of burnt bones in one of 
them excavated by Sir R. Colt Hoare, these two mounds have 
been regarded as Bronze Age barrows, and as the ditch appears to 
encroach on them, they have been cited by many writers, including Dr. 
Rice Holmes in Ancient Britain, as strong evidence that the ditch was dug 
and Stonehenge erected after at least two round barrows already existed 
on the ground. Mr. Stone uses the evidence of Col. Hawley's most recent 
excavations with much weight on this point against Dr. Rice Holmes. " That 
these mounds are really positions which were once occupied by stones has, 
however, now been placed beyond doubt by the excavations lately carried 
out by Col. Hawley, in the course of which the crater or hollow in the 
middle of one of these sites (No. 92) was completely cleared down to the 
original chalk rock. I inspected the bottom of the hole when it had just 
been cleared out, and it was evident that it had been dug as the foundation 
pit for a large stone." And he quotes Col. Hawley's report, " Nearly in the 
middle of the place was a large hole. Sir Richard Colt Hoare mentions 
having opened it without result, consequently it was in a very disturbed 
state and aflforded nothing of interest until it had been emptied. It was 
then seen that it must formerly have contained a large stone, perhaps about 
the size of the one (No. 91) lying near the rampart a little way to the east. 
. . . On the north side, forming part of the hole, was an incline in the 
solid chalk for introducing the stone somewhat similar to those met with 
in the Stonehenge circle. The hole was about 4 feet deep." 

Mr. Stone suggests that "most of the material of these so-called mounds 
is merely the soil thrown out by Colt Hoare in making his excavations." 
Against this, however, is the fact that Hoare himself speaks of them as 
mounds. On the other hand Mr. Stone makes the point that Stukeley 
(1740), Wood, Dr. John Smith, Waltire, and the Rev. Richard Warner 
(1801) all speak of two holes, and not mounds, on these sites. Dr. .John 
Smith, 1771, says, "Directly north and south of the Temple, just within 
the vallum of the ditch, is the appearance of two circular holes, encompassd 
with the earth that was thrown out of them. Bnt they are now almost 
effaced by time." Mr. Stone concludes that both sites were originally 
occupied by stones, and that the stone from No. 94 " had already been 
removed in the Bronze Age, as a cremated interment was found by Colt 
Hoare in the foundation pit." 

268 Wiltshire Boohs, Pamphlets, and Articles. 

[Salisbury Cathedral and Stonehenge]. "The Two 

Temples. " By Bart Kennedy. An imaginative article in Bart's Broadsheet, 
Oct. 2()th, 1922. (Published at Brighton.) Reprinted in Wiltshire Gazette, 
Oct. 26th, 1922. 

IiaCOCk Abbey, Articles by H. Avray Tipping in Country Life, 
March 3rd, 10th and 17th, 1923. That on March 3rd, pp. 280—287, contains a 
sketch of the history of the Abbey, and of its architecture, the latter chiefly 
taken from Mr. Brakspear's account ( W.A.M. xxxi., 196), accompanied by a 
series of excellent photographs, many of them of points not illustrated before 
— " The S. and E. Elevations " ; " The Chapter House and E. Walk of the 
Cloister (from inside the Chapter House) " ; " The Sacristy and Chapels " ; 
" Looking down the E. Walk of the Cloister " (two photos) ; " Cloister Work 
of the 14th and 15th Centuries " ; " The Nuns' Warming House " (with the 
bronze cauldron) ; " The roof of the Frater " ; " The N. end of the E. Eleva- 
tion " ; "Inside the Stable Court, looking N.W." ; "Outside the Stable 
Court, looking W." ; " The E. range of the Stable Court, meeting the N.E. 
corner of the Monastic building " ; " Ground Plan " (Mr. Brakspear's). 

Part II., March 10th, contains a good account of the career of Will. 
Sharington, and an appreciation of the influence of his work on the progress 
of English Renaissance architecture, largely founded on papers by Mr. C. 
H. Talbot and Preb. Clarke Maxwell in this Magazine. Mr. Tipping writes 
of him : — " As an active and informed supporter of the movement from 
Gothic to Renaissance principles he arouses our interest and deserves our 
esteem. He belonged to, and may even have led, the small band of 
Englishmen who, in the middle years of the sixteenth century, sought to 
found the new architecture on models derived direct from Italy." The 
illustrations in this number are: — "The East Elevation"; "Roofs of 
House and Stables " ; " A long line of Sharington's Chimney Shafts ; 
"Roof walk along the top of the N. wall of the destroyed Church"; 
*' Tables in the middle and top rooms of Sharington's Tower ; " " Stair 
Turret opening on to the roof of Sharington's Tower " ; " The way to the 
top room of Sharington's Tower " ; " Detail of Chimney Shafts " ; " From 
the W. end of the Roof Walk"; " S.E. corner of the Cloister Garth " ; 
"S.E. corner of the Stable Court"; "The full extent of the East Eleva- 
tion " ; " Sharington's Tower " ; " Ancient Bridge over the Avon." 

Part III., March 17th, pp. 352—359. This part has photographs of 
"Ivory Talbot's Gothic Arch" (entrance) ; " Interior of the Hall rebuilt in 
the 'Gothick taste' by Ivory Talbot in 1753—55"; " the Library— the 
wainscoting is of Sir John Talbot's time (d. 1714) " ; "The Dining Room 
decorated by Ivory Talbot in the prevailing Georgian manner of his day " ; 
" The Stone Gallery, it occupies the east portion of the Nuns' Dorter " ; 
" Furniture in Sharington's Stone Gallery " ; " Between the windows of 
the Dining Room " ; " Sharington's Tomb in Lacock Church"; "A Jamb 
of Sharington's Gallery Chimneypiece" ; " Helmet with the Talbot Lion "; 
"Pseudo-Gothic Hall and Oriels (exterior)"; "Lacock Abbey in 1684, 
from a sketch by Thomas Dingley." 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles. 269 

Sharington's chimneypiece in the Stone Gallery is described as showing 
a refinement of Italian feeling displayed by no other existing English 
chimneypiece or monument of the 16th century. Mr, Tipping suggests 
that chimneypieces of the same style at Apethorp and Boughton, in 
Islorthants, may both have been carved by Chapman under the influence of 
Sharington. The Sharington monument in the Church, he thinks, was 
probably designed and begun by Sharington himself, but never finished as 
it bears no inscription. Sir John Talbot's work in re-decoiating the dining 
room and re-building the hall as one of the earliest examples of the Gothic 
revival is described. To him is due the destruction of many of Sharing- 
ton's windows, chimnies, and other details. 

LaCOCk Church and Village. By H. Avray Tipping. Country 
Life, March 31st and April 7th, 1923, pp. 443—446, 475—479. 

Of the Church good illustrations are given of " The N. side " ; "The 
high E. Window of the Nave "; "The W. End" ; " The E. End " ; " Look- 
ing down the Nave " ; " Interior of the Chantry " ; " Jacobean Mural Tablet 
of painted oak (Sir Robert Baynard and his wife)" ; "The 15th century 
Cup used as a Chalice." The village has the following 13 illustrations : — 
"At the Church Gates " ; " 14th cent. Doorway in Church Street " ; " Door- 
way of the Old Angel in Church Street"; "Chimney Corner in the Old 
Angel ";" Looking up Church Street from the Chippenham Koad " ; 
"Ancient timber-framed dwellings in Church Street"; "The Raised 
Causeway and the George Inn" ; "Stone-tiled Dormers " ; '* Old Kitchen 
Fire in the George Inn" ; "The Dog-turned Wheel of the Spit" ; "The 
Porch House " ; " Looking down the High Street with the Red Lion, the 
14th cent, Barn, and the Abbey Chamberlain's Dwelling"; "A Timber- 
framed House in the High Street." 

If Lacock Abbey did not exist, Lacock Church and village would still be 
among the most notable and interesting sights of Wiltshire. As it is the 
Abbey has generally absorbed the attention of writers on Wiltshire, and the 
village has never before been so worthily illustrated. The Church of the 
14th and 15th centuries is shortly described, and it is noted that the monu- 
ment of late Renaissance type to Sir John Talbot, which blocked up the 
westernmost of the two north windows of the Chantry, and was removed 
when that window, the tracery of which was almost uninjured, was re- 
opened, has been re-erected in the west end of the High Street as the 
nucleus of the War Memorial. The various interesting houses of the village 
of the 14th and later centuries are touched on, among which the Porch 
House, and another on the south side of the High Street, both of the 15th 
century, are described somewhat more in detail. Of the house near the 
Barn and the Abbey entrance which is supposed to have been the dwelling 
of the Abbey Chamberlain, it is suggested that that ofKce may have been 
hereditary, and that the Chamberlain family who occupied it some years 
ago may be descendants of the Abbey official. 

Scraper-core Industries in North Wilts. By the 
Rev. H. G-. O. Kendall, F.S.A. Reprinted from the " Proceed- 
ings of the Prehistoric Society of East Anglia," vol. III., part 4. 1921. 18 
plates. 8vo, pp. 27. 

270 Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, a7id Articles. 

This is another instalment of the author's elaborate studies of the worked 

flints of Windmill Hill, Avebury, and Hackpen Hill. He suggests that 

three series of cores and flakes presumably belong to three different periods, 

the white flints of Windmill Hill with decayed surface being the earliest, 

of Neolithic or Early Bronze Age as he suggests. With regard to these 

white flints he notices one important point, that those from the thin chalk 

land at the top of Windmill Hill have very few iron mould markings, whilst 

on the more chalky clayey footslopes of the hill both blue and white flints 

exhibit these marks freely. *' It seems clear that the plough was not the 

cause of these markings, and likely enough that the chalky clayey soil was." 

He would assign the blue series of flints found on Hackpen and elsewhere 

to the late Bronze Age, and the black grey flints to the Late Celtic Age 

perhaps. Respecting patina as a criterion of age he writes : — " Although 

the formation of patina is a complicated question, a close study of both the 

naturally fractured and the ' human ' flints, with special regard to the 

succession of patinas on those re-chipped or fractured by man or by nature, 

makes it evident that the decay of the surfaces to the extent of whitening 

took place during the earlier surface periods, e.g., Neolithic and perhaps 

Early Bronze Age, and afterwards did not occur again in the same intensity. 

The white patinated Avebury- Windmill flints, both ' human ' and ' natural ' 

and the white patinated, naturally produced specimens on the Hackpen 

sites, were plainly all chipped or thermally fractured, as the case may be, 

during the same space of time. The blue patinated Hackpen 'human' 

flints are therefore later than than the white Avebury Windmill specimens 

for they are sometimes made from a naturally fractured flint bearing a 

white patina." Mr. Kendall buttresses his arguments by the claim that in 

a long series of cores arranged according to colour and patination it is 

possible to see a difference in the style of flaking which corresponds with 

the difference of patina, proving that the latter is not accidental. There 

are 18 plates of admirably drawn flints from Windmill Hill, Avebury Down, 

and Hackpen. 

The Black Death in Dorset (1348—1349). By 

Rev. Canon J. M. J. Fletcher. Dorset Nat. Hist, and Ant. 
Field G tub Trans., 1922. 

This is an excellent account of the plague in Dorset, where it is said to 
have appeared first in England at the port of Melcombe Regis or Weymouth 
on July 7th, 1348. Canon Fletcher uses the records of Institutions to 
Benefices caused by the death of previous incumbents as almost the only 
available means of calculating the number of deaths. He finds that the 
institutions in Dorset previous to 1348 were about seven in seven months 
whereas in the seven plague months they were, according to Gasquet, 81, 
but according to the actual records of Institutions at Salisbury, 100, and 
28 in the succeeding four months. Comparing this with the neighbouring 
counties of Wilts and Hants he finds that institutions owing to deaths of 
incumbents were in Wilts 29 in 1347, 72 in 1348, 103 in 1349, whilst they 
rose to 128 in 1361, the year when the plague returned, and he mentions 
that all the inmates of Ivychurch Priory died except one — whilst in Hants 
the institutions were ten times the usual number in the ten months of the 

Wiltshire Boohs, Pam^pldets, and Articles. 271 

Excursion to Mere and Maiden Bradley, in Wilt- 
shire. April 20th— 26th. Easter, 1916. Report 
by Dr. B Pope Bartlett and John Scanes. (Reprinted 

from Ff^oceeJiiigs of Geologists' Association, vol. xxvii., pt. 3. 1916). 

Pamphlet, 8vo,, pp. 117—134. A folding " Geological map of the country 
around Mere, S. W. Wilts, and N. Dorset," shows the Great Gault running 
across the country from west to east immediately south of West Knoyle, 
Charnage Hill, Mere, Zeals House, and Bourton. 

There are photos of " Section in the Cornstone Beds, Iksement Bed of 
Lower Chalk, Lower Pit, Search Farm " ; " View from Search Farm (E. of 
Stourton) showing line of the Great Gault and its topographical effect " ; 
" Blackhill Quarry (W. of Longbridge Deverill) " ; " Dead Maid Quarry 
(W. of Mere) " ; " Baycliffe Quarry " ; " Charnage Lime Kiln Quarry" ; 
and sections in the text of " Dead Maid Quarry " ; -'Upper Cretsecous Beds 
at Norton Ferris" (E. of Kilmington) ; and "Maiden Bradley Quarry." 
Mr. Scanes dwells especially on the transfer of what used to be called " The 
Warminster Upper Greensand," with its remarkable assemblage of fossils, 
from the Upper Greensand (Selbornian stage), to the base of the Lower 
Chalk (Cenomanian stage), a transfer chiefly due to Mr. Scane's own 
researches, by which the Upper Greensand is deprived of 95 per cent, of its 
accepted fauna. Incidentally he mentions that Shearwater Lake was 
formed about a century ago by drowning old workings for brickmaking 
from the Gault. He also pointed out that Baker, the fossil collector, ob- 
tained a large number of his specimens of the so-called " Warminster Upper 
Greensand " type from Maiden Bradley Quarry, and that these were taken 
to Warminster and sold as " Warminster Upper Greensand fossils." The 
various strata seen in the exposures visited are carefully described, and 
their characteristic fossils mentioned. Wolverton Cave, S.W. of Zeals 
House, was visited, " an excavation of uncertain age, but undoubtedly made 
for the purpose of obtaining building stone from the tough Glauconitic 
Greensand Stone." 

A Map of Ancient Sites in the New Forest, Cran- 
borne Chase and Bournemouth District. By Heywood 

Sumner, F.S. A. [1923]. 

Folded in case. 23|in. X 16|in. Price, mounted, 7s. 6(i. ; unmounted, 
4s. 6d. net. Bound barrows, long barrows, defensive camps, dykes, pastoral 
enclosures, Romano- British villages, Koman villas, pottery kiln sites, Roman 
finds, and Norman castles are all distinguished on the map by appropriate 
symbols. Roman roads are also marked, as well as the boundaries of 
Cranbourne Chase and the New Forest, and letters on the Map refer to a 
series of the chief authorities on the antiquities, of which a list is given in 
one corner. The area of the map is of course for the most part in Dorset 
and Hants ; but the whole of the southern border of Wilts from West Dean 
to Shaftesbury is contained in the northern portion. It is needless to say 
that with Mr. Heywood Summer's beautiful lettering the map is good to 
look at as well as extremely valuable to anyone who wants to know at a 
glance what the antiquities of the district are and where to find them. It 
will be of great use to all archaeologists. 



Presented by Uly. 0. F. Burgess : Bones, human and animal, found by 
Boy Scouts in a cleft? or cave? at Slaughterford, 1922. 

„ „ Mb,. Alfred Stratton, of Overton, and jMrs. Blyth : A 

spring gun, which belonged to the late Mr. Alfred 
Stratton, of Kushall. 

,, „ Prof. W. M. Flinders Petrie : Fragments of deer horn 

picks and flints found in excavations in Silbury, Aug., 

„ „ Mr. G. W. Godman: Polished flint celt found on down 

a mile west of Urchfont Hill. 

„ „ Eev. E. H. GoDDARD : Polished flint celt from Maddington. 

" Muddlers fork " used in S.Wilts (Chilmark) in building 
"mud "walls. 

„ „ Key. C.^V. GoDDARD : Large-headed nail for wheel instead 

of tyre, from Chilmark. Medieval iron knife blades and 
meat hook, from old site at Baverstock. Wooden tinder 
box with its actual accessories, irons, flints, sulphur 
matches and tinder, used in S. Wilts until 1908 by an 
old woman who had never used ordinary matches. 

„ „ Miss Maria Coward ; Objects collected by her father, the 

late Mr. Richard Coward, of Roundway. A small 
socketed and looped bronze spear head, two bronze 
awls, a bronze ring, shale ring found in urn in a barrow 
on the down above Calstone, bronze Boman spring 
brooch with T-shaped head, two iron knife blades ? 
handle and upper part of ewer-shaped bronze vessel, 
Roman ? 

The Library. 

Presented by Mr. W. Heward Bell: Two sketches of Inglesham Church. 
„ „ The Compiler, Rev. E. H. Goddard: MS. collections for 

the Bibliography of the Writings of Wiltshire Authors, 
arranged alphabetically, and the sets of drawers con- 
taining them. "N. Wilts Church Magazine" for six 
years. Twenty-five Wilts photographs. 

The Author, Mr. O. G. S. Crawford, F.S.A. : "The 
Andover District, an account of Sheet .283 of the One- 
Inch Ordnance Map." 1922. 

Mrs. Story Maskelyne: "Bristol Diocesan Review" for 
1922. Sale Catalogue of the Story Maskelyne Collection 
of Ancient Gems. 

The Author, Rev. H. G. O. Kendall, F.S.A. , "Scraper 
Core Industries in North Wilts." 1922. Reprint from 
Proc. Prehist. Soc. of East Anglia. 

Rev. C. V. Goddard: Old document re Thomas Goddard, 
ofSarum. 1712. 

Additions to Museum and TAhrary. 273 

Presented by Major G. J. Buxton : A large parcel of old deeds connected 
with Little Park, in Wootton Bassett. 
„ „ The Author, Mr. J. F. Jackson : Reprint of paper on 

" Jurassic Chronology." 1922. 
„ „ Capt. B. H. Cunnington : " Scheme for the Administration 

of the Legacy given for the benefit of the Poor of Devizes 
by the Will of the late Frank Simpson, Esq " 1923. 
„ „ The Editor, Rev. P. H. Ditchfield, F.S.A. : "Pro- 

ceedings of the Congress of the British Arch. Assoc, at 
Bath. 1922." 
„ „ The Author, Mr. E. H. Stone, F.S.A. : "Stonehenge; 

Concerning the Four Stations." 1923. ** The Age of 
Stonehenge," from the Antiquaries^ Journal. 1923. 
An accurate Plan of Stonehenge based on Prof. Petrie's, 
brought up to date. 1922. 
„ „ The Author, Mr. W. Maurice Adams: " Wolfhall 

Memories," 2 vols, of mounted cuttings from papers. 
„ „ The Author, Mr. Heywood Sumner, F.S.A.: "A Map 

of Ancient Sites in the New Forest, Cranborne Chase, 
and Bournemouth Districts." 
„ „ Rev. H. E. Ketchley : Six photographs of Biddestone. 

„ ,, The Author, Mrs. Sophia Murdoch: "Records of the 

Speke Family of Jordans, Somerset." 1923. 4to. 
„ „ The Author, Rev. E. Rhys Jones : "John Rose," of Ames- 

bury (excerpt from Amesbury Parish Mag., Oct., 1922). 
„ „ The Author, Canon J. M. J. Fletcher: "The Black 

Death in Dorset." Dorset Nat. Hist, and Field Club 
Trans. 1922. 
„ „ The Curator, Mr. F. Stevens, F.S A. : " Annual Report 

of the Salisbury, S. Wilts, and Blackmore Museums for 
„ „ The Author, Mr. J. Scanes : " Excursion to Mere and 

Maiden Bradley, April 20th— 26th, Easter, 1916." Re- 
print from Proc. of Geologists' Assoc. 
„ „ Mr. a. D. Passmore : Photographs of Braydon Lane Toll 

Board, Longdean Stone Circle, Silbury Excavations, 
Hangman's Stone, and many others 
„ „ The Rev. R. W. Bradford : A large folio blank scrap book. 

„ „ The Author, Mrs. E. M. Richardson : " The Lion and 

the Rose. The Great Howard Story. Norfolk Line 
957—1646; Suffolk Line, 1603— 1917." 1923. 2 vols. 8vo., 
„ „ Mr. H. W. Dartnell : " Amesbury Parish Magazine," 1922. 

Wilts Illustrations, &c. 
„ „ Mr. John Sadler : " The Story of my Heart, by Richard 

Jetferies," and two other Wiltshire books. 
„ „ The Author, Mr. F. M. Willis : Translations from Horace 

into Wiltshire dialect, from The Oxford Magazine. 
„ „ The Author : Mr. Alfred Williams : " Folk Songs of 

the Upper Thames, with an Essay on Folk Song activity 
in the Upper Thames neighbourhood." 1923. 








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;88 OCT 

C. H. Woodward, Printer and Publisher, Exchange Buildings, Station Head, Devizes. 


STONEHENGE AND ITS BAEROWS, by W. Long, Nos. 46-47 of the 
Magazine in separate wrapper, 7s. 6d. This still remains the best and most 
reliable account of Stonehenge and its Earthworks. 

AUBREY, F,R.S., A.D. 1659-1670. Corrected and enlarged by the Rev. 
Canon J. E. Jackson, M.A., F.S.A. 4to, Cloth, pp. 491, with 46 plates. 
Price ^2 lOs. 

pp. vii. + 501. 1901. With full index. In 8 parts, as issued. Price 13s. 

DITTO. IN THE REIGNS OF HEN. IIL, ED. I., and ED. 11. 8vo, 
pp. XV., 505. In parts as issued. Price I3s. 

DITTO. FROM THE REIGN OF ED. IIL 8vo., pp. 402. In six 

parts as issued. Price 13s. 

WILTSHIRE, STONEHENGE and AVEBURY, with other references, 
by W. Jerome Harrison, F.G.S., pp. 169, with 4 illustrations. No. 89, Dec. 
1901, of the Magazine. Price 5s. 6d. Contains particulars as to 947 books 
papers, &c., by 732 authors, 

THE TROPENELL CARTULARY. An important work in 2 vols., 8vo, 
pp. 927, containing a great number of deeds connected with property in many 
Wiltshire Parishes of the 14th and 15th centuries. Only 150 copies were 
printed, of which a few are left. Price to members, £1 10s., and to non- 
members £,2,. 

Wanted No. 132 of the Wiltshire Arch. Magfazine 

The Eev. E, H. Goddard, Clyffe Vicarage, Swindon, offers 6s. 
each for copies of this number of the Magazine in good 


Books carefully Bound to pattern. 

Wilts Archaeological Magazine bound to match previous volumes. 
We have several back numbers to make up sets. 

C. H. WOODWARD, Printer and Publisher, 

Exchange Buildings, Station Road, Devizes, 


North Wilts Museum and 

Ill answer to the appeal made in 1905 annual subscriptions 
varying from £2 to 5s. to the amount of about £30 a year for this 
purpose liave been given since then by about sixty Members of 
the Society and the fund thus set on foot has enabled the 
Committee to add much to the efficiency of the Library and 

It is very desirable that this fund should be raised to at least 
£50 a year in order that the General Fund of the Society may 
be released to a large extent from the cost of the Museum, and 
set free for the other purposes of the Society, 

Subscriptions of 5s. a year, or upwards, are asked for, and 
should be sent either to Mr. D, Owen, Bank Chambers, Devizes. 
or Eev. E, H, Goddard, Clyffe Vicarage, Swindon. 

The Committee appeal to Members of the Society and others 
to secure any 

Objects of Antiquity, 


Natural History Specimens, 

found in the County of Wilts and to forward them to the 
Hon. Curator, Mr. B. H. Cunnington, Devizes. 

Modern Pamphlets, Sale Catalogues, Articles, 
Portraits, Illustrations from recent Magazines 
or Papers bearing in any way on the County, 
and Sale Particulars of Wiltshire Properties, 

will be most gratefully received for the Library by the Eev. 
E. H. Goddard, Clyffe Vicarage, Swindon, Hon. Librarian. 

Old Wiltshire Deeds. 

The Society has in recent years received several large consign- 
ments of old deeds and papers, no longer of legal value from 
Solicitors who were clearing out the accumulation of years in their 
offices. The Committee asks all Wiltshire Solicitors in like 
circumstances to give the Society the opportunity of acquiring all 
deeds no longer needed rather than to sell them elsewhere, or 
destroy them. They often contain matter of great value for the 
study of Place Names, Topography, and Genealogy. 



Vol. XLIL 



Archaeological & Natural History 


Published under the Direction of the 

A. D. 185 3 . 


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Archaeological & Natural History 



DECEMBEK, 1923. 

Vol XLII. 

Contents* page. 

Notes on Wiltshire Churches : By Sir Stephen Glynne 

(Continued) 277—306 

The Society's MSS. Inventory of the Goods of Sir 

Charles Raleigh, of Downton. 1698 307 — 312 

WiLTSHiRK Newspapers — Past and Present (Continued) 
Part V. Newspapers of North Wilts. "The North 

Wilts Herald": By .J. J. Slade, F.J.I 313—324 

The Source of the Foreign Stones of Stonehenge : By 

Herbert H. Thomas, M.A., ScD 325-344 

The Seventieth General Meeting of the Wiltshire 
Arch^ological and Natural History Society, held 
AT Marlborough, July 30th and 31st, and August 1st, 

1923 345 — 354 

List of Subscriptions Received in answer to the Appeal 
BY the Hon. Curator for £100 for New Cases for 

THE Museum, 1923 355 

Notes 356—373 

Wilts Obituary 374 — 379 

Wiltshire Books, Pamphlets, and Articles 379 — 406 

Books, Pamphlets, and Articles by Wiltshire Authors... 407—411 

Wiltshire Illustrations 411 — 419 

Wiltshire Portraits 419 — 424 

Additions to Museum and Library 424—426 


Plan of Stonehenge showing the " Foreign Stones " or " Blue 

Stones" black or shaded 326 

Plates I. — IV., showing Microscopic and other Sections of the 

Blue Stones from Stonehenge and others from Pembrokeshire 341 — 4 

Bronze object from site of Roman Dwelling, A veburyTruslowe 360 
Tessellated Pavement from Roman House near Avebury 

Truslowe, 1923 360 

Latten Pyx from Codford St. Peter, with inscription on the 

same enlarged 363 

Masons' Marks on the Barton Barn at Bradford-on-Avon ... 364 

Langdeane Circle, E. Kennett 365 

Plan of Langdean Circle, E. Kennett 365 

Plan and section of double pit in Battlesbury Camp, 1922 ... 368 

Vessel from Pit in Battlesbury Camp, 1922 371 

Objects of Iron and Bone from Pits in Battlesbury Camp, 1 922 372 

Devizes :— C. H. Woodward, Exchange Buildings, Station Road. 




No. CXXXIX. December, 1925. Vol. XLII. 


By Sir Stephen Glynne. 
{Continued from p. 214.) 

Chirton. S.John. [May 14th, 1859.] A Church of interest and in very 
good condition. It consists of nave with north and south aisles, chancel, 
western tower, and south porch. The aisles have lead roofs. The nave 
and chancel and porch covered with tiles. The nave has Norman arcades : 

on each side three plain ( ?) low semicircular arches with circular 

columns having octagonal capitals. Those on the north have foliage, those 
on the south plainer but varying, and all rather late in the style. The 
doorway within the porch is also Norman with some ornament. The 
inner member of the arch has beaded chevron continued down the jambs, 
the outer has a cylindrical moulding with bead heads over it, upon shafts 
with beaded abaci and horizontal bands at intervals on the shafts. The 
roof of the nave is open, with tie beams. The tower arch pointed, rising 
at once from the wall without corbels or caps. The windows of the aisles 
are Decorated, mostly square headed of two and three lights ; but pointed 
and of three lights at the east of the north aisle and at the west of the 
south aisle. In many of them is much new stained glass. The organ is 
placed in the north aisle ; the whole renewed and refitted within. The 
chancel arch is obtuse and appears to be modern ; and there is a low stone 
screen across it. The chancel is Decorated, the east window of three lights, 
those north and south of two lights. On the south a priest's door ; and the 
south-east window has a sedile in its prolonged sill, and in the angle a 

piscina, simply a stone ( -1) without fenestella(?), having a trefoil orifice. 

In the north-east is the vestry. The chancel is stalled and has a lectern, 
and is laid with new tiles. The tower is Perpendicular, and has battlement 
and corner butresses, west window of three lights, belfry windows of two 
lights, and two string courses. 

There is a piscina near the east end of the south aisle with ogee canopy and 
quatrefoil orifice. The font is fine Norman, the bowl circular, surrounded 
by an arcade having shafts. The arches contain figures of the Apostles 
and round the top of the bowl a border of foliage, and also toward the base. 
The walls have been partly rebuilt. The vestry is new. 

278 Notes on Wiltshire Churches. 

Nun ton. [20th Feb., 1872.] A small Church restored byT. H. Wyatt, 
consisting of nave and chancel, each with south aisle, and west tower engaged 
in the west end of the aisle. The tower seems to be mostly new, and is of 
iiint and stone, with parapet, but rather low. The arcade of the nave has two 
Early English pointed arches on circular columns with capitals. Another 
pointed arch opens to the tower. The chancel arch is Early English, on sort 
of pilasters having the early hollow square ornament. The chancel is divided 
from its aisle by two very plain Early English arches with square pier having 
impost. On the north of the chancel are trefoil-headed lancets. The east 
window is of three lights — geometrical. The south chancel aisle has Per- 
pendicular square-headed windows and a pointed arch between it and the 
aisle of the nave. In the nave the windows are new, mostly Decorated. 
The seats are all open. 

Odstock. St. Mary. [Feb. 20th, 1872.] This Church has a lofty nave 
and chancel— with western tower, mostly of flints. The chancel is Early 
English, has eastern triplet and single lancets north and south. The nave 
also has lancets ; on each side a double lancet set high, and some single. 
Chancel 22ft. long, lift. 9in. wide. Nave 42ft. long, 23ft. wide. The arches 
to the chancel and tower are plain pointed. There is a piscina on the south 
side near the east end of the nave. The north and south doorways are 
similar, of two-chamfered order. There is much chequered masonry of 
flint and stone both in the tower and nave. The tower is very low, rising 
little above the roof of the nave ; its upper part is Perpendicular with 
battlement, square-headed two-light belfry windows, and corner buttresses. 
On the west side is a three-light Perpendicular window. On the north of 
the tower is a very large projection of irregular polygonal form containing 
single lancets, and not reaching to the upper part of the tower. The pulpit 
of carved wood, temp. Elizabeth, bears date 1580, 

Ogbourne St. Andrew, [June, 1845.] A small Church with portions 
of several styles. The plan is a short nave with narrow aisles, a chancel, 
south porch, and tower engaged with the west end of the nave. The exterior 
has very much of a Third Pointed appearance of which character are the 
aisle windows, which are mostly square-headed of two or four lights. The 

clerestory has also square-headed windows. The roofs are ( 1) without 

parapets, but the chancel has a slated roof. The tower stands upon three 
pointed arches opening internally to the nave and aisles, which havemouldings 
and shafts ; its character is entirely Third Pointed. Within it is a fine stone 
groined roof with elegant bosses. Externally it has an unfinished battle- 
ment, and an octagonal turret at the south-west angle. Thie belfry windows 
of two lights, and near that on the east side a small niche. On the west side a 
three-light late window, and beneath it a door with hood on corbel. In the 
second stage on the south is a square-headed window. The piers of the 
tower are very strong. The south porch is modern. Within it is a round- 
arched doorway which, together with the arcades of the nave, is late or 
transitional Norman. It has one moulding with the toothed ornament, the 

other with a cylinder and small shafts. Near the door is a ( ?). The 

interior of the nave, though lofty, is confined and much encumbered with 

By Sir Stephen Glycine. 279 

pews, besides the encroachment of a hideous gallery against the tower arch, 
which further contracts the already contracted nave. Eastward of the 
tower the nave has two round arches, of a semi-Norman character, frequent 
in this part of Wiltshire, and having plain soffits without moulding. The 
columns are circular, having square abaci and some rude foliage in the 
capitals, the bases square. The foliage varies on each side, and on the 
north has something like volutes. The south-east respond has an abacus 
with a beaded moulding. The roof of the nave has an embattled cornice 
and is painted. There is no chancel arch, but there are stone brackets on 
the wall which must have supported the screen. On the south a hagioscope 
from the aisle. The chancel has been ceiled. It has on each side two plain 
lancets and on the south an obtuse-headed door, now closed. The east 
window is Middle Pointed, of three lights. The altar is of deal, very mean 
and covered with dirty green baize. On the south side of the altar is a 
■curious double piscina, under a recess of flattened trefoil form, and the 
lower part having the scalloped ornament. A string runs above it, which 
is carried down under a small oblong aumbry retaining its original wooden 
door and iron bar in front. 

The south-west window of the chancel is a lychnoscope and somewhat 
flattened in its arch. On the south side of the chancel is a large monument 
to Wm. Goddard, Esq., and Elizabeth, his wife, 1655. The whole family 
represented kneeling. All the children but one carry sculls, and between 
the two old people is a scull. 

The font has a plain octagonal bowl on a stem of like form. 

Ogbourne St. George. [June, 1845.] A larger Church than the 
preceding and consisting of a chancel and nave with side aisles, a western 
tower, and a south porch. The external appearance is Third Pointed, but 
within there is some of the First Pointed work so common in the neighbour- 
hood. The porch and south aisle have moulded parapets, but the rest of 
the Church has none. The tower is Third Pointed, three stages in height, 
and embattled, having large and bold gargoyles and a stair-turret on the 
^outh, not carried up to the top, and corner buttresses. On the west side 
is a three-light window, those of the belfry are of two lights. The west 
door is closed. The north side of the Church is, as usual, the plainest. 
The south porch has its outer doorway with continued mouldings. Over 
the inner door is a rich canopied niche. On the north side the door is set 
unusually far to the east. The windows of the aisles are square-headed of 
three and four hghts ; those of the clerestory similar of two lights. The 
nave has on each side an arcade of First Pointed character, having three 
arches rising from circular columns with rather early capitals and varying. 
Those on the south are of the best work and have fine mouldings, with head 
corbels supporting the hoods. On the north the capitals have circular 
mouldings, and one a square base. On the south the capitals exhibit a 
kind of rude foliage, as at Collingbourne Kingston, and in the responds 
scalloped. The roof of the nave has some tolerable bosses and pierced 
tracery above the beams. The tower arch is open and has continuous 
mouldings, as has also the chancel arch, which is less lofty. The pews, etc., 
a,re not better than usual. In the chancel arch is the rood screen having 

U 2 

280 Notes on Wiltshire Churches. 

four compartments, one each side of the holy door. There is another screen 
with part of the loft across the north aisle. The chancel has a pointed arch 
on each side with continuous mouldings opening to the side aisles, in both 
which is a screen ; that on the north of very fine work painted and gilt. 
On the south side of the chancel are two pointed recesses set higher in the 
wall than sedilia usually are, and near them a small pointed niche (perhaps 
a piscina) and a little square aperture. There is a square aperture (or 
hagioscope) with trefoil feathering from the chancel to the south aisle. In 
the latter is the elevated platform of the former altar, also a plain pointed 
niche. In the south chapel are a few ancient benches. In the north chapel 
is a bracket against the east wall, and in the eastern pier a pointed niche^ 
and above it a square sloping recess. In the same chapel is also a brass 
with figures of a man and woman and children below — with this legend : — 
" Off y'. charite pray for the soules of Thomas Goddard & Johan his wife — 
which Thomas dyed the xxvii. day of August, A° M.VXVII, on whose soule 
I.H.S. have mercy." 

There is a high pew near the eastern part of the nave with Jacobean 
woodwork. The font is octagonal, each face having quatrefoils. The east, 
window and some others have been deprived of tracery. 

Patney. St. Swithin. [May 14th, 1859.] A mean Church of small 
dimensions, having chancel and nave with south porch and wooden belfry, 
with spire set on the nave. The whole tiled and uniform. The chancel 
arch is pointed and continuous. The windows are mostly of two lights 
with the lights merely trefoiled ; those at the east and west ends are of 
three lights. The south-east window of the chancel has the sill extended 
so as to form two seats with elbows, and on the south of the chancel is a 
piscina of rather elegant design, with crocketed ogee canopy flanked by 
pinnacles and containing a stone shelf. 

Pewsey. St. John. [14th May, 1859.] This Church is larger than its 
immediate neighbours and consists of a nave with north and south aisles, 
chancel, western tower, and north porch. There are portions of various- 
styles. The chancel, which is the earliest portion, as regards the outer walls 
is of mixed flint and stone masonry. The walls of the aisles are also chiefly 
flint, but the tower, which is Perpendicular, is of fine stone. The arcades 
of the nave seem to be Early English, plain, with hoods, the piers square,, 
chamfered at the angles, with impost mouldings. The aisles are narrow^ 
and the north aisle goes further westward than the other. The clerestory 
has Perpendicular square-headed windows of two lights. The nave has a 
flat plaster ceiling. Most of the windows in the aisles are Perpendicular, 
of two lights and square-headed. Only those of the clerestory labelled 
externally. There is a fine open tower arch to the nave, and the tower has 
a fine stone roof open to the interior, with fan groining. Its west window 
of five lights is also well seen through the aisle. The organ is placed within 
the tower. The chancel arch is pointed, upon clustered shafts. On each 
side of the chancel are three windows, the two eastward of which are single 

lancets, splayed, and having good mouldings to the ( 1) arch continued 

down the jambs. The westernmost window has similar mouldings, but is 

By Sir Stephe7i Glynne. 281 

carried down lower and is of two lights, Early Decorated. On the south 
is a priest's door, having internally a segmental label. On the south is 
also a piscina having a trefoil arch and octagonal base, also an obtuse arched 
recess, which looks almost too narrow for a sedile. The east window 
Decorated of three lights. The font has a new circular bowl on a circular 
stem surrounded by four small shafts. The evergreen decorations at 
Whitsuntide were very pretty. The porch renewed in 1804. The roofs of 
lead, without parapets. The tower is good Perpendicular and of fine 
masonry embatled having an embattled octagonal turret to the south-east 
and crocketed pinnacles. The tower is not square and larger from north 
to south than from east to west. There are some curious gargoyles. The 
west window, large and tine, has a returned hood, above it a two-light square- 
labeled window, below it a doorway with flattish arch. 

Poole Keynes. S. Michael. [June 24th, 1870.] A small Church 
which is so entirely modernised as to make it doubtful if any part is original. 
It has nave and chancel and a poor small western tower, unusually small, 
which perhaps is ancient, but of rather debased character. It has no 
buttresses, but an embattled parapet, and single]belfry windows with trefoil 
head, much covered with ivy. The (windows 1 ) are poor quasi-modern 
Gothic in the nave and chancel. The chancel arch a very plain pointed 
one with continuous mouldings. 

Potterne. This is a handsome cruciform"^Ohurch, and a very complete 
and well preserved specimen of Early English, being quite unmixed, with 
the exception of the tower, which rises from the centre and is of later 
work. A more complete Early English specimen on the same scale can 
scarce be found in the country. There are no side aisles, but the transepts 
are large, and the whole very uniform. The nave has four single lancets 
on each side, the transepts have at the ends two long lancets, on the west 
side three, on the east two, all without mouldings or shafts. Externally 
they have dripstones, continued in string courses. The chancel has five 
lancets at the east end, three of which are pierced for windows, and on the 
north and south enriched internally with fine mouldings and marble shafts. 
At the sides are three lancets as those of the nave. The west end has 
three lancets walled up. All the windows except the eastern are plain both 
within and without, (not ?) with mouldings and shafts as at Bishops 
Cannings. The interior is handsome and very nicely fitted up with new 
Gothic seats, pulpit, etc., and a good organ in the west gallery. The tower 
rises upon four large pointed arches in the centre with mouldings con- 
tinued all down and no shafts. The tower has a rich paneled battlement, 
partly pierced, and eight crocketed pinnacles which appear to be Rectilinear. 
The belfry windows on each side are double, very long and handsome, each 
of four lights with transoms and tracery of a transition character from 
Decorated to Rectilinear. They are partially filled with stone lattice work, 
pierced with quatrefoils, a common feature in the west. Between the win- 
dows are sets of clustered shafts. At the S.E. angle is an octagonal turret 
with two tiers of paneling, the lowest pierced, and crowned by a plain large 
pinnacle without crockets. The font is an octagonal basin set upon a 

282 Notes on Wiltshire Churches. 

pedestal of angular form surrounded by four shafts and some pieces of 
foliage round the lower part of the basin. 

The doorways have within the strings carried over them in form of a 
flat arch. The doorways are plain, the N. and S. porches have crosses ott 
the gables. The roofs are all tiled. The Church has 750 sittings. 

Preshute. S. George. A curious Church. The plan, west tower, 
nave, south aisle, and chancel. Some portions early, others of later date. 
The tower is of very good stone and of Perpendicular character, but not 
lofty, three stages in height, the parapet embattled, corner buttresses, a 
turret half way up the south side, the belfry windows of three lights with 
stone lattice work. The west doorway has a label, and foliage in the span- 
drel. On each side of the west window is a shield, that on the north bearing 
a rose with cypher ; on the south a cross flory, lamb and flag. The south 
doorway is Norman, the arch on shafts with foliated capitals, verging to 
Early English character. The roof is leaded. Some windows are Perpen- 
dicular, that at the east of the south aisle square-headed, labeled, and of 
two lights. The nave is divided from the aisles by four Early English 
arches, pointed in form and springing from circular columns with scalloped 
capitals, early in the style. The tower arch, which is not in the centre, is 
also Early English. The roof has tie beams springing from brackets on 
small shafts, and the cornice has tracery. The chancel arch is very rude 
and Early Norman, springing from impost mouldings. On the north side 
of it is a hagioscope within a moulded arch, and on the south side of it was 
another now nearly obliterated by the formation of a pew. On the north 
side of the nave near the chancel arch is a projection for the rood stairs. 
The chancel has on each side some trefoil lancet windows, having hood- 
mouldings externally. The east window is Decorated, of three lights, with 
clustered shafts on the mullions, but the upper part is closed. In the 
south-west angle of the chancel is a projection in the wall which seems to- 
be caused by the formation of the hagioscope. Against the south wall of 
the chancel is a finely-sculptured female head. Over the chancel arch are 
the Royal Arms and Decalogue with date 1605. There is a brass to John 
Bailey and Mary his wife, 1518, with seven sons and three daughters. The 
font is a curious Norman one of marble,- of circular cup form and very large,, 
having round it deep courses of moulding. It stands on a vast cylindrical 
column. The Church is clumsily pewed, and has a west gallery with a- 

Purton. St. Mary. This fine Church in the form of a cross is par- 
ticularly remarkable for having two steeples, one a good Perpendicular 
tower at the west end, the other a plainer tower, crowned by a stone spire,, 
rising from the centre. The nave has side aisles, the north transept is 
large and projects further than the southern. The chancel has chapels 
north and south and there is a porch south of the nave. The exterior is- 
generally elegant and well finished. The western tower has an open paneled 
quatrefoiled parapet and four crocketed pinnacles; on the north side a» 
octagonal turret. The west window is of three lights, and set between twa 
beautiful canopied niches, with groining and fine tabernacle work. Thera 

By Sir Stephen Glynne. _ 283 

is a similar niche in the story above. The belfry window, of three lights, 
has the stone lattice work, but rather less rich than what is found in 
Somersetshire. The parapets of the Church are generally plain. In the 
gable of the south transept is a rich Decorated trefoil niche with crocketed 
triangular canopy, springing from shafts with foliated capitals, and curiously 
set upon a projecting bracket of foliage. The south porch has a (? parvise) 
and a stone roof, with an arch across it. The central tower is plain Per- 
pendicular with a battlement and belfry window of two lights. The spire 
is strong and ribbed. The east end of the south chapel of the chancel has 
a cross and a niche above its fine Decorated window. The interior of the 
nave is unluckily much encumbered with pews and galleries. The north 
aisle is narrower than the southern, and there is no clerestory. The nave 
is divided from each aisle by three wide pointed arches springing from lofty 
circular columns, the capitals of which on the north are alternately foliated 
and octagonal ; on the south circular and moulded. The eastern respond 
on the south side has an early kind of cushion capital. The roof is coved. 
The west window of the north aisle is Decorated, of three lights, but the 
other windows of the side aisles and transepts are Perpendicular. Those 
in the side aisles are very large and fine and early in the style and contain 
some fine stained glass. The two end windows of the transepts are of four 
lights and contain some stained glass of uncommon beauty and richness, 
that on the north has inscriptions and figures of saints. The central tower 
rises upon plain pointed arches with continuous mouldings and beneath it 
is a fine stone-groined ceiling. The east wall of the north transept has four 
pedestals for images. The transept opens to the aisles by plain low arches. 
On the west side of the north transept is a narrow two-light Perpendicular 
window. In the chancel arch is a small wood screen. The chancel has on 
the south side a large chapel opening to it by a wide pointed arch. This 
chapel has a fine Decorated east window of three lights, and on the south a 
Perpendicular one, with much stained glass. In the south wall of this 
chapel is a tref oiled niche with drain and shelf. There is over the door of 
this chapel a painting on the wall representing a female saint lying dead. 
The chancel has a coved roof and is wholly Perpendicular. The east window 
is of three lights, the others of two lights. There is on the south side of 
the altar a fiat arched stall or sedile, equal in width to three. There is 
also a trefoil niche with two shelves and a quatrefoil orifice to the drain. 
On the north side of the chancel is an arched recess of Tudor form, with 
quatrefoil paneling in the spandrels, and groining on the under side. This 
looks as if it had been an aumbry, but there are no traces of bolts. There 
is a vestry on the north, opening by a door with wood tracery. There are 
some portions of old wood seats and desks in the chancel. 

Kiodbourne Cheney. St. Mary. This is a curious Church, consisting 
of a nave and chancel with the tower between them, and a chapel singularly 
placed and extending along the south side of the tower and part of the 
chancel, but hardly reaching in breadth beyond the wall of the nave. The 
whole is of picturesque grey stone, the chancel covered with the stone flags,, 
and the south chapel presenting, externally, gables. The nave has a plain 
parapet. The south porch is entered from without by an Early English. 

284 Notes on Wiltshire Churches. 

doorway with rather depressed arch, but springing from shafts with nail 
heads in the capital. The dripstone is returned. The openings of the porch 
are trefoil lancets. The west door of the nave has a label and paneled 
spandrels. The tower has no buttress and rather tapers in the upper 
part. Its character is very plain, the belfry window square-headed and 
very plain, with some open stone lattice work, not rich. The parapet is 
embattled. The character of the tower is late but rude Perpendicular, of 
which style is also the general external appearance. All the windows of 
the nave are of this style, some square-headed. The western one of four 
lights with depressed arch. In one of the northern windows is some stained 
glass with a figure of St. Michael. In the nave are some stone corbels 
which once supported the beams of the roof ; a few of these are charged 
with armorial bearings. The tower has a rude low pointed arch opening to 
the nave and to the chancel. The interior of the nave is much disfigured 
with hideous pews and galleries. The chancel has an Early English window 
of three lancets within a pointed arch. The windows north and south of 
the chancel are Perpendicular. On the south of the altar is a trefoiled 
niche with double piscina. The aisle or chapel on the south side is a later 
addition and very narrow, beginning in a line with the west wall of the 
tower, but not extending quite to the east end of the chancel. To the nave 
it opens bya very narrow lancet arch in the wall upon plain impost mouldings. 
It has no opening in the solid masonry of the south wall of the tower, but 
eastward of the tower the chancel opens to the chapel by one moulded arch 
upon imposts. The roof of this chapel is high pitched and open, but two sides 
ure unequal. The framework is set upon large grotesque heads on the side 
next the chancel, and it is rather plain without tracery or foliation. The 
windows of this aisle are good Perpendicular of three lights — the [E. ?J 
pointed, the others square-headed. One has some pieces of very rich stained 
glass in which appear three angels at the back of a table or altar decked with 
precious stones and surmounted by a Tudor flower cornice. At the east end 
is a small rude trefoil niche with a piscina having a quatrefoil orifice. 
Evidently an altar was placed there. This chapel is damp, dirty, and disused. 
The roof of the east end of the chancel is boarded. The altar on three steps, 
T3ut unworthy. The font is Norman with shallow circular mouldings, on 
a cylindrical shaft with square base, at the angles of which are the wedges, 
not uncommon in early fonts. 

In the chancel is this inscription : — 

Reader stand still 

And this stone will tell thee 

That it covers the dust of 

A chaste virgin 

A virtuous wife 

A devout matron 

A widow indeed. 


By Sir Stephen Glynne. 285 

Who desiring to be deceased 

And to be witli Christ 

Went hence 

May 21, 1649. 

Eeader — Be wise and consider thy latter end. Farewell, 

Hushall. St. Matthew. [14th May, 1859.] This Church is not interest- 
ing. The body was rebuilt in brick, in poor Gothic, in 1812. The chancel 
arch, however, appears to be original pointed, springing from the wall, and 
one original Decorated window of two lights has been inserted on the north. 
The tower is late Perpendicular, of good stone masonry, embattled with 
battlement and four octagonal pinnacles unfinished. There is a string and 
gargoyles, corner buttresses, a mutilated W. window, and square-headed 
belfry windows of two lights. No west doorway. The font has an 
octagonal bowl, moulded with semicircular arches, apparently Norman. 
The stem octagonal. The Church has a gallery and organ ; nave pewed, 
chancel stalled. 

Salisbury Cathedral. [1824.] Sept. 26th we left London at 7 o'clock 
by the mail and proceeded to Salisbury where we arrived at about 6 o'clock 
the following morning. The Cathedral is most beautifully placed in a 
close planted with fine and handsome trees, and completely separated from 
the town by a lofty wall, with gateways. The Cathedral is highly interest- 
ing and curious from being entirely, excepting the upper part of the tower 
and the spire, in one style of architecture, as it was begun in 1220 and 
completed in 1262. Its style is very elegant and pure Early English. The 
plan of the Cathedral is very regular, consisting of a nave and choir each 
with side aisles, a large transept about the centre, and a smaller onesnearer 
to the east end, and a Lady Chapel eastward of the choir. The west front 
is of very singular and grand design. It seems to be one of the latest parts 
of the building and is highly enriched. The nave which forms the centre 
portion has a high peaked gable. The aisles have flat embattled parapets 
with turrets at the extremities crowned with large and plain pyramidical 
pinnacles. The doorways both of the nave and the side aisles are triple, 
having shallowporches,and the arches crowned with plain triangularcanopies. 
The west window of the nave is a triple one of three lancet lights ; those of 
the aisles consist of two lights with a quatrefoil between their heads,which 
are trefoiled. The whole of this west front is adorned with several ranges 
of niches of elegant workmanship; the buttresses also are finely enriched 
with niches, in some of the niches are statues. The north porch is a very 
fine Early English specimen ; it is equal in height to the aisle and its 
interior walls are richly wrought with very fine niche work, The interior 
of the Cathedral is particularly elegant from its extreme lightness which 
perhaps exceeds that of any other Cathedral. This arises from the 
numerous windows, and from the piers being slender and graceful, and the 
arches lofty and narrow. The arches which divide the nave from the aisles 
are on either side ten in number. They are lofty and narrow and spring 
from very elegant piers formed of four main shafts with four small and 
slender ones set in the hollows between them. The capitals are 

286 Notes on Wiltshire Churches. 

plainly moulded. The architraves of the arches throughout the whole 
Church are enriched with the toothed ornament. The triforium in the nave 
is formed by a wide arch with deep architrave mouldings supported upon 
beautiful clusters of shafts with rounded capitals; this wide arch is 
divided into two by a central pier formed of clustered shafts and between 
the heads of the two arches there is a pierced trefoil or quatrefoil. These 
two arches are again subdivided into other two and ornamented exactly a& 
the large arch. The clerestory windows are of three lancet lights supported 
on shafts. All the windows throughout the building are enriched with 
shafts having plain rounded capitals. In the side aisles of the nave they 
are mostly arranged in pairs ; in other parts there are some combinations of 
three, five, and seven, but throughout the Church is no window which can 
be called any other than Early English. The west window is now filled 
with painted glass of the most rich and splendid colouring which has an 
amazingly fine effect. The roof of the nave and aisles is simply but 
elegantly groined with stone. The great arches supporting the tower are 
bold and fine ; those opening to the transepts have been strengthened by 
two handsome arches built from pier to pier. They have enriched paneled 
spandrels, and above them a good paneled and embattled parapet. They 
were erected in Henry 7th's time. Both the western transepts have an 
eastern aisle, divided by pointed arches, with some piers as those of the 
nave, others circular with recesses for shafts. The triforium on the east 
side is exactly the same as that of the nave. On the west side, and at the 
north and south ends, it is more simple, being only a series of archer 
divided by a central pier into two with a pierced quatrefoil between the 
heads. This triforium is pierced and formed into an additional tier of 
windows which adds considerably to the lightness of the building. At the 
north and south ends are handsome windows of four lancet lights, with a 
quatrefoil between the two central lights. The tower has a very fine Per- 
pendicular groined roof opening to the Church internally. The choir has 
been much altered and refitted by Wyatt, of whose design are the organ screen 
altar screen, stalls, Bishop's throne, and organ case. The organ screen is of 
stone and certainly a good Perpendicular imitation. The organ was built 
by Green, and presented to the Cathedral by George 3rd as an inhabitant 
of the diocese. The case is not elegant, but the instrument is a very good 
one. The stall work in the choir is not very good, but the Bishop's throne 
is a very good handsome work. The alteration in the choir, viz., extending 
it to the east end of the building, so as to take in the Lady Chapel, is un- 
doubtedly a very great improvement, as the view into the Lady Chapel is 
very fine from the beautiful combinations of the arches and lightness of the 
piers in that chapel. The choir arches, piers, &c., are much the same as 
those of the nave. The ribs of the groining spring, as in the nave, from 
clustered shafts placed between the arches of the triforium. At the east 
end of the late choir, above the arches opening to the Lady Chapel, is a 
handsome five-light window now filled with modern painted glass, as are 
the eastern windows of the Lady Chapel. The Lady Chapel is in height 
only equal to the aisles of the choir, and in breadth only to the middle- 
aisle, but it is divided into three aisles by two rows of very slender and 
elegant pillars supporting pointed arches with architraves enriched with 

By Sir Stephen Glynne. 287 

the toothed ornament. The piers are various forms, some being composed 
of four very slender shafts clustered, and others being merely very light and 
slender cylinders. The roof is groined, and springs from the pillars. The 
windows at the east end are very numerous, and beneath them some good 
modern niche work is worked, designed by Wyatt, and nearly resembling 
that at the east end of Lichfield Cathedral. The altar screen is modern 
Perpendicular but not altogether good. The eastern transept for the most 
part is of the same character as the western, but the north end of it has on 
its west side a range of tine trefoiled niches with shafts having enriched 
foliated capitals. These niches have vestiges of much painting and gilding,, 
and the shafts are finely interlaced with foliage. On the east side is a good 
Perpendicular lavatory. Above the arches which divide the choir from the 
eastern transepts is a fine inverted arch which has a good eflfect. In the 
southern part of the eastern transept is some good painted glass in 
one of the windows. There are tombs and monuments in this Cathedral in 
great numbers and of very great excellence. On the north side of the 
choir, near where the altar formerly stood, is the highly enriched Perpen- 
dicular monumental chapel of Bishop Audley. Its ornaments are of the 
most delicate and elaborate description, and it is richly gilt and coloured. 
Near it is a very good Decorated tomb, with very elegant enrichment, of 
Bishop Bingham. In the north-east transept is the altar tomb of the 
founder, Bishop Poore. The figure is in pretty good condition, and is 
represented under a plain trefoiled canopy supported by shafts with foliated 
capitals. In the same part is a good brass to Bishop Wyvil, A.D. 1375. 
In the S.E. transept is a tomb with exceedingly fine Decorated canopy and 
other enrichments to Bishop Bridport who died 1262. The tomb was 
obviously not erected till long after his death, as it is a specimen of the 
Decorated style in great perfection. The foliage is remarkably fine. In 
the nave placed between the piers are several good altar tombs, among 
which are an altar tomb to Longspee, Earl of {Salisbury, son of Henry 2nd 
and Rosamund Clifi"ord, who died in 1226. This tomb is partly of wood 
and is adorned with the range of trefoiled arches and shafts : the effigy is 
in good preservation, it has chain armour, and a shield charged with six 
lions— 3, 2, 1 (?) of Montacute, Earl of Salisbury. A small altar tomb with 
the recumbent effigy of a child in pontifical robes, with mitre and crosier^ 
under a canopy exactly the same as Bishop Poore. This is said to be the 
Chorister Bishop. Besides these are various other interesting tombs. In the 
north transept is a fine marble monument by Flaxman to the late Earl of 
Malmesbury, and in the south transept an admirably executed modern 
monument in the Perpendicular style which is here most beautifully copied, 
to some of the Poore family, descendants of the Bishop. This was designed 
by Archdeacon Owen, of Salop. There are also two other very fine modern 
monuments in Perpendicular style and very well executed, one in the north 
transept, the other in the south. They were executed by a stonemason in 
the town. The cloisters of the Cathedral are on the south side. They are 
quite perfect, forming a quadrangle, and are of very beautiful work, either 
late Early English or early Decorated. The windows are of four lights, 
with circles quatrefoiled, and are adorned with shafts, some with foliated 
capitals. The roof is groined with plain ribs and fine foliated bosses. The 

288 Notes on Wiltshire Churches. 

Chapter House is entered from the eastern cloister. It is a very beautiful 
octagon, remarkable for its extreme lightness, which arises from the great 
size and number of the windows. Its style may be called of the earliest 
Decorated, but there are several Early English ornaments (about 1) it. The 
groinings of the roof are executed in plaister, which is painted with repre- 
sentations of scripture subjects. The groinings of the roof spring from a 
most elegant and light central column. It is circular and surrounded by 
slender disengaged shafts filleted, and with foliated capitals. The groining 
also comes down between the windows in very elegant clusters of shafts. 
The windows are large and much resemble those of the cloisters. Beneath 
the windows is a range of cinquefoiled niches with shafts having fine 
foliated capitals. Above them are curious carved figures. The doorway is 
a fine one, consisting of a double arch richly feathered within a larger arch, 
with good architrave mouldings and clustered shafts with foliated capitals. 
The dripstone of the arch is ornamented with various carved figures. The 
great central tower of the Cathedral is of the richest Decorated work and 
enriched with niches, crockets, pinnacles, etc. The spire is of the same 
period, and ornamented with the ball flower for crockets. 

The Bishop's palace is a large old irregular building adjoining the east 
cloister, and having a fine garden. The close of the Cathedral contains 
various fine old houses overgrown with ivy, vines, etc., and has a very 
elegant and neat appearance. The town is very neat, having water courses 
running through the streets, and a fine open market place. 

Salisbury. St. Thomas's. This is a spacious and very handsome 
building entirely of Perpendicular work and consisting of a nave and chancel 
each with side aisles, and a square tower on the south side of the south 
aisle. The tower has a projecting embattled parapet, and belfry windows 
richly ornamented with pierced quatrefoils in stone, which has a very good 
efi"ect. On the south side of the tower are two niches, one of which 
contains an image of the Virgin and Child, the other of St. Thomas d Becket, 
the patron saint of the Church. The nave has a very light appearance from 
the elegance of the piers and the great number of windows, which are mostly 
of late date with rather flat arches. The arches dividing the nave from the 
aisles are supported upon elegant piers with four shafts set at equal distances, 
and having foliated capitals. The clerestory windows are large and have 
paneling around them. The ceilings of the nave and aisles are remarkably 
beautiful, being of timber paneled and with richly wrought beams. The 
chancel is divided from the north and south aisles by Tudor arches,springing 
from the same piers as those of the nave. Above are small square-headed 
clerestory windows. The chancel roof is not quite so rich as that of the 
nave, but is very good — the beams are supported upon corbels representing 
figures. On the beams of the roof in the south aisle of the chancel is the 
following black-letter inscription : (it is repeated upon all the beams of 
that aisle) : — 

"Orate pro aiabis William Swayne et Christine uxis eius." 

In some of the windows on this side are fragments of good painted glass. 
In the roof are several shields with various armorial bearings. This Church 
is very neatly fitted up and contains a large organ at the west end. In the 

By Sir Stephen Glynne. 281) 

north aisle of the chancel is a Perpendicular altar tomb, now defaced and 
sadly injured by a modern monumental inscription, which is cut upon it. 
Built into the south wall of the chancel is a small crucifix with an Early 
English canopy. 

Salisbury. St. Martin's. Stands almost out of the town near the 
road to Komsey. Its churchyard adjoins the fields and is beautifully 
planted with fine trees on either side the walks. It consists of a nave with 
north and south aisles, a chancel, and a tower with a spire at the west end 
of the south aisle. The tower does not stand straight with the wall of the 
Church. It is of Early English character, and somewhat low and without 
any battlement. The belfry window is Decorated and the spire has plain 
ribs. At the west end of the nave is a small low Perpendicular addition, 
forming a vestry and the west entrance to the Church. The nave appears 
to be of early Perpendicular work, the windows are in many cases almost 
Decorated, having circles containing quatrefoils. The arches dividing the 
nave from the side aisles are pointed, with octagonal piers, round which 
are four shafts. There is no clerestory. The roof is paneled and ornamented 
with several Perpendicular ornaments. The chancel is Early English, with 
a Perpendicular east window. The other windows are lancet, with dripstones 
within having bunches of foliage at the extremities. The chancel has a 
string course within. The font is octagonal, upon an octagonal basement, 
and at each angle is a plain round shaft. The pulpit is well carved in 
Perpendicular style. The Church is of great breadth and is very neat and 
regularly pewed, and at the west end of the nave is an organ erected by 
subscription in 1824. 

I Salisbury. St. Edmund's. Is situated near the road leading to 

Marlborough. It is a good structure, standing in a very large churchyard, 

with the walks having rows of fine trees on each side of them. The Church 

consists of a nave, side aisles, chancel, and tower at the west end. The 

tower was built in 1653 in place of a former one which fell down in that 

I year. It is a fine tower, which one would not have expected could have 

! been erected in such a bad period. The style is Perpendicular, it has four 

crocketed pinnacles, a belfry window enriched with the pierced quatrefoils 

as in St. Thomas's, and a good doorway with fine paneling in the spandrels. 

The arches and piers resemble those in St. Martin's Church nave, and the 

windows are all good Perpendicular. There is no clerestory. In the south 

aisle is the vestige of a very fine large brass, now gone. The chancel is 

' modernised. The Church is very elegantly fitted up, and at the west end 

; there is a gallery and an organ. On the north side is a vestry, partly of 

I Perpendicular date. 

In the centre of the town, near St. Thomas's Church, is a cross of 
Perpendicular date, but not very elegant. 

I Seend. This Church is altogether of Perpendicular work, and consists 

I of a nave with side aisles, a modern chancel, with a small embattled tower 

"I at the west end, crowned by four pinnacles at the angles. The whole of 

I the body is embattled, and the clerestory enriched with crocketed pinnacles. 

290 Notes on Wiltshire Churches. 

On the east gable of the clerestory is a small bell niche, surmounted by a 
cross. There are pinnacles to the north aisle as well as the clerestory. 
The windows on the south side are square-headed. Those of the clerestory 
a,nd of the north aisle are of three lights, except one of four lights in the 
north aisle, which has a fine canopy and a kind of scroll ornament in the 
arch mouldings. The dripstones are upon corbel figures of angels. The 
arch mouldings of all the windows are very good, but the tracery is less 
excellent in its character. The interior is very light and elegant. The nave 
has on each side four pointed arches upon light piers of diamond shape, 
with slender shafts attached. There is some good flat paneled ceiling of 
wood in the north aisle, and an enriched cornice. At the west end an organ. 
The Church stands on an eminence and commands a lovely prospect over a 
richly wooded district. 

Semley. St. Leonard. [Feb. 8th, 1862.] This Church has a nave and 
chancel, each with south aisle, western tower, and north and south porches. 
The whole Perpendicular without any striking features. The south aisle 
is embattled and of good stone masonry. The nave is divided from the 
aisle by three large pointed arches, and a fourth next the east of very much 
smaller dimensions — the piers of the usual western kind. The chancel 
arch is plain and pointed. That to the tower on octagonal shafts. The 
chancel opens to the south aisle by a lower pointed arch, which seems to 
have been connected with a tomb and has groining. The windows are 
mostly square-headed, of three lights, except those at the ends of the 
chancel and aisle— that west and east of the aisle of four lights. There are 
some new open seats with poppy heads and an organ at the east of the aisle. 
The south porch is made into a vestry. The north doorway is pointed, 
with continuous arch mouldings, and in the porch is an effigy of which the 
head is destroyed, under a three-foiled canopy on shafts of the 13th century. 
The font is octagonal and modern. The tower is poor, embattled, with a 
square turret in the south not rising to the top. The work is debased, 
there are two strings and small openings so as to shew much blank wall. 
The belfry windows square-headed, of two lights without arch or foil. A 
plain west door and over it a two-light window. Other openings were 
slits and four paltry pinnacles at the angles. 

Somerford Keynes. All Saints. [Jan. 24th, 1870.] A small Church 
much mantled in ivy, and rather oddly arranged, having a nave with north 
transept and a short aisle attached to the west side of the latter, but not 
extending along the whole of the nave, a chancel, west tower, and south 
porch. The chancel arch is plain Early English, pointed with plain soffit. 
The chancel has two single lancets on the north ; on the south is a priest's 
door with obtuse arch and two windows, that next the west of two cinque- 
foiled lights and Perpendicular. The south-east window of two trefoiled 
lights. The east window is of three lights with rather curious tracery of a 
Flamboyant character. On the north of the nave is a curious semicircular 
arch, somewhat narrow and misshapen, but taller than doorways usually 
are in small Churches. It has a wreathed moulding in the arch which is 
somewhat of horseshoe shape and the imposts swell outwards. The win- 
dows of the nave on the north are Decorated of two lights. On the west 

By Sir Stephen Glynne. 291 

side of the nave, both on the north and south, is a debased two-light win- 
dow. In the transept is a Decorated window and a square recess in the 
east wall. 

The nave has two arches on the north, one opening to the transept and 
one to the aisle, of Early English character, with plain soffits, on circular 
pillar and responds with octagonal capitals, having foliage. The porch 
doorway has two continuous arches. The doorway within it has a depressed 
arch, with hood on rude heads. The tower is Perpendicular, has corner 
buttresses, battlement, and four pinnacles on the west, a three-light win- 
dow, and a plain labeled doorway. 

Great or Broad Somerford. SS. Peter and Paul. [15th Oct., 1864.] 
The Church has nave with north aisle, chancel, west tower, south porch. 
The external features are, perhaps, wholly Perpendicular, but at the west 
end of the aisle is a single trefoil-headed lancet. Other windows of the 
aisle are square-headed, with two cinquef oiled lights. At the east end the 
window is pointed, of three lights. On the south side of the nave is a 
square-headed window of four lights simply cinquefoiled, and a small 
narrow window set high up in a projection, as if to light the rood loft. The 
said projection is a polygon for a staircase and has a flagged pedimental 
roof. The nave has an arcade dividing the aisle. The chancel is of superior 
workmanship and a very good Perpendicular specimen. There is a base 
moulding under the windows. The east window a good one of four lights, 
subarcuated, the lateral windows of three (lights), having the lower part 
unfortunately walled up. The east window has a good hood moulding on 
corbels. On the south is a small priest's door. The south porch has a good 
outer doorway of Perpendicular character. The tower has a plain battle- 
ment and four crocketed pinnacles, belfry window of two lights, on the 
south a half octagonal stair turret, ending in a square and lighted by slits, 
and on the west a three-light window aud small doorway. The tower 
wholly Perpendicular. 

Little Somerford. All Saints. [Oct. 15th, 1864.] This is a long 
narrow Church without aisles or distinction of chancel, with west tower and 
south porch. The chancel is divided off by a screen, boarded over above. 
Most of the windows are of doubtful character, either plain square-headed 
without arched lights, or pointed of two lights unf oliated. The east window 
is a modern one, of Decorated character and three lights, filled with new 
stained glass. Some others also have new stained glass. The outer walls 
are stuccoed. There is some Jacobean woodwork about the reading pew. 
The screen is debased Gothic. The font plain and octagonal. A north door, 
closed, has a hood moulded. The south porch is plain and has a Tudor 
doorway. The tower small and poor, of Perpendicular character, embattled, 
with corner buttresses and square-headed belfry windows. On the west 
side a small three-light window and door. The tower is covered with ivy. 
The pointed windows have fair mouldings which seem to be original. 

Sopworth. S. Mary. [Oct. 15th, 1864.] A small Church, comprising 
nave with north transept, chancel, west tower, and south porch. The 
transept has single lancet windows, is now occupied as a private chapel or 

292 Notes on Wiltshire Churches. 

pew, and is divided from the nave by a narrow pointed arch of plain strong^ 
character. The windows on the south of the nave are debased. 

The chancel arch is low and pointed with rather straight sides. The 
chancel has Early English work. On the south one window of two trefoil- 
headed lights, the other a single light, trefoil-headed. The rear arches have 
a kind of balls at the points. On the south is a plain piscina with pointed 
arch. The east window of two lights, small and narrow and doubtful be- 
tween Decorated and Perpendicular, On the north of the chancel is a 
closed lancet and door having a flattened trefoil head. The font is Early 
English, the bowl circular paneled with trefoil arches. The tower arch is 
pointed and continuous. The tower is small and of good masonry, Perpen- 
dicular in character, with battlement and four pinnacles, square-headed 
belfry windows, with the stone lattice work of the district, and no buttresses. 
On the west side a three-light window, and there is one string course. The 
base mouldings good, and on the north a projecting staircase, lighted by 
slits. The body is of inferior masonry and whitened externally. There is 
a gallery with an organ. The porch has a flagged roof and a cross on the 
gable, stone seats, and double obtuse-headed windows. In the corner 

Steeple Ashton. St. Mary. [May 13th, 1859.] A fine Church of the 
ordinary arrangement, but spacious and lofty, and unusually rich in its 
architectural character, both within aud without. It is wholly Perpendicular 
of the finest stone masonry. The plan comprises nave and aisles, with 
clerestory, chancel with north and south aisles, a lofty west tower, north 
and south porches. The Tower is partly engaged in the aisles. The exterior 
is very imposing. The clerestory is lofty, each portion has a fine battle- 
ment, and the buttresses throughout are crowned by paneled and crocketed 
pinnacles, which have small battlements. The south porch is large and 
has a parvise, also corner buttresses with pinnacles, it has a good plain 
parapet and within a fine stone groined roof, the centre boss having the 
figure of a saint. The outer doorway of the porch has a Tudor-shaped 
arch, as also is the inner doorway, which has paneled spandrels. The north 
porch is small, but is much of the same character as the southern, having 
pinnacled buttresses. In the chancel there are crocketed pinnacles flanking 
the east end. The aisles are carried past the tower, nearly to the west end. 
The interior is light and beautiful. The nave is of four bays beyond the 
tower and is remarkable for having the roof groined in wood, of intricate 
character, the springers of stone ribs, set on clustered shafts. The arcades 
are lofty, with clustered piers having three shafts on each face and one at 
each end. The clerestory windows of four lights, with transoms, subarcuated. 
Over the chancel arch is a blank window of five lights, with transom. 
Several fragments of stained glass appear in the windows. The windows 
are generally of four lights and subarcuated, rather uniform in character. 
That at the east end of five lights, and at the west of the aisles the windows 
are of three lights, being encroached on by the tower buttresses. The tower 
arch is paneled on shafts with octagon caps. There are also acute narrow 
paneled arches from the tower to each aisle. 

The chancel walls have been lately in great measure rebuilt. The chanceV 

By Sir Stefhen Glynne. 293 

is remarkable for its fine stone groined roof, with intricate ribs and bosses 
upon clustered shafts which stand on the capitals of the main piers. The 
aisles are also groined, the ribs stopped by niches which have canopies, and 
stand on angel figures bearing shields. The bosses are finely sculptured 
and there are niches in the eastern angles. The chancel has two arches on 
each side to the aisles — and extends one bay eastward of the aisles. The 
arches are good and the piers stilted and clustered as in the nave. The 
sacrarium seems to have been lately restored, has a stone credence on the 
north, illuminated Decalogue, and candlesticks on the altar. There are 
new oak stalls in the chancel. 

Between each window internally are canopied niches. In the north aisle 
of the nave an inscription recording the building of the Church in 1480. 
There is a barrel organ in a west gallery. The font modern. The tower is 
lofty and fine, but once was surmounted by a lofty spire, which wa^ 
destroyed by a storm in 1670, when the upper part of the tower was much 
shattered and partially rebuilt. The tower is embattled, of three stages, 
with four crocketed pinnacles and an octagonal turret at the north-east. 
The belfry windows of three lights, and latticed, and three-light windows 
also in the stage just below, all with transoms. The west window of four 
lights, with transom and shafts. The west doorway labeled. Over the west 
window a canopied niche. The whole of the masonry is excellent of the 
finest stone, and few village Churches are grander than this in their general 
efifect, both within and without. 

Stourton. This Church is built of very good stone, and is principally 
Rectilinear, consisting of a nave, with north aisle and clerestory, a south 
transept, and a chancel with north aisle, and at the west end a plain square 
embattled tower, with square belfry windows, containing five bells. The 
aisle and clerestory have very elegant pierced parapets, that of the clerestory 
has quatrefoils, the other rather plainer. The windows are mostly of four 
lights, those of the clerestory are of three lights, and are continued along 
the south side, though there is no aisle on that side. There is also a plain 
north porch. The nave is divided from the aisle by three low pointed 
arches with circular pillars, part of a fourth arch abutting against the west 

The interior is light and in good condition. The south transept opens 
by a pointed arch, and contains a rich altar tomb with very fair niches and 
a band of foliage, but mixed with Italian forms ; it has the effigies of a male 
and female figure and smaller figures at their heads. The nave is ceiled, 
but there are figures of angels supporting the rafters which are now con- 
cealed. The chancel opens to its north aisle by a wide Tudor arch having 
deep mouldings. The chancel is plain externally, but over the east gable is 
a rich cross. The north window of the chancel has a paneled ( — ?), and in 
the north aisle is one with rich stained glass. The altar piece is large and 
heavy, of Italian character, and there are several handsome modern marble 
monuments to the Hoares. 

The font is modern, but a good imitation of ancient work, of octagonal 
form, paneled with quatrefoils. There is a mausoleum of bad modern 

294 Notes on Wiltshire Churches. 

Crothic work. The churchyard is very beautiful, has on the south a bank 
covered with laurels growing most luxuriantlj'-, and on the north overlooks 
some gardens. The view of the opposite hills covered with fine beech woods 
is very striking. 

Stratford Toney. S. Lawrence, [Feb. 20th, 1872.] A small Church 
"having only chancel and nave, north porch, and western tower. As usual 
l)uilt chiefly of flints and of rather mean appearance. The tower is low and 
<jhequered with flint and stone, has corner buttresses and plain parapet, is 
<iivided by one string course, and has on the west a three-light window, 
square headed and labeled. The belfry windows are also square-headed. 
The chancel arch is pointed, rising at once from the wall. The east window 
is of three lights, Decorated of reticulated tracery. On the north and south 
of the chancel are square-headed windows also Decorated. The south-east 
window sill forms a seat and near it is a piscina with trefoiled arch and 
shelf. In the nave most of the windows are bad and modern, those on the 
north closed up. The walls are much patched with brick intermixed with 
flints. The tower arch is pointed. The font has a plain circular bowl, 
diminishing downwards. 

Stratton St. Margaret. [Oct. 17th, 1864.] The Church consists of 
nave with north and south aisles, chancel, south porch, and western tower, 
and is in good condition, having lately undergone some restoration. The 
arcades of the nave are Early English of four pointed arches, chamfered, 
with light circular columns, having moulded caps, one with nail heads. 
The responds are corbeled shafts. Above is a clerestory with small win- 
dows of two or three lancets which are scarcely seen externally because of 
the high roofs of the aisles which have been renewed and covered with 
tiles. The clerestory roof is flat and covered with lead. In the south aisle 
the windows are of Decorated character and of two lights, but at the east 
and west of both aisles are single windows with trefoil head. In the north 
aisle are some two-light windows having the rear arch within of trefoil 
form. In the north wall is a sepulchral arch of ogee form crocketed and 

( 1). The nave is fitted with open seats and has no gallery. The tower 

arch is pointed, on corbeled shafts. The chancel arch is like those of the 
arcade, on corbeled shafts with octagonal caps and nail-head mouldings. 
The chancel is long, has two light Decorated windows, one on the south- 
west has tracery somewhat Flamboyant. The east window a new one of 
three lights. The chancel is stalled. In the south aisle is a trefoil-headed 
piscina, but none exists in the chancel. In the north aisle is a projection at 
the back of the sepulchral arch. 

The font has a paneled octagonal bowl on a central octagonal stem 
surrounded by four shafts. A north doorway has a semi-circular head on 
imposts and very plain. The porch is plain, its doorway has continuous arch 
mouldings. The tower is low, with plain parapet, has a small octagonal 
stair turret at the north-east. There is a string course, but no buttresses. 
The belfry window decorated of two lights, the other openings single lancets, 
apparently Early English, and no door. 

By Sir Stephen Glynne. 295 

Sutton Benger. All Saints. [Oct. 15th, 1864] A nice Church lately- 
renovated and in excellent condition, consists of nave with south aisle, 
chancel, south porch and western tower. The nave and aisle are both wide 
and have separate high pitched roofs. The arcade of the nave is transitional 
from Norman to lilarly English. The arches, five in number, are obtuse, 
with mouldings stopped on small quasi corbels, and have hoods. The 
pillars circular, the western respond octagonal with rich foliage. The 
remainder of the Church is chiefly good Decorated. The roofs are open. 
In the south aisle the windows are good, of two lights, with hoods, but the 
eastern window of the same, of three lights, lately renewed, the mullions 
and mouldings enriched with fine ball flowers. A canopied (niche?) is 
inserted within the central light in the inside, being evidently connected 
with an altar. There is another canopied niche on the south side of the 
window and near it a projecting gargoyle figure. On the north side of the 
nave are Perpendicular windows, square-headed, of three lights. The tower 
arch has bold continuous mouldings. The nave is very wide, and the tower 
being under sized does not fill up the west end of it. The nave is nicely 
iitted with new open seats. The chancel is stalled. The chancel arch is 
pointed, on foliaged corbels. The chancel has externally a tall flowered 
cornice. On the south is one two-light Decorated window, set high, and 
one trefoil-headed lancet. The east window of three lights, Decorated and 
restored. Part of the south aisle has also a ball flower cornice. The west 
gable of this aisle has a three-light Decorated window with bold large ball 
flowers in the exterior moulding, and flowered hood. The porch is Per- 
pendicular — has beautiful groining, and on each side three small square- 
headed windows divided by buttresses. The groining has fine arched ribs. 
Testing on shafts. The outer doorway has continuous arch mouldings, and 
over it a canopied niche. The doorway within has two orders of mouldings. 
The tower is narrow, not filling up the space west of the nave, and appears 
to be Perpendicular. It has one string course, square-headed belfry windows 
of two lights with stone lattice work, on the west side a canopied niche 
and a poor Perpendicular west window of three lights. The battlement is 
paneled and there are four crocketed pinnacles at the angles. The remarkable 
feature is a larger crocketed pinnacle, rising from the centre, of elegant 
workmanship, but scarcely considerable enough to be called a spire. It 
has on each side an ogee canopied niche, is crocketed at the angles, and has 
a finial, altogether a very pretty composition. The whole Church is of 
■excellent stone masonry. 

Swindon. [1845.] This Church has a very unfinished west tower; a 
nave with side aisles, chancel with north aisle, north and south porches. 
The tower has a very unsightly appearance and does not rise above the 
clerestory. It has no parapet. On the west side is a square-headed Per- 
pendicular window ; on the north side a lancet belfry window ; in the 
second stage a trefoiled lancet. The aisles have leaded roofs, the clerestory 
and chancel are covered with flagstones. In the east gable of the clerestory 
is a quatref oiled circle walled up, the windows are square-headed and late 
Perpendicular. The porches are very plain, but the southern is the best 

X 2 

296 Notes on Wiltshire Churches. 

and has a high gable. The nave is divided from each aisle by four pointed 
arches, upon octagonal pillars without capitals, rather of foreign character. 
The clerestory windows have been vilely altered into a shape befitting a 
riding house. There is a modern flat ceiling to every part, and galleries on 
each side which however do not project beyond the piers. There is a space 
of wall between the tower and the first arch on each side. The tower con- 
tains a clock and six bells, and in a west gallery is an organ. The chancel 
arch is pointed and springs from a corbel on each side, representing re- 
spectively a male and female head, the latter in the head dress of the time 
of Henry IV. 

The chancel is a wretched modern erection, but the north aisle is 
original and is divided from it by two Early English arches, springing from 
a central circular column, the capital of which has a nail-head ornament in 
the mouldings. In this chapel are monuments of the Goddards and several 
old hatchments, also a wretched wooden font, containing a porcelain basin 
and painted in imitation of marble. 

Tisbury. St. John. [Feb. 6th, 1861.] A fine cruciform Church with 
central tower ; the nave with north and south aisles, the transepts extending^ 
scarcely beyond the walls of the aisles, and porches north and west of the 
nave. The exterior in excellent preservation, and of freestone masonry. 
The styles of architecture much intermixed. The west gable of the nave 
is high. The roofs of the transepts are covered with stone flags. The 
chancel, which is Decorated, has pedimental buttresses, and a moulded 
parapet. The west window of the nave is Decorated of five lights, with 
wheel tracery. The windows of the aisles are Decorated, square-headed, of 
two lights, and none at the west ends. There is a pointed octagonal turret 
with stairs at the south-west angle. The nave has Perpendicular arcades 
and clerestory, on each side four arches, with light piers of the four shafts 
and alternate hollows common in the west. The clerestory windows 
square headed and of two lights. The roof of the nave is coved with ribs 
and bosses and angel figures on brackets. The aisles have flat paneled 
roofs with bosses and flowered mouldings. The eastern part of the north 
aisle has had the roof injured by the fall of the spire. The seats in the 
nave are open. The aisles wide and open to the transepts by wide pointed 
arches, having no capitals. The organ is placed in a gallery in the south 
transept, constructed partly out of the screen work. The pulpit and seats 
seem to be chiefly of Caroline woodwork. There is an oblong opening in the 
last pier on the north side adjoining the tower. The tower is in its lower 
part Early English and is set on four strong pointed arches, upon shafts 
which have capitals without foliage or flowers, and square bases. ' Over the 
west arch is a lancet window towards the nave. Beneath the tower is stone 
groining with moulded ribs. The north transept has at the end a three- 
light reticulated window, and on the east side an odd window of three 
cinquefoiled lights, the central one divided by a transom, below which is solid 
stone work with an ogee trefoiled niche and pedestal, and two quatrefoil 

openings in the stones ( ?) ; this was connected with an altar. Flanking 

this same window are niches, on the north two, one over the other, with 

By Sir Stc'phen Glynne. 297 

•( ?) crocketed canopy. On the south are three similarly arranged ; two 

are long, with ogee crocketed pinacled canopies and square flowers in the 
mouldings ; the lowest forms a piscina, with flowered jambs and spandrels, 
having a flowered ball orifice. Under the north window is a sepulchral 
arch. The south transept has some indication of Early English mouldings, 
and some odd rather debased looking windows. Under part of this transept 
there is a crypt, and externally may be seen, under a window, a projection, 
lighted by slits. 

The east face of the tower has been strengthened by a double arch opening 
to the chancel, the additional arch has its mouldings dying into the face of 
the other. The tower in its lowest stage above the roof has Early English 
shafts at the angles and a corbel table, and a stair turret at the south-west 
lighted by slits. The upper story is modern, probably rebuilt since the fall 
of the spire. 

The chancel is spacious and fine; wholly Decorated, with a coved high 
roof. The east window of five lights has beautiful flowing tracery, but 
ugly stained glass. On the north and south are three uniform windows of 
corresponding character, all of four lights. The sacrarium is spacious and 
ascended by four steps. In the sill of the south-east window is a piscina 
of ogee form with cinquefoil feathering flanked by pinnacles, divided 

horizontally by a stone shelf and ( ?) a rose orifice. Beneath is the 

Arundel] vault and there is a brass, A.D. 1590, to Laurence Hyde, his wife 
and children, besides other monuments. The font has a square bowl, the 
angles chamfered off, on a cylindrical stem and four shafts with capitals at 
the angles. There is a wood cover with crockets and finials and some 
paneling having a Decorated look. The north porch has a stone vault, and 
an Early English doorway, with good mouldings, one continuous, one 
carried on shafts with capitals of rude foliage. The west porch has wooden 
ribbed roof, and the door has some ancient ironwork. The east gable has 
a good cross. 

Tockenham. St. John. [27th April, 1856.] A small Church consisting 
of chancel and nave only, with south porch, and wooden belfry over the 
west end. The porch is modern. At the west end are two lancets, which 
seem to be original. At the south-west corner of the nave is an inscription 
with the date 1699, probably the date of the porch. The chancel arch is 
very poor and continuous. The east window is a large and very curious 
■one of early Middle Pointed character, but it is doubtful whether the centre 
of the upper part has not had its tracery altered or closed up. It is of five 
lights. Over the east gable is a cross. The other windows of the chancel are 
square headed ; the south-west a lychnoscope and of a single light. In the 
nave are some other square-headed windows of two lights and one Middle 
Pointed one. On the north of the nave a door with segmental arch. There 
is a west gallery. In the south wall, externally, is a niche containing the 
figure of a saint with a serpent twined round a cup at his feet. 

Tollard Royal. St. Peter. [June 13th, 1871.] This Church has nave 
and chancel with a new north aisle to the former, a western tower, and 
south porch. On the south of the nave are two trefoil-headed lancet and 

298 Notes on Wiltshire Churches. 

one 3 (light 1) square-headed Perpendicular window set high. The chancel 
arch is pointed on octagonal shafts. The new aisle which has chequered 
masonry of flint and stone has rather poor windows, and is divided from 
the nave by three pointed arches on octagonal pillars. The nave has a 
steep roof covered with lead. The chancel roof is tiled. The Chancel has 
a priest's door on the south, and a two-light window of ogee heads trefoiled. 
At the north east is a similar window. The east window a new one^ 
Decorated of three lights, with flowing tracery. The tower arch is pointed,^ 
springing at once from the wall. The chancel is mostly of flint, with stone 
buttresses, but the nave is principally of stone. There is a piscina on tho 
south of the chancel. Over the rood-loft's place is the not uncommon 
ornamented roof. 

The tower is low, has embattled parapet and four pinnacles, with corner 
buttresses to the lower part only. It is wholly Perpendicular and has a 
string course, a three-light west window, and belfry windows of two lights. 

The porch is of flint and stone, has a new boarded roof ; the inner door- 
way of Tudor form. There is a sepulchral effigy of a cross-legged knight in 
armour, well preserved, of 14th century, under an arched recess. On the 
shield of the knight are three lozenges, two and one ; Sir William Payne,. 
of E. Lulworth, obit. 1388. 

Trowbridge St. James. [Oct. 3rd, 1848.] A fine Third Pointed 
Church very good in the style and quite unmixed. The plan is a nave 
with aisles, chancel with side chapels, western engaged tower with lofty 
stone spire, north, south, and west porches. A very considerable restora- 
tion has lately been eff"ected at an expense of i;7,000 ; some parts, especially 
the chancel, have been entirely rebuilt. The material is the fine stone so 
plentiful in the neighbourhood, and the character of the Third Pointed 
work is similar to what is very plentiful in the south-west of Wilts and 
adjacent parts of Somersetshire. The exterior of the whole is embattled 
and the buttresses are surmounted with crocketed pinnacles. The windows- 
of the aisles are of four lights, those of the clerestory of three. The north 
and south porches are large, each with parvise and beautiful stone groining 
very similar in their character. The outer doors labeled, and with paneled 
spandrels. The windows square-headed and labeled, and an octagonal 
turret with staircase in the angle. The west porch is attached to the en- 
gaged tower and is smaller but also embattled and groined. The tower is- 
of three stages, and rather plain with embattled parapet, pinnacles at the 
angles, and octagonal spire with bands of paneling. The belfry windows- 
are of two lights with pierced stone panneling; the west window of four 
lights. The side chapels of the chancel have roofs of higher pitch, the 
northern one having a fine groined roof. The interior is very fine and 
having been disencumbered of its former galleries and pews presents a very 
light and noble appearance, but unfortunately the new arrangement of pews- 
down the centre of the nave considerably mars the effect, though the pews 
are low and all of oak. Those of the aisles are arranged stall- wise in two 
or three tiers. The organ, a large old instrument, is thrust into the south 
porch, rather a questionable disposition, though it would not be easy to say 

By Sir Stephen Glynne. 299 

how it should be placed. The nave has a beautiful arcade on each side of 
five bays, the piers very light of lozenge form each having four shafts with 
foliated capitals and hollow moulding between. The tower being engaged 
opens to the nave by a lofty paneled arch with shafts somewhat narrow, 

but very elegant, and to the aisles by lower ( 1) arches with much solid 

masonry above them. Through the tower arch is seen the west window 
filled with modern stained glass, and the fine groining in the tower. The 
roof of the nave is of great beauty, and has been put into very good order. 
It is of flat-pitch, but enriched with very elegant panneling with foliated 
bosses and moulded beams and enriched spandrels, at the points of which 
are angels with outspread wings and a fine flowered cornice. Between the 
clerestory windows are fine large canopied niches with pinnacles. The 
aisle has flat roofs, panneled without bosses, and a cornice of Tudor flower, 
the beams upon small shafts set upon angels bearing shields. The chancel 
arch is upon shafts from the capitals of which a foliated band is continued 
on each side. The chancel has been skilfully reconstructed ; the east 
window of five lights, the side ones of three, all fitted with stained glass, 
presented by diflferent individuals, but not of the highest order. The roof 
is paneled on the slope, the timbers forming arches upon angel corbels. 
The seats are arranged stallwise. The altar steps of black marble ; the rails 
modern Gothic, within them some cinquecento carved chairs, and illumin- 
ated Decalogue, &c. The lateral chapels are evidently later additions 
though not varying very much in style from the rest of the Church. The 
northern one has a very curious and beautiful stone flat arched roof with 
varied paneling and tracery, and fine bosses and angel figures in the 
cornice. The east window of this Chapel is of seven lights and continued 
in blank tracery so as to form a reredos to a former altar. Below it is a 
cinquefoiled niche and piscina. There is a stone screen enclosing part of 
this Chapel. Both Chapels open to nave and chancel by Third Pointed 
arches on shafts. The south Chapel has a paneled coved roof and an east 
window of seven lights as the corresponding one on the north. These are 
private chapels. There is an original vestry north of the chancel. The 
font is a fine one, the bowl octagonal with quatrefoils containing shields 
with emblems and grotesque figures. At the angles small octagonal shafts 
upon corbel bases, the same carried down the stem, which is octagonal. 
There is an octagonal turret on the north with stairs, corresponding with 
the rood loft's plan. 

The pulpit has good Third Pointed carving. The prayer desk is open, 
but faces west. The shafts have mostly a kind of capping over the capitals^ 

The east window of the north aisle is obituary to the memory of John- 
Clarke, obit. 1846. 

Upavon. S. Mary. [May 14th, 1859.] This Church has a nave with 
north aisle, chancel, west tower, and north porch. The walls chiefly of 
flints — with some stone intermixed and partially stuccoed. The east gable 
in its upper part has some chequered work. The tower has some appearance 
of Early English work, but it is doubtful whether it is not an imitation, 
and other parts of the tower appear to be debased. It has a battlement 
and corbel table with unfinished pinnacles, and is divided by two string 

300 Notes on Wiltshire Churches. 

•courses. The belfry window double under a hood, on three sides the arches 
tref oiled. At the north-east is a square turret going up part of the way» 
with slit openings; The west window is debased, of three lights, below it a 
continuous doorway. The tower is chiefly of flint, with stone buttresses. 
The south wall is partly patched with brick and much covered with ivy. 
The porch is plain, the outer doorway has octagonal imposts; the inner has 
plain Early English imposts. The body has no parapets. The chancel 
slated. The nave is wide and has a clerestory on both sides, though there 
is no south arcade. The clerestory windows are square-headed Perpendicular 
of three lights. Below them on the south are single trefoil-headed windows, 
and a pair of them, near the pulpit, not looking early in character. The 
north arcade is irregular and Early English, has three pointed arches with 
circular columns having moulded caps. The eastern is on a half column 
set against a square pier, and the fourth arch has Early English foliated 
capitals. The tower arch is pointed, moulded, without caps, the hood on 
corbel heads. There was formerly a south aisle, the arcade appearing in 
the wall. The roof is of flat pitch, and open. The north aisle has Perpen- 
dicular windows, square headed of two and three lights. The chancel arch is 
Early English, the east face is much plainer than the other, which has early 
•ornamental mouldings, almost Norman, of chevron kind, and an embattled 
hood. The inner face has plain imposts. North of this arch is a rude 
hagioscope, cutting the angle, and obtuse arched. The chancel has on the 
north an obtuse-headed doorway and one single Early English lancet closed. 
The east window late Perpendicular, of four lights. On the south are two 
square-headed Perpendicular windows of two lights. On the east gable is 
a cross. The font is early, the bowl octagonal, each face with varied 
-sculpture, difficult to describe, various animals — dragons, etc., and also 
fleur-de-lys, appear. On one face a plain cross, with kind of cyphers in the 
spaces ; in another a fleury cross, also some odd knotted work and a repre- 
sentation of the Annunciation of the Virgin Mary. There are two small 
organs. The Church is pewed. 

Upton Level. [May 26th, 1863.] This Church has nave and chancel 
with south porch and western tower. It is but small and uninviting. The 
chancel is of Norman origin, has flat buttresses and corbel table of that 
period under the roof. On the north side is a single lancet window, and 
on the south a two-light Perpendicular window. The east window modern. 
The chancel arch is Early English, pointed upon shafts, the inner member 
having the shafts coupled. In the outer they are single ; the soffit is plain. 
The south porch bears the date 1633, and has a finialed gable. The windows 
of the nave, square-headed and transomed, may probably be of that date. 
There is a west gallery. The organ is in the chancel. On the north of the 
altar is the effigy of a knight in armour. The font has a plain circular 
bowl. The tower arch is pointed ; the tower, low and ugly, has four poor 
pinnacles and debased windows like those in the nave. 

Urchfont. St. Michael. This is a very interesting Church, abounding 
in excellent work of different periods, and consisting of a nave with side 
aisles, north and south transepts, and a chancel. At the west end a square 

By Sir Stephen Glymie, 301 

embattled tower of Rectilinear character, having pinnacles at the angles. 
The aisles and the chancel are embattled. In the latter under the battlement 
a range of pierced quatrefoils. The chancel, as well as the south porch, 
has a curious roof, originally formed wholly of stone, but the stone in the 
chancel has been mostly replaced by tiles, but a stone rib runs along the 
top externally, enriched with a row of finials, or flowers in stone. The 
south porch is perfect and very singular and rich, being constructed wholly 
of stone ; the roof of stone ribs crowned at the apex by flowered finials. 
The roof inside the porch has some elegant paneling ; it is perhaps of 
Decorated character, but the outer doorway is of Tudor form. The 
inner doorway is an elegant one with foliage in the mouldings. 
The prevailing features in this Church are early Decorated, and the 
buttresses are generally with triangular heads and finials. The 
east end of the chancel is flanked by square pinnacles. The nave has 
a leaded roof and plain parapet. Within, there are on each side three 
pointed arches upon circular pillars, the capitals of which are octagonal, 
and the eastern arch opens to the transepts. There is a half arch between 
the aisle and the transept on each side. The clerestory windows are square- 
headed. Most of the windows are of two lights and early Decorated. 
Some are square- headed. The transepts have some of rather plain and 
early tracery ; that in the north transept of three lights, that in the south 
transept of five lights. The latter, together with some smaller windows of 
the south transept, has the inner arch upon shafts. The chancel arch is 
Early English with good mouldings, the outer having the billet ornament. 
The interior of the chancel is very fine, the roof groined in stone, quadri- 
partite, as at Bishop's Cannings, but probably of decided Decorated period, 
the bosses having fine foliage. The east window, of five lights, has been 
sadly mutilated and hidden by a modern altar piece. The side windows 
are Decorated, of two lights, and there are several fragments of stained 

The font is a square basin, on a cylindrical pedestal surrounded by four 
smaller shafts, the whole on a square base. The west window of the south 
aisle has externally some fine sprigs of foliage and square flowers in its arch 
mouldings. The tracery Decorated, of two lights. Near the west door of 
the tower is a stoup. 

WanboroTigh. St. Andrew. [26th April, 1859.] A fine Church, in 
good condition, and remarkable for its two steeples, a western tower and a 
lanthorn with spire in the centre. The plan is a nave with north and south 
aisles, chancel without aisles, north and south porches, a large tower at the 
west end of the nave, and the curious lanthorn at its east end. The para- 
pets are moulded and good and there is no clerestory. The north porch 
has a steep roof and at the corners diagonal buttresses finished with 
crocketed pinnacles. The outer doorway labeled, with paneled spandrels ; 
over it an ogee canopied niche and near it a stoup. The inner doorway has 
a fine flowered moulding, with twining foliage continuous, and a hood on 
<;orbel heads. Within the porch stone seats. This porch is Perpendicular 
as is also the West Tower and some windows. Other parts of the Church are 
Decorated. The nave has on each side a Decorated arcade of four pointed 

302 Notes on Wiltshire Churches. 

arches, on clustered piers of four shafts with the capitals moulded. The 
arches are rather plain. The windows of the south aisles are mostly- 
Decorated square- headed, some on the north Perpendicular. Near the 
north door is a stoup and an ogee piscina near the east end of the south 

The singular feature is the curious lanthorn at the east end of the nave, 
which consists of a small octagonal tower and stone spire, which is open ta 
the interior to the very top of the spire, and therefore [cannot?] have been 
a campanile. This tower rises upon four pointed arches opening north 
south, east, and west within the nave. Those on the north and south are 
narrower and lower than the two others ; all the piers have clustered shafts. 
The storey above them has also arches within, which carry the spire. The 
spire is ribbed and lighted by small canopied windows, and square-headed 
ones trefoiled just below the spire. The chancel has three-light windows 
to the south and east ; on the north a square-headed one of two lights^ 
Near the east window a stone pedestal, and on the south a trefoiled piscina. 
On the north is an ancient vestry. The font is cylindrical, like that at 
Lydington, but plainer. The chancel is stalled ; the nave fitted with neat 
open seats with paneled ends. There are some curious mutilated effigies 
now in one of the porches, a man and woman with an inscription much 

[ 1]. Both have the hands joined ; The man has whiskers, the woman 

has a wimple. The west tower, which contains six bells, opens to the nave 
by a continuous arch. It is Perpendicular, embattled, with four crocketed 
pinnacles and buttresses. Belfry windows of two lights with the elegant 
pierced stone work of the western counties, and below the belfry storey a 
square-headed window with similar pierced stone work. On the west side 
a labeled doorway, a three-light window, a canopied niche on the south. 
The pulpit a new one of stone. 

Warminster. St. Denys. [Aug., 1837.] This Church is cruciform 
with a tower in the centre, but the transepts scarcely extend beyond the 
breadth of the aisles. The external character is not good and the whole i& 
of inferior Perpendicular work with some mutilations and modern alteration. 
The tower is low, but, as well as the side aisles, embattled. The nave has 
modern arches and columns dividing the aisles not harmonising with the 
general style of the Church, though that is but mediocre. The tower rises- 
on four pointed arches, and beneath it is a stone groined ceiling. The 
chancel has an aisle on the south from which it is divided by two Tudor 
arches with a light pier of lozenge form with four shafts. On the north of 
the chancel is a vestry and between the south transept and the south aisle 
of the chancel is an arch with paneled soffit. There are some Perpendicular 
windows of four (?) lights in the south chancel. The interior is rather 
crowded with pews, but there is a good organ. 

Westbury. All Saints. [Oct., 1848.] A fine cruciform Church, with 
aisles to both nave and chancel, a central tower, and south and west porches. 
The whole is Third Pointed of a good character and of the kind generally 
found in the district. The material is capital stone which abounds at no- 
great distance. The clerestory of the nave and the south aisle of the chancel 

By Sir Stephen Glynne. 30J^ 

are embattled ; the rest of the aisles and chancel have moulded parapets. 
The chancel has a high roof covered with stone flags. The tower is rather 
plain and is not square, the north and south sides being, as in Bath Abbey- 
Church, smaller than the east and west, the transepts being much narrower 
than the other two arms of the cross. It is embattled and has three stages 
of two-light windows, there being on each side of the belfry window a 
single square-headed light trefoiled. The south porch is large and fine, 
with elegant stone groining and a niche over the inner [door]. The west 
front has a large window of seven lights, with rather peculiar tracery, a 
depressed arch, and a transom ; the arch is paneled internally. Below it 
is a shallow porch with stone groining, a labeled outer door, and a paneled 
inner one, and stone benches on the sides. The buttresses of this front 
were intended to be finished by pinnacles. At the south corner is an 
octagonal stair turret, having well-finished gargoyles. The windows of the 
aisles of the nave are of three lights. The nave is very wide and has on 
each side an arcade of four Third-Pointed arches with large piers of four 
clustered shafts, which have each an octagonal capital. The clerestory 
windows are of three lights, trefoiled, and without tracery. The roof of 
the nave is plain and low-pitched, but has pierced tracery above the beams. 
The aisles are narrow and a stone arch is curiously thrown across in each 
bay from the piers of the nave, resting upon shafts. There is a chapel 
added on the west side of the north transept, having a fine groined ceiling, 
and opening by a good arch on shafts. The tower rises on four pointed 
arches at the crossings, the east and west ones are very wide and lofty, 
springing from shafts, the north and south are small and low, and above 
them on the w^all are painted (sham ?) windows. The transepts are low 
and not wide, having plain roofs. The organ, which was originally erected 
in 1816, has lately been placed on the floor in the north transept. There is 
a large stair turret on the north-east corner of the tower, projecting into the 
chancel aisle. The south transept has a wood screen, and in the south wall 
is a large sepulchral arch under a window, also a trefoliated niche with 
stone shelf and piscina. Between the transept and the aisle of the chancel 
is a paneled -arch. The chancel has a coved ribbed roof without clerestory, 
with a flowered cornice and corbel heads below the ribs. On each side is 
an arcade of two pointed arches, lower than those of the nave; the pier on 
the north has four clustered shafts, with large half figures on the capitals, 
the southern pier has not the figures ; the bases are stilted. The east 
window is of seven lights, with two transoms. Most of the aisle windows 
are of three lights ; that on the east of north aisle is of five, of the south 
aisle of four lights. The aisles of the chancel have flat paneled roofs. 
Under the east window of the south aisle are traces of an altar, and on 
each side of the window a tine canopied niche, each in two divisions and 
flanked by two smaller shallow ones upon angel figures. In this aisle is 
is also a modern Gothic monument, with fine canopy, to the memory of 
some of the family of Phipps. The chancel aisles are fitted with open 
benches. The sacrarium is very large. The altar is on pace and has a rich 
covering. The east window has some fine modern stained glass, representing 
the Crucifixion and the Ascension, but not yet completed. The font has 
an octagonal bowl, with paneling, diminishing gradually to the stem, which 

304 Notes on Wiltshire Churches. 

is also paneled. The west window and one on the south have floriated (?) 
quarries. The whole Church has lately been greatly improved and bears 
great indications of further embellishment being contemplated. The nave is 
still pewed, but the chancel is arranged in a very proper ecclesiastical 
manner. There is a late brass to — Bennett and wife. 

Whiteparish. [Sept. 29th, 1824.] A Church consisting of a nave with 
side aisles and a chancel. The nave is divided from the side aisles by plain 
pointed arches springing from piers mostly circular and massive with round 
moulded capitals. There are, however, in the south aisle two octagonal 
piers. The north side of the nave has been cased with brick in a bad style 
and modern windows introduced. The windows in the south aisle are 
plain Perpendicular. The chancel is divided from the nave by a pointed 
arch, and is of Perpendicular character. The eastern gable of the nave is 
crowned by a stone cross. The west window consists of three trefoiled 
lights under a pointed arch, with a dripstone having heads at its extremities. 
At the west end is a wooden turret. 

Wilton. The original Church consisted of a small west tower, a nave 
and chancel, each with side aisles. The exterior plain and ordinary, with 
tiled roofs, the windows chiefly square-headed and late,exceptoneDecorated, 
of three lights, at the east of the south aisle. The body divided from each 
aisle by four pointed arches, apparently Perpendicular, the piers of lozenge 
form, with four shafts at intervals, those on the north having rich capitals 
with foliage and figures of angels. The capitals on the south plain. No 
clerestory. The chancel small and modernised, opening by a pointed arch. 
The roofs coved. There was an organ and rather a good carved pulpit 
bearing the date 1628. In the chancel a sumptuous monument by Westmacott 
to the Earl of Pembroke, who died in 1827. Opposite to which was a large 
white marble sarcophagus, with claw feet, to the memory of a former Earl 
of Pembroke. 

A sumptuous new Church is now in course of erection in the Lombard 
style, at the sole expense of the Honble. Sidney Herbert. 

[Winterbourne Bassett. Printed in Vol. xxxvii., p. 451, of Wilts 
Arch. Mag.'] 

Woodborough. [St. Mary. 14th May, 1859.] A small Church of not 
much interest, comprising chancel and nave only, south porch and wooden 
belfry over the west end. The Church is in good condition and well cared 
for. The sacrarium laid with tiles, the windows renovated, and partially 
filled with stained glass. The porch and the font are modern. The chancel 
has a high tiled roof. The chancel arch is pointed on octagonal shafts. 
North of the nave is a four-light square-headed window with label which 
has Decorated tracery. On the south are some square-headed ones, also 
labeled and Decorated, of three lights. The west window has three tre- 
foiled lights, 

Woodford. All Saints. This Church consists of a west tower, a nave 
with small south aisle and porch, and a chancel. The whole is principally 

By Sir Stephen Glynne. 305 

built of flints and stone. The tower embattled and of Perpendicular 
character, very plain. The south porch occupies the western portion of the 
aisle, which is small. Within it is a Norman doorway with arch-moulding 
exhibiting the chevron ornament, containing a kind of bead and some good 
shafts. The nave is divided from the aisle by two pointed arches with 
octagonal pier. The windows of the nave are Perpendicular, and square- 
headed. The chancel is Early English. The east window a triple lancet 
with mouldings contained within a general arch. On the south side are 
two lancets, one of which is set low and has a trefoil head. One window 
on the north of the nave is Norman and small. The font is an octagon 
with quatrefoil paneling. 

Wootton Basset. All Saints. This Church is rather singular in its 
plan, consisting of two long aisles equal in height and length and without 
any architectural distinction of chancel. At the west end of the southern 
aisle is a small low tower, and on the south side is a porch. The body is 
lofty and the parapets have good plain mouldings. The two aisles are 
contained under one roof and the east end presents an unusual appearance, 
two windows in one gable of equal size. The south porch has a parvise 
with two-light windows, having square heads, and an elegant stone-groined 
ceiling. The exterior is almost wholly Perpendicular except the east 
window of the north aisle which is Decorated of three lights. Another 
window south of the chancel is square-headed. The other windows are 
Perpendicular of three lights. The tower is low and embattled, with four 
crocketed pinnacles, and the belfry window has stone lattice work. The 
tower has within it five bells and very strong timber frame work. It opens 
to the Church by a small pointed doorway. The interior is lofty and long, 
and the division of the aisles formed by eight pointed arches. The three 

eastern are ( ?) the others are tall and well formed. The columns are 

mostly circular, some have octagonal capitals, but most of the capitals in 
the western portion are circular and moulded. The roofs are boarded in 
panels with ribs and bosses, painted with stars. The chancel seems to 
include the three eastern arches, and is divided off by an ugly modern 
screen all across the Church, in which an organ was erected in 1838, There 
is also a western gallery. The altar is uncouthly placed in the centre of 
the east end, and is cut by the central line of columns. The chancel roof 
is whitewashed. 

Wraxall, North. St. James. This Church has a nave, to which a 
modern north aisle is added, a chancel, and a western tower, which latter 
has a pack-saddle roof, and its lower portion is early, with plain lancet 
windows. The belfry window of two lights without foils, and the parapet 
has good plain mouldings. The south doorway is Norman, with the chevron 
and knob ornament in the mouldings. On the south side of the nave is a 
good Decorated window of three lights surmounted by a pointed gable. 
The chancel is Early English ; the east window of three lancets, and some 
others on the north side. South of the chancel are square-headed windows 
of two and three lights, which seem to be of a transition form from Decorated 
to Perpendicular. The interior is neat and there is an organ. The north 

306 Notes on Wiltshire Churches. 

aisle is divided from the nave by pointed arches upon light clustered piers. 
The northern windows are of bad design. 

Wraxall, South. This Church has a western steeple, nave, south 
porch and chapel adjoining it, and chancel. The latter, with the whole of 
the north wall is modern Gothic of a very meagre kind. The steeple is 
rather a curious composition and probably of rather late date. It consists 
of a low square tower of three stages, divided by strings without buttresses, 
but there is a large projecting turret on the west side as high as the sill of 
the belfry window, and another turret on the north, terminating in a pointed 
pediment. The tower has a good moulded parapet and is surmounted by 
a high pitched saddleback roof, all of stone, rising higher and steeper than 
usual. The point of each gable is crowned by a pinnacle, and in the centre 
of the ridge of the roof is a vane (?). The west window of the tower is of 
three lights without foils ; the belfry window similar of two lights. The 
south chapel and porch are adjacent to each other and form one member 
externally. The outer doorway of the porch has good mouldings and the 
dripstone on lozenge corbels. Near to it is a small labeled door opening 
to the chapel, over which is the date 1566, perhaps the date of the whole of 
the chapel, which has a square-headed window of three lights. It opens to 
the nave by a wide and late arch with mouldings and shafts with spiral (?) 
capitals. Within the arch are fragments of a wood screen, and there are 
monuments to the Longs. On the south of the nave, west of the porch is 
a three-light square-headed window varying from Decorated to Perpendicular, 
with label. The interior is neat, but too much modernised. The font has 
an octagonal bowl, paneled with quatrefoils and roses on an octagon shaft. 

Yatton Keynell. St. Margaret. [May 25th, 1867.] This Church 
when visited was undergoing a thorough restoration by no means finished, 
under G. E. Street ; the nave denuded and unroofed. It is wholly Per- 
pendicular, of good stone masonry, and consists of nave with south aisle, 
chancel, north porch, and small western tower. The latter is unusually 
slender, is divided into unequal stages, by three strings, has paneled 
battlement and four crocketed pinnacles, but no buttresses. The belfry 
storey is richly paneled in three divisions, the centre pierced for windows. 
In the stages below are small double windows with lattice work. The south 
aisle is carried along part of the chancel. In the nave the arcade is of three 
bays with four-centred arches, of which the eastern has fine paneling in the 
soffits continued down the octagonal pillar. The arch to the tower is very 
low. The chancel arch is pointed and across it is a low stone screen 
having on each side three compartments, each enriched with a quatrefoiled 
circle with shield blazoned in the centre. There are also paneled (finials ?) 
and a band of foliage. The chancel has been taken down to be rebuilt. 
There is one Tudor-shaped arch south of the chancel. 

The windows mostly of three lights, with fiat arch. The porch good 
Perpendicular, with paneled gable. The outer doorway continuous, and 
over it a two-light window. Within the porch the doorway has trefoils in 
the spandrels. The font is small — an octagonal bowl with quatrefoil paneling 
on a stem. 



[The original of the Inventory, here printed verbatim, except that the 
constantly recurring " Item " at the beginning of each entry is omitted, 
together with certain later scribbled notes, often illegible, in the 
margin, as to the sale of various articles, is very clearly written on four 
strips of parchment sewn together into one roll, measuring 9ft. 5in. in 
length. It was purchased for the Society in 1922. — Ed. H. Goddard.] 

A True and perfect Inventory of all and singular the Goods and Chatties 
of S'. Charles Raleigh late of Downton in ye County of Wiltes Kn'. deceas'd 
taken and apprais'd by us whose names are underwritten the tenth day of 
May in the year of our Lord (1698). 

His Wearing Apparrell 

Ready Money 

Books in the Studdy {interlined afterwards) 

One Rumplett Jewell one Ruby Ring one pearle necklace one 
Diamond Buckle one pair of Diamond Earings one pair 
of Diamond Taggs 



Pictures in the howse 

In the Iiady Raleigh's Chamber, one bedd and bed- 
steed three pillows five blancketts one white Rugg four 
Chairs one Stool one table and Carpett four Window 
Curtaines and Rodds hangings of the Room one Great 
Glass one dressing Glass one plate case one chest of 
, drawerstwopair of andirons fire pann Tongs and Bellows 26 08 

j In the Anti Room to that Chamb'. Two glasses and 

and four sconces 01 14 

In the Green Chamber. One feather bedd and bolster 
two pillows five blanketts one Quilt one bedd and bed- 
steed Matt and Cord one sett of Green curtains hangings 
and two stooles 06 19 7 

' In the wrought Nursery. One feather bedd and bolster 
two pillows, one white Rugg three blanketts one bedd- 
steed matt and cord one sett of wrought curtaines two 
white window curtaines one curtaine Rodd one Glass 
six Dutch chairs one table board two pair of andirons 
one firepann one pair of tongs and one pair of bellowes 13 10 

In the great Parler. Eight white window Curtains and 
Valence and Rodds twelve cane chairs one great arm'd 
cane Chair twelve silk cushions one pair of wrought 















308 The Society's MSS, 

andirons one pair of Iron doggs with brass heads one 
brass firepann and tongs one p'. of bellowes one clock 
and case and one East India chest 28 1 

In the drawing Roome. Six cane chairs one arm'd cane 
chair one table two stands one large Glass one fountaine 
two window Curtains and valence and Rodd and Guilt 
leather hangings with severall peeces of China ware of 
all sorts 39 02 a 

In the little Parlour. Four tables two carpitts two 
window curtains and Rodds one fire pann and tongs one 
fender one fork 01 13 

In the dry Larder. Two chairs earthen plates and Basons 

one marble morter and pestle 03 05 8 

In the Hall, four tables two carpetts twenty six Leather 
chairs one pair of andirons one pair of Iron Doggs one 
great chair one great table one Matt two sconces and 
one bird Cage 07 14 

In the Hedd Chamber. One feather bedd and bolster 
one pillow one bedsteed Matt and cord one sett of redd 
cloth curtains and Counterpain one white Rugg two 
Blanketts the tapestry hangings six Dutch chairs one 
table one pair of andirons one fire pan and tongs and 
one pair of bellowes 14 17 6 

In the porch Chamber. One feather bedd and bolster 

one old white Rugg one blankett and the bedsteed 02 02 

In the Chamber over y® Porch. One feather Bedd 

bedsteed Matt and cord 01 06 

In the Matted roome. One feather bedd one old Rugg 
one sett of curtains head peece and testar one bedsteed 
matt and cord and rodds two Dutch chairs one Great 
Chair two Stools two window curtains and rodds one 
pair of Iron doggs with brass heads and a pair of tongs 03 10 4 

In the purple Roome. One feather bedd and bolster 
two pillows one sett of purple curtaines Valence head 
peece & testar one silk Quilt two blanketts one old 
white rugg seaven chaires two stools one bedsteed matt 
and cord a sett of hangings one pair of Iron doggs brass 
heads one fire pann one p' of tongs one pair of Bellows 
one table board and one glass 12 C9 

In the Passage Chamber. Nine cane chairs and one 

table. 01 10 

In the Garrett. One feather bedd and bolster one old 

redd rugg two old blanketts & a bedsteed 01 08 

In the Nursery. One feather bedd one bolster two 
blanketts two old Ruggs one bedsteed Matt and cord 
two setts of curtains one other Rugg four blanketts one 
other feather bedd bolster and pillows. 05 07 4 

In the Kitchen Chamber. One feather bedd and bolster 

The Society s MSS. 309 

one Green Rugg one biankett one bedsteed with sack 
cloth bottome one sett of curtaines and Valence head- 
peeceandtestartfe four wrought Chairs and the hangings 07 02 8 

In the Chamber over y* Passage. One feather bed 
and bolster one Redd Rugg two old blanketts one 
bedsteed matt and cord 03 05 7 

In the Chamber over the dry Larder. One feather 
bedd and bolster one old white Rugg two old blanketts 
one bedsteed matt and cord 03 09 

In the Store Roome. Eight Dozen Candles 02 04 

Six Dozen Soap 01 04 

^ One close stoole one box twelve patty panns four 

pudding dishes and one sweetmeat strainer 00 08 

In the little hall. One table board two forms & four 

chairs. 00 12 

In the Wett Larder, four powdring tubbs four forms 

one side board one tub with salt and Earthenware 01 13 

In the Kitchen. Two dripping panns one payl one tubb 

one mortar and pestle one chopping board and stewpann 

one_Earthenware pann one fish kettle one flesh fork two 

H scimers one basting Ladle one cover one platerack one 

B Collender two Sawcepanns two treys one wooden platter 

H one ladle one Iron fork one grater one baskett two stools 

^B one Settle one Clever one Chopping Knife six Candle- 

WL sticks three wooden dishes one Rolling Pin a pair of 

^■j Bellows one salt Box two frying panns one Jack and 

^V weights 

! In the Bakehowse. One Meale Benn one Cupboard one 
Cover one range two tubbs two searches ^ one grey bagg 
i one tubb and salt 

I In the Small bear Cellar. Twelve hoggsheads 
I Stands 

I In the Pantry. Glasses and Muggs two basketts one 
1 table board three chairs one Napkin press one dozen of 

Silver handle Knifes one buckett one dozen of other 
Knifes six forks one cupboard two pair of brass Candle- 
Sticks two pairs of Snuffers and one Snuf dish 
In the little Cellar. Nine hoggsheads 
Three stands and one Box 
1: In the Inner Cellar. Eleven hoggsheads and two pipes 
j four Stands 

two drappers a screw stooper and one p'' of funnells 
five small empty barrells 
Nine humberkins and one halfe hoggshead 
In the Vault. One hundred forty dozen of Glass bottles 
two hoggsheads 

^ Halliwell gives " Searcher, a fine sieve ; a strainer. 

04 03 

04 1 


04 16 

00 12 

05 09 

03 12 

00 04 

06 00 

00 10 

00 08 

00 10 

02 06 

14 00 


00 16 

310 The Society's MSS. 

two half hoggsheads 00 08 

two Stands 00 01 

Uppon the Stair Case. One Clock 01 00 

In the Brewhowse. One Large Mashing fatt three 

Keevers one payl one coull one coale Rake one trough 

one fire-fork and two stools 04 00 

In the landrey. Ten Smoothing Irons one hair line two 

Screens two forms one table board three chruches one 

pair of tongs & one gause frame 01 02 6 

Over the Landrey. Hopps 01 05 

one cheese Rack and four bottle willows 00 02 6 

In the Wash howse. Three washing stands five tubbs 

one dresser board one stand two forms and one pair of 

Brand Irons 01 04 6 

In the dairy howse. Eight Earthenware potts twenty- 
two Milk panns Six trendies ^ two butter barrells one 

butter chern two payls one Ketle two Milk tankards 

nine Cheese fatts one bole one Cheese tubb one pair of 

Butter Scales Cheese Tongs two Cream dishes two 

Skimers thirteen other Earthen potts & two tressells 
In the Roome over the Washhowse. Two feather 

beds two bolsters and one pillow 
In the Stable, two bedds bolsters and bedd cloths 
Cattle. Eight Cowes 

one Bull 

Two Barren Cowes 

Ten heifers 

five two yearling heifers and two Bulls 

five yearling Calves 

Twelve White Piggs 

A Black Sow and Piggs 

four Weanling Calves 

Seaven horse beasts 
Corne on Ground. Twelve Acres and an halfe of Wheate 

Twelve acres of Barley 

Tenn acres of Oates 

Cart harnesse 

Two Oate bens a prong and Shovel 

Two Saddles and one Bridle 

One Coach one Calash and harnesse for four horses 
In the Backside. Wheelbarrowes and one handbarrow 

Three Waggons & ye Wheells & two Cart lines 

Two Dungpotts 

four harrowes and one plow 

One Roller and frame 

^ Halliwell, " Trendle, (1) a Brewer's cooler, (2) the turning beam of a 

03 15 

03 05 


00 10 

30 00 

02 10 

08 00 

25 00 

09 07 


08 12 


15 00 

01 15 

03 12 

51 10 

30 00 

24 00 

18 00 

03 10 

00 05 

02 15 

13 00 

00 12 

23 15 

08 00 

01 00 

01 05 

The Society s MSS. 


Three Rick Stavells and Wood 

ffifteeri Cribbs 

Two piggs troughs 


four thousand five hundred Sparrs and Plow Tymber 

A heap of Dung in Nine acres 


Tymber and boards 


Lime and Sand 

Hay in Reek 

Gates in Reek 

Barley in Reek 

Hopp-poles in the upper hoppyard ' 

hopps on the Ground there 

Wheat in Reek 

Hopp-poles in the Lower hoppyard 

hopps on the ground there 

Faggotts there 

Pitt Coale 

Peate and Turff 
In the Pond Garden. Wood and timber 

In the Barne. Wheat winnow'd 

Wheat in Straw 

Barley in Straw 

Two Barne Shovels ten Seeves one fann one pair of stoks 

one wheel one heaver and one screen 

One hair Cloth two Prongs and one Willow 
In the Granary. Sacks 



One Iron barr one halfe bushell one saw one Cutting 

knife two pair of fetters Old Iron and one pair of Garden 



Hen Coops 

three Hopp Willows 
In the Kioome over the Dairy four boards 
In the Garden. One Garden Roller one spade one water 

pott three hows one garden Rake one pair of garden 

Sheers Sixteen Mellon Glasses seaventy flower potts 

one Scyth 

Beans pease Bacon and Neats Tongues 

Small beer in thirteen hoggsheads 

Strong beer in eight hoggsheads 

March beer in five hoggsheads 

Strong beer more in eight hoggsheads 

08 00 

01 15 

00 04 

08 00 

01 04 


05 00 

05 00 

03 00 

00 06 

01 00 

17 00 

24 00 

02 10 

04 01 

08 00 

72 00 

07 00 

12 GO 

03 00 

03 04 

00 08 

01 10 

00 01 


10 08 

07 10 

01 10 

02 00 

01 00 

01 10 

01 16 

02 00 

00 08 

01 10 

00 2 

00 06 

00 06 


01 17 


06 10 

07 16 

12 00 

11 15 

12 00 


312 The Society's MSS. 

Cyder in two hoggesheads 

05 00 

Ale in two half hoggsheads 

02 05 

March beer in five dozen bottles 

01 00 

Small beer in bottles 

01 04 

Canary in two dozen bottles 

02 08 

Clarett in eight dozen bottles 

07 04 

White wine in five dozen bottles 

04 10 

Muskadine in Eighteen bottles 

01 16 

Redd Malaga in six bottles 

00 12 

Redd Port in six bottles 

000 09 

Due on Tallies for the Exchequer 

145 05 

Debts due for Rent and on Contracts 

107 07 


Desperate Debts 

177 00 

Stock in the Bank of Englamd 

2000 GO 

Annuities in Excheq'. on the 14 p. cent p. ann' 

1000 00 

The best pewter 

0009 08 

Other pewter 

0008 01 


Kettle brass 

0003 03 

Bell brasse 

0000 05 

Iron in the Kitchen 

0001 18 


five Pewter Stands 

0000 05 

Ninteen quarters (?) and an halfe of mault 

0026 00 

Two cheses (?) 

0000 12 


Tot. 4687 8 — 

(Signed) James Horner, Richard Jencks, 

William Nobbs (?) John Bampton. 





By J. J. Slade, F.J.L 

In the early days of the nineteenth century, when Swindon was little 
more than a village, with a population well under two thousand, there would 
not be any idea of publishing a newspaper there. The building of the Great 
Western Railway, with Swindon as one of its important provincial centres, 
and the consequent growth of the new town at the bottom of the hill, led 
to its development between 1840 and 1860 ; but even so it was content to 
be served, for its news, by papers printed and published in neighbouring 
towns, until the era of the cheap press. 

As already described (in Part II. of these articles), the Swindon Advertiser 
was founded by Mr. William Morris at the beginning of 1854. In June, 
1861, appeared the second paper, the I^orth Wilts Herald. It was started 
by a small company — in these days perhaps we should say syndicate — 
consisting mainly of members of the Conservative party. The Advertiser 
was a strong Liberal paper, and the other party no doubt felt it was necessary 
to be represented by a journal of a more definitely local character than those 
which were published in more or less distant towns. The //eraZc?, however, 
claimed to be " independent" Conservative, even (as appears in the address 
quoted below) " Liberally-Conservative or Conservatively-Liberal," and 
when it later established its agency at Cirencester, where the Conservative 
cause was already ably represented in journalism, it justified its entry on 
the ground that it was "independent." So long as it retained a distinct 
political complexion it was of Conservative hue, but for many years now it 
has been neutral. Apart from political expediency there was an immediate 
cause for its appearance, which it is of interest to place on record. There 
was an occasion when Coate Reservoir was covered with ice to a thickness 
of five or six inches, for weeks on end, and sheep were roasted whole upon 
the ice. The Advertiser vigorously attacked the practice, and the promoters 
of the pastime, and referred to men and women devouring raw meat like 
cannibals. It is not likely that this by itself would bring about the starting 
of a rival newspaper, but the resentment it caused in quarters which were 
already restive under the undisputed regime of the Advertiser no doubt 
helped to crystallize and to bring to the stage of definite action the desire 
which was existing in a diffused form, to have a journal with a different 

^ For previous Parts see Wilts Arch. Mag., xl., pp. 37—74, 129—141, 318 
—351 ; xli., pp. 53—69, 479—501 ; xlii., 231—241. 

314 Wiltshire Newspapers — Past and Present. 

The first number of the North Wilts Herald was issued dated Saturday, 
June 22nd, 1861, and its introductory address, or prospectus, stated its 
object thus : — 

" The object of the North Wilts Herald is to supply a desideratum 
long felt in the district — an efficient advertising medium and a full and 
impartial chronicle of local news. To fulfil this object no pains or 
expense will be spared, and the constant aim of the directors will be 
to make their journal in all respects a first-class county newspaper. 

" In order to this, while the general and political ajffairs of the day 
will not be neglected, a full and compendious summary being given 
each week, especial care will be devoted to news of the district. . . . 
Circulating as it will in an important agricultural district, the North 
Wilts Herald will pay particular attention to all matters of interest to 
the farmer. The local markets and agricultural meetings of all kinds 
will be fully and accurately reported. In politics the North Wilts 
Herald will advocate those principles which have raised our country to 
her present glorious position among the nations of the earth — the 
admired and ardent freedom which is the best guarantee for the rights 
and privileges of the Crown, the nobility, and the people. Believing, 
as they do, that the safety and well-being of England are inseparably 
connected with the progress of civilisation, religion, and freedom in 
the world, the directors will advocate the strenuous maintenance of our 
national defences by sea and land as the first duty of every loyal 
Englishman, The great movement of the present time, the armament 
of the nation, has their warmest sympathies, and whatever is calculated 
to interest our gallant volunteers or to promote their patriotic purposes 
will have at all times their earnest attention. 

" Firmly attached to the Protestant faith as it was settled in this 
country in the sixteenth century, the North Wilts Herald will give 
prominence to records of all those movements which have for their 
object the dissemination of its truths either at home or abroad. 
Meetings of religious and philanthropic societies, efforts in the way of 
church building or church restoration, the extension of popular educa- 
tion, etc., will be fully supported and their objects earnestly advocated. 
" Correspondence of local or general interest will be freely admitted, 
with the proviso that all anonymous communications will he destroyed 
and on the distinct understanding that all personalities are avoided. 
Writers in the North Wilts Herald are requested to bear in mind— and 
it is hoped that readers of its leading articles will always find them 
written in accordance with the principle — that the firmest adherence 
to our opinions is quite compatible with deferential courtesy towards 
those who differ from us." 

The article went on to promise that offensive details of police proceedings 

and indelicate medical announcements should be excluded. It concluded: — [ 

" With this brief exposition of its aims and principles the Directors 

of the North Wilts Herald submit it to the criticism of the public. 

Mindful that it is not in mortals to command success, they will ever be 

assiduous in their endeavour to do what is even better — to deserve it." 

By J. J. Slade. 315 

The leading article claimed that the paper was independent, free from 
trammels of party, but yet not ashamed or afraid to take a decided tone 
upon great public questions. It was " Conservatively-Liberal and Liberally- 
Conservative." " We trust to represent the views of that large portion of 
Middle-Class English society which dreads extremes and pursues practical 
rather than sentimental objects." 

The imprint stated that the paper was " printed for the North Wilts 
Herald, or Swindon, Cricklade, Highworth, and Wotton Bassett Courier 
Company, Limited, by Alfred Bull, of Victoria Road, Swindon, at the 
printing office of the said Company in Devizes Road, Swindon, aforesaid." 
It was an 8-page paper ; six columns to the page ; columns 22in. in length. 
The contents of its inside pages show that it was not wholly " composed" 
in the office. As explained in previous articles, this was the case with 
most of the papers founded in the fifties and sixties of the nineteenth 
century. In course of time, however, the local matter demanded, and 
obtained, more and more of the space. There is nothing particular to say 
of the contents or " make-up " of the paper, but it may be remarked that 
the advertisements, which at first were somewhat " shy," showed a steady 

The Herald did not remain in the hands of the original proprietors for 
long. On May 20th, 1865, readers and correspondents were notified in its 
columns that it had been transferred to Mr. J. H. Piper, and a prompt 
settlement of outstanding accounts was asked for, payment to be made 
either to him or to Mr. William Frampton. This notice was continued 
weekly until July 15th, when the imprint for the first time was altered to : — 
" Printed by the proprietor, Joshua Henry Piper, at his steam printing 
establishment in Devizes Street, Swindon, and published by the same 
Joshua Henry Piper at his office in Wood Street, Swindon, aforesaid." 

It will be seen that there was an interval of nearly two months before, 
apparently, the transfer was completed. During this interval was fought 
a Parliamentary election which is somewhat historic in the political history 
of North Wilts, when the candidates were Lord Charles Bruce, Sir George 
Jenkinson, and Mr. K. P. Long. It may be that the original proprietors of 
the ^era/c? wished to continue the control of their "organ " at so critical a 
time for party reasons, or it may be that they did not wish to lose the 
handsome revenue which accrued to newspapers in those days from Parlia- 
mentary election contests ; or both reasons may have operated. This is 
all assumption, but the coincidence of a two months' apparent transition 
stage with the political campaigning is significant, and it seems to justify 
an attempt at explanation. 

Mr. Joshua Piper, the new proprietor of the Herald, was a young 

; journalist — he was then under thirty years of age — who came from the 
West. He was on the literary staff of the Devon and Exeter Gazette, and 

\ had, we believe, previously purchased a small paper at Newton Abbott. 

\ He had a brother, Walter James Piper, also a journalist, who was trained 

I on the Western Morning News, at Plymouth, and (long surviving Joshua) 

I died a few years ago after nearly forty years' editorship of the Derby Daily 

\ Telegraph. 

\ Mr. Joshua Piper's advent to the Herald marked the beginning of a series 

316 Wiltshire Newspapers — Past and Present. 

of developments of the paper, some of which are indicated in the numerous 
changes made in its titles in the course of the next ten or twelve years. As 
these changes followed each other with short intervals, the least perplexing 
method is to transcribe the successive titles categorically in order of date : — 

"North Wilts Herald, or Swindon, Cricklade, High worth, and Wootton 
Bassett Courier," — June 22nd, 1861. 

"North Wilts Herald, East Gloucestershire Reporter, and Vale of White 
Horse Gazette."— January 4th, 1862. 

"North Wilts Herald, East Gloucestershire and Vale of White Horse 
Reporter."— March 22nd, 1862. 

" North Wilts Herald, East Gloucestershire, Vale of White Horse and 
Cotswold Reporter, Swindon and Cirencester Mercury, Chippenham 
Chronicle, Malmesbury Gazette, and West of England Advertiser." — October 
14th, 1865. This was a month or two after Mr. Piper had assumed control. 

"North Wilts Herald, East Gloucestershire, Vale of White Horse and 
Cotswold Reporter, Swindon and Cirencester Mercury, Chippenham 
Chronicle, Malmesbury Gazette, Cricklade Courier, and West of England 
Advertiser."— December 30th, 1865. 

On December 8th, 1866, the titles were supplemented by the statement 
that the Berkshire Times and Faringdon Free Press^ which was established 
in 1860, was amalgamated with the Herald. 

"North Wilts Herald, East Gloucestershire, Berkshire, and West of 
England Advertiser, Swindon and Cirencester Mercury " (with the state- 
ment as to the amalgamation of the Berkshire Times). — April 17th, 1869. 

On October 2nd, 1875, another amalgamation was announced, that of 
the Cirencester Times^ which was established in 1856, and that statement 
joined the Berkshire one as part of the heading of the paper. 

" North Wilts Herald, Cirencester Times, East Gloucestershire and 
Berkshire Advertiser " (with the two amalgamated papers). — October 11th, 

On July 6th, 1878, it was announced that the Galne Chronicle and 
Chippenham Times had disposed of its copyright to the Herald^ and this 
also was added to the heading. Subsequently the names of the amalgamated 
journals were omitted, and the paper settled down to " North Wilts Herald, 
Cirencester Times, East Gloucestershire and Berkshire Advertiser," until 
its recent transfer to other proprietorship, when coincidently with sundry 
changes in its format, etc., it reverted to something like its former style 
— "North Wilts Herald, Cirencester Times, East Gloucestershire and 
Berkshire Advertiser, Marlborough Mercury, Berkshire Times, Chippenhamr 
Times, Malmesbury Gazette." 

It will be seen that in the course of twelve years (1866—1878) the Herald 
absorbed three small local papers, which had been started in that period 
when favourable circumstances led to much activity in such ventures : one 
of these was in the county of Wilts, and the others were over the Berkshire 
and Gloucestershire borders, near to which Swindon is situated. The 
absorption of the Cirencester Times in 1875 had been preceded immediately 
Mr. Piper took over the paper, by local publication in the town. The 
Herald " made its bow," as it termed it, to the public of Cirencester and 
East Gloucestershire when the title was enlarged in October, 1865, and it 

By J. J. Slade. 317 

announced its intention of appearing in that neighbourhood "hebdomanally" 
— or in more ordinary language, weekly. " The want of an independent 
Conservative journal [said the proprietor] has long been felt in the Cirencester 
district, and at the suggestion and invitation of many friends we come 
forward to supply the want. We disclaim anything like opposition to 
others ; we simply adopt the legitimate practice of honourable competition." 
The imprint was enlarged by the statement that the paper was " simul- 
taneously published by Edwin Bailey at his residence situated and being 
in the Market Place in the parish and borough of Cirencester in the county 
of Gloucester." This was only a branch or district office, and its history 
may be completed at once. The local publisher was soon changed to Charles 
Henry Savory, of St. John's Street. Reference to the Cirencester office 
dropped out at the end of 1874, but it re appeared in the following October, 
with the amalgamation of the local 'rimes, when the Times office became 
the Cirencester office of the Herald, with Henry George Keyworth and 
Edward Everard as local publishers and agents. 

In the course of time the Herald imprint had several changes, but they 
were not of much significance. The name of the Cirencester office was 
presently again omitted. The printing office was transferred from Devizes 
Street to Bath Terrace (Bath Road), and to Bath Koad also was transferred 
the publishing office from Wood Street, these two changes being in the 
early seventies and early eighties respectively. What happened was, that 
the printing works fronting Devizes Koad were connected with premises 
fronting on Bath Road and presently the publishing was brought from Wood 
Street, which which is a continuation of Bath Road, to the Bath Road office, 
adjoining the residence of the proprietor. It was a process of concentration 
rather than of alteration. 

The Herald did not long continue at the price of 2d. It was a 
hazardous price for a new newspaper to start at, seeing that the Advertiser 
had been published at a penny since 1854, The originators no doubt 
relied upon the larger size of the Herald (eight pages against the Advertiser's 
four) ; also, perhaps, on the fact that they looked for the support of the 
well-to-do classes. But at the beginning of the year 1864, while the original 
proprietary were still owning the paper, it was announced : — 

"The success which the North Wilts Herald has achieved has 
stimulated its directors to make fresh efforts to render it worthy of 
the high place of being the leading paper of the fertile and extensive 
district in which it is published. With this view many new and we 
hope interesting features have already been introduced, and in the 
course of the year just commenced we hope to be able to carry out the 
plan of a classification we have laid down which will enable the North 
Wilts Herald favourably to compare with the highest class provincial 
papers in the United Kingdom. This week the Herald is published 
at the reduced price of 2d. unstamped and 3o?. stamped. This will 
enable us to meet the views of many friends who reside in out-of-the- 
way localities." 

The price of 2c?. continued for six years, and then the Herald was reduced 
to the popular level — a penny. "We need hardly say [said the management 

318 Wiltshire Newspapers — Past and Present, 

in announcing it on the 1st January, 1870] this course will involve the 
sacrifice of revenue for the time, but we feel confident the public appreciation 
of the course we have taken will eventually recoup whatever pecuniary 
outlay we may incur." When the new price had been in operation for 
twelve months it was announced that the circulation was six thousand 
weekly. It was found necessary to partly meet the increased cost of pro- 
duction due to the war by increasing the price. In March, 1917, it was 
raised to Ijc?., and later there was a further advance to 2d, at which figure 
it remains. 

Like all newspapers, the Herald adapted itself to changing conditions by 
increasing size as well as by reducing price. On January 3rd, 1881, "to 
enable it to do more justice to the news of its enlarged area," a column was 
added to each page, making 7-column pages instead of 6-column. The 
circulation, it was claimed, had now entered upon its tenth thousand. The 
story of enlargements may be completed at once, by stating that on Sept. 
9th, 1892, the pages were made 8-columned, and on May 12th, 1922, the 
number of pages was increased to twelve. In the course of years the length 
of the columns was increased from time to time, and until lately they were 
nearly 25 inches. But under the new proprietary (see below) there has been 
further change. The Herald now consists of sixteen pages ; the page is of 
seven columns instead of eight, and the length of the column is reduced to 
22j inches. (This review of the alterations in size does not take account of 
the " war size " ; shortage of paper supplies compelled the Herald, like 
most other newspapers, to reduce, temporarily, to six pages.) 

Without going into minute details of production, it should be said that 
under the management of Mr. H. D. Piper the Herald office was always well 
equipped. The paper was printed on a flat bed machine until comparatively 
recent years, when a rotary machine was installed. The establishment was 
also provided with electric light before that illuminant came into general use. 

The history of the paper may be brought to a close with a record of the 
later changes in proprietorship. On June 16th, 1885, Mr. Joshua Piper 
died suddenly at the age of 48. Thenceforward the Herald was declared 
to be " printed and published for the proprietor by Henry D. Piper at 
the North Wilts Herald steam printing works, Swindon" — this until 
October 30th of the same year, when "Annie Piper" was named as the 
proprietor. In later years Mrs. Piper's (widow of Mr. Joshua Piper) name 
has been omitted, and Mr. Henry Drew Piper's (the son) alone given. On 
November 1st, 1922, the property passed from the Piper family, after being 
with them for nearly fifty-eight years, the transference being to The 
Swindon Press, Ltd. This is a company, or syndicate, of which Sir Charles 
Starmer, who has other newspapers under his control in London and the 
provinces, is the head. Two or three years earlier it had purchased the 
/Swindon Advertiser^ and both the Swindon papers are under the one 

The North Wilts Herald had two off-shoots. At the end of 1865 it began 
publication of a Market Edition— four pages, at the price of a penny. This 
was made up chiefly of a selection from the news in the paper of the pre- 
ceeding week, with late market news added, and was published for the 
market on Monday. In 1881 it was reduced to the size of a small supplement 

By J, J, Slade. 319 

confined to the latest news, and after a few months in this form it was 
discontinued altogether. 

The Evening North Wilts Herald appeared on October 2nd, 1882, as a 
four page paper priced at a half-penny. The size of the pages varied from 
time to time, but the number never exceeded four and the price never 
exceeded a half-penny, even in the war years. On the business passing to 
the new ownership in November, 1922, it was decided to confine the daily 
edition to the Advertiser^ and the Evening Herald was last published on 
November 23rd of that year. 


Two other Swindon papers may be briefly noted — the Neiv Swindon 
Express and the Borough Press. 

The New Swindon Express — Chronicle for the Borough and Hundred of 
Cricklade began publication on May 13th, 1876. It was printed and pub- 
lished by Edward Charles Morgan for the New Swindon Express Printing 
and Publishing Co., Ltd., at 30, Bridge Street, New Swindon. It had eight 
pages, six columns to the page, length of columns 20fin. ; price Id. At the 
beginning of 1880 it was printed and published by Thomas Melbourne at 
his printing works, 57, Bridge Street, and a couple of months later it ceased 
to appear, the last number being for February 28th, 1880. 

The Borough Press was a Saturday evening sheet, published in the in- 
terests of football, in the football season. It first appeared in 1904, 
consisting of eight pages of four columns, 13in. in length. It was printed 
and published by T. C. Newman at Eastcott Hill, Swindon, and sold for a 
half-penny. It changed its form in course of time, being issued with fewer 
but larger pages. The relinquishment of football in the war period led to 
the suspension of the Borough Press in the spring of 1915, but with the 
resumption of the sport it re-appeared and is still published, 


The I^idependent, as already recorded, first appeared on November 24tb, 
1836, the avowed object of its promoters being to provide an organ of 
liberal opinion in that part of the county. But there was already being 
published a paper which professed to be this. In August, 1835, a pros- 
pectus was issued informing the Inhabitants of North Wilts, and the public 
generally, that "the first number of the Bath and Devizes Guardian, a 
newspaper uniting the interests of the counties of Somerset and Wilts, and 
devoted to the support of Liberal principles will appear on Saturday next, 
and every succeeding week. Men of Business, Farmers, and others, will 
find the Bath and Devizes Guai'dian a most convenient vehicle for adver- 
tisements, having attained a circulation beyond that of many of the older 
papers." The proclamation of principles and ideals which followed under 
the heading "To the Reformers of Wiltshire," was verbose, and it is 
sufficient to quote the beginning and the end : — " Many friends of reform 
in Wilts, particularly in the northern part of the county, have lamented 
that it possesses no newspaper devoted to the support of Liberal principles. 

320 Wiltshire N^ewspapers — Past and Present. 

The removal of the Assize to Devizes, for the first time this week, at the 
distance of only 19 miles from Bath, and the additional importance attached 
to the town by this measure have induced some friends of the Bath 
Guardian in Wiltshire to suggest to the Proprietors of that paper the 
attaching to it a second local interest, so that it shall become a vehicle for 
the doctrines of Reform in two counties instead of one. . . . It is with 
these imperfect and loosely expressed ideas that the Bath and Devizes 
Guardian takes its place in Wilts. The paper is not a new one in the city 
of its birth, and may be referred to without fear for its past political con- 
duct, and the promise given that, as the past has been so shall be the 

The Guardian was printed and published by Thomas Corbould, at No. 
13, Northgate Street, Bath, his place of residence being 28, Walcot Street, 
in that city. It was a 4-page paper, 6 columns to a page, length of column 
23 inches. (As the Bath Herald is now published from the same, or about 
the same, address in Bath, it is well to mention that there is no connection 
between the two papers.) The Devizes agent was stated to be Mr. Randell 
[should be Randle], and as to price : " Publicans and Innkeepers are only 
charged Sixpence for this Paper, when ordered by post ; " but the price to 
other people was "Id. The preferential rate for publicans no doubt was to 
induce them to lay the paper on their tables for the benefit of their 
customers, and so help to make it known. On September 17th, 1836, the 
price dropped to Ad. 

The first issue of the Guardian in its two-county form was on August 
22nd, 1835, the number being No. 82 of the paper. It may therefore be 
assumed that the Bath Guardian (only) first appeared about the beginning 
of 1834. It did not long survive (at all events as a professed Wiltshire 
newspaper) the vigorous competition of the locally produced Independent ^ 
dropping out after some eighty-seven issues, five months after the 
appearance of its rival. It would seem that the withdrawal coincided with 
a change of ownership, for at that date (April 29th, 1837) the Guardian^ 
although it continued to be published at 13, Northgate Street, showed its 
printer and publisher to be William Henry Millard, whose place of residence 
was 10, Albion Place, Walcot (Bath). 

In 1869-70 another Devizes newspaper, the Devizes Herald and North 
Wilts Intelligencer, was in the field for a few months. It was quite a local 
production, the proprietor-publisher being Stephen Thomas Brampton, a 
printer carrying on business at No. 36, Market Place, Devizes, whence from 
1839 to 1862, the Independent had been published {see Part IV.). It was a 
penny paper ; four pages ; seven columns to a page ; length of column 22jin. 
It was Conservative in politics, and the editorial introduction began : — "In 
laying before the public of Devizes and North Wiltshire generally, our plans 
for future operations, it is necessary for the proper appreciation of our views 
and motives that we should clearly and distinctly mark out our line of 
conduct both politically and socially. In the first place our political views 
may be broadly stated as Conservative ; and while according to that party 
the support which is due from its organs of every class, we do not consider 
it consistent either with our dignity or prosperity to uphold crude or ill- 
advised measures solely on party grounds," &c., &c. 

By J. J. Slade. 321 

The first number of the Herald was dated September 2nd, 1869, so that 
there were for a time four newspapers appearing in Devizes— the Gazette, 
the Independent, the Advertiser, the Herald. Brampton no doubt thought 
that there was room for a cheaper Conservative paper than the Gazette, 
which was then priced at Zd. and so continued for another ten years. He 
was disappointed; his enterprise was financially a failure; after thirty 
numbers publication ceased— on March 24th, 1870. In the following rhyme, 
composed by himself, he wrote what may be described as an epitaph for 
the Herald : — 

" Of all the fools that ever lived 
'Twixt 'Vize and Etchilhampton, 
The biggest fool of all the lot 

Was Stephen Thomas Brampton." 

The survey of Devizes publications concludes with a mention of The 
Magpie, which had so brief an existence as to be almost a phantom. It 
appeared on Saturday, April 1 1th, 1885, and the following Saturday ; then 
it died — practically still-born. It was an 8-page production, 8jin. by Vin., 
and was of the very "personal" style which characterised other JS/ap^piVs 
appearing about that time. It was the feeling caused by some of its personal 
paragraphs which (at least, so it was understood) caused its sudden demise. 
The printer was A. J. Offer, 107, New Park Street. 


The Wiltshire Times (originally The Trowbridge and North Wilts Adver- 
tiser) and some other Trowbridge newspapers were dealt with in Part I., 
and Mr. George Lansdown has enabled the writer to complete the record 
for that town by contributing the following notes on two ephemeral 
publications : — 

" The Trowbridge Times, a local paper for Trowbridge, Melksham, Brad- 
ford, and Westbury, and Charles Knight's Town and Country Newspaper " 
is the title of a newspaper the first number of which was published on 
Saturday, June 9th, 1855, price 2(i., by J. Diplock at his printing office in 
the Conigre and at his residence in Fore Street, Trowbridge. It consists 
of 16 pages about foolscap folio, the front page containing a few local ad- 
vertisements and markets, and the last page a railway time table (Wilts 
and Somerset Branch) and a few paragraphs of local intelligence. All the 
other matter is general. How many issues were published I cannot tell ; 
but I do not think there were many weekly issues, and the copy I have is 
the only one I have ever seen. 

The Trowbridge Gazette and Bradford Miscellany, price Ic?., was printed 
and published by Samuel Wilkins, of the Market Place, Trowbridge. The 
only copy I have is dated November 1st, 1856, and on the title is " No. 24 
(and last)." It consisted of eight pages, foolscap folio ; the first, seventh, 
and eighth pages contain local advertisements, and the other pages are full 
of general matter. With the exception of the local time table there is 
absolutely no local news in it, but the following paragraph is of interest : — 

"Died at Trowbridge November 1st, 1856, aged 24 months, and deeply 

322 Wiltshire Newspaper s-^- Past and Present. 

regretted by a large circle of subscribers, The Trowbridge Gazette and Brad- 
ford Miscellany, which (luring a period of great prosperity had won for 
itself a welcome in the homes of all classes." 


Chippenham has never had a newspaper of its own. Reasons for this 
can be only suggested, seeing that in size and population Chippenham is 
well in line with other Wiltshire towns. It may be because Chippenham 
has not at any time been in any way the county headquarters. The other 
towns where newspapers have been maintained are, or have been, used for 
the transaction of county business— quarter sessions, county council, or 
assize. The coincidence may be a coincidence merely, or it may be that 
official status in the publishing headquarters is an asset which a news- 
paper needs. Another possible reason is, that Chippenham is too well 
served by newspapers published in neighbouring places to leave room for 
an indigenous production. 

On the other hand Calne, considerably smaller than Chippenham in size 
and population, and similar to Chippenham in the other respects just noted, 
has seen two attempts at newspaper enterprise. Neither was successful. 
The two newspapers locally produced were the Calne Chronicle and 
Chippenham Times, and the Calne and Chippenham Express. 

The Times was started on March 29th, 1876, and ceased to be issued on 
April 4th, 1878, its copyright being absorbed in the North Wilts Herald. 
It was printed and published by Mr. Alfred Heath, at his printing office, 
Market Place, Calne, and claimed to circulate in Avebury, Beckhampton, 
Bremhill, Blackland, Badminton, Calstone, Cherhill, Compton Bassett, 
Corsham, Castle Combe, Derry Hill,Heddington, Hilmarton,Hullavington, 
Kington St. Michael, Lyneham, Lacock, Quemerford, Sandy Lane, Studley, 
Stanley, Sutton Benger, Yatton Keynell, Yatesbury, " etc." It was an 8- 
page sheet, five columns to the page, length of column 18 inches. It was 
mostly filled with general news supplied from London. The price was a 

The Express first appeared on Thursday, December 13th, 1906. It was 
larger than its predecessor, there being six columns to the page (eight in 
number) and the column 20 inches in length. The price was a penny. It 
was, in news and advertisements, more of a local production than the 
Times ; but it, also, depended to a considerable extent on matter supplied 
from London, either in the printed sheet (probably) or stereotype. The 
printer and publisher was William George Dobson, of 6, The Square. We 
have not the exact date of its demise, but it lasted only a few months. 

Another issue with the name of Calne embodied in its title was the 
Calne Graphic — that is the title on the number before us (No. 7, published 
November 11th, 1910, price \d.) ; but as other Wiltshire towns figure under 
separate headings in the 16 pages (14^ inches by Qj inches) it is possible 
that the Graphic appeared in other places also. It was printed at Bristol 
for a Southampton proprietor, and the few illustrations (implied in the 
name) were of Bristol, except for a couple of Wiltshire of an advertising 

By J. J. Slade, 323 

character. The news was scrappy. It could not have had more than a 
brief existence. 

Although Chippenham has not attempted a newspaper of its own there 
have been localised editions of papers published elsewhere with adaptations 
of title to give them local colour. The North Wilts Guardian was first pub- 
lished in Chippenham on November 29th, 1873. It was a Wiltshire edition 
of the Bath Herald ; and its form and general appearance coincided with 
that paper's, and some of the matter was common to both, but it contained 
a good proportion of news of Chippenham and the district adjacent. It 
continued until March 22nd, 1918, when the famine in paper due to the 
war necessitated its abandonment ; its office in High Street was given up 
and it has not been resumed. 

The Bath Chronicle also published a localised edition, the Chippenham 
Chronicle. Its birth about coincided with the decease of the Calne 
Chronicle and Chippenham Times, and it ran for two or three years only. 

There was, further, a local production — one can hardly term it a newspaper 
— issued circa 1895-98, entitled The Chippenham Spice Box. It was a 
monthly publication with a gratis distribution of 5000 copies ; demy size, 
eleven pages of news, tales, sketches, etc., and five pages of advertisements. 
Mr. J. R. Singer, a Chippenham tradesman, was responsible for its ap- 

It will be seen that all these Calne or Chippenham papers were ephemeral, 
with the exception of the Guardian, and none of them developed into a 
newspaper of the type of those which have been hitherto described in the 
articles referring to North Wilts, although in Mrs. Richardson's narrative 
relating to South Wilts there are one or two ventures resembling them in 
some ways. The papers which serve the two towns and the adjacent dis- 
tricts are published at Devizes, Trowbridge, and Swindon, and circulate 
under their general titles. 
' [Addendum : — Since the above has been in type there has come to hand 
! a leaflet issued by " R. C. Ferris, Singer Sewing Machine Depot, 30 Market 
I Place, Chippenham," announcing the forthcoming issue of The Chippenham 
\ Herald and Calne and Malmeshury and West Wilts Express. He wrote 
that the publication was intended to remove the anomaly of Chippenham 
being without " a paper of its own." No date appears on the leaflet and 
whether the paper ever made its appearance I do not know — nor is there 
time to ascertain, as this article is on the point of going to press. But in 
any case it was of no consequence. — J. J. S.]. 


Underthis head may be placed a number of publications which were no 
newspapers yet were not magazines, being like newspapers in that they 
were records. 

Priority should be given to four well-conducted and useful ecclesiastical 
Jhronicles. The oldest of these is the North Wilts Church Magazine^ 
jvhich dates from January, 1868 ; it covers a large area of the Wiltshire 
iDortion of the diocese of Salisbury. Next in order of date is the Salisbury 

324 Wiltshire Newspapers — Past and Present. 

Diocesan Gazette, which was established, by resolution of the Salisbury- 
Diocesan Synod, in March, 1888. Third, the Bristol Diocesan Magazine 
(1898 — 1921), enlarged in 1922 under the title of the Bristol Diocesan Review. 
Fourth, the South Wilts Church Magazine, which is much younger than 
the similar publication for North Wilts, the number of its issue at the time 
this article is written (August, 1923) being 296. Assuming there has been 
no break of continuity this makes the date of its commencement January, 
1899. These are all being published to-day, and with them may be coupled 
the two Diocesan Almanacks or Directories. The Sarum Almanack and 
Diocesan Kalendar is now in its 67th year. The Bristol Diocesan Directory, 
like the Magazine, was first published in 1898. 

The other publications include : — T'he Nines, the regimental journal of 
the 2nd Battalion of the Wiltshire Regiment (old 99th Regiment of the Line); 
we have not the date of its institution, but it expired after the battalion 
left for South Africa in the South African War and was not revived. 
No. 22 was published in 1892, and No. 39 on Feb. 15th, 1894. The Moonraker, 
another military record, a few numbers of which were got out by the 7th 
(Service) Battalion of the Wiltshire Regiment in the Great European War, 
while it was with the forces based upon Salonika. Two or three localized 
magazines (for want of abetter word) were circulated by the Liberal Party 
for propaganda purposes, chiefly at general elections, under such titles as 
Liberal Monthly, Wiltshire Leader, and Elector. It is not necessary to 
describe these in detail. 

Mr. W. A. Webb, who makes a study of old newspapers, has drawn the 
attention of the writer to the sources of information for Wiltshire news in 
other than Wiltshire newspapers. Particularly he refers to the Gloucester 
Journal^ which last year commenced the third century of its existence ; it 
contained not only news from North Wilts but also advertisements from that 
district. {Read's) Weekly Journal or British Gazetteer, the London Journal^ 
the British Journal, and Keene's Bath Journal are also in his list, which 
probably could be extended by the inclusion of such papers as the Reading 
Mercury and the early Bristol newspapers, also the Gentleman s Magazine. 
The Wiltshire news in these papers grew less and less after the first half of . 
the 18th century, some explanation of which may be found in the establish- 
ment of the Salisbury Journal in 1738. • It is well to have these facts noted 
as supplementary to the articles on Wiltshire Newspapers ; but it would 
be going beyond our scope to enlarge upon them. The papers named gave 
Wiltshire news but were not Wiltshire newspapers. 



By Herbert H. Thomas, M.A., ScU., 
Petrographer to H.M. Geological Survey. 

[By kind permission of the author and of the Society of Antiquaries I 
am enabled to reprint here the greater portion of the paper which appeared 
in the Antiquaries' Journal, July, 1923, vol. iii., pp. 239— 260, with the 
illustrations that accompanied it. — Editor]. 

In considering the so-called " Blue Stones " or Foreign Stones of Stone- 
henge we find ourselves confronted with a copious and somewhat conflicting 
literature. This literature divides itself into two categories ; one more or 
less exact, being descriptive of the stones themselves, the other speculative 
and dealing with the sources of the stones and their manner of transport 
to the Plain. 

The igneous character of the stones other than the " altar-stone " was 
claimed early in the nineteenth century, and macroscopic descriptions of a 
general nature were published from time to time. As petrology became a 
more exact science, owing to the precision added to the identification of 
rock-structures and minerals by the use of the microscope, descriptions 
more detailed and of more value for comparative purposes began to appear. 

We have in the writings of Professor Story Maskelyne, Sir Jethro Teall, 
and Professor Judd adequate descriptions of the microscopic characters of 
the stones themselves, as also of abundant fragments found in the soil. 
The first really scientific descriptions with correct naming were given by 
Maskelyne in 1878 ;^ followed by Mr. Thomas Davies and Sir Jethro Teall, 
who described fragments collected by the late William Cunnington ; and 
still later by Professor Judd, writing in conjunction with the late William 

The Foreign Stones remaining within the area of Stonehenge are thirty- 
four in number, and may be grouped as follows :— dolerites 29, rhyolites 

' In the Antiquaries' Journal the title of the paper is " The Source of the 
Stones of Stonehenge," and three introductory pages, not here reprinted, 
describe the structure and deal with the Sarsens. 

^ Stonehenge, " The Petrology of the Stones," Wilts Arch, and Nat. 
Hist Mag., vol. xvii., p. 147 ; W. Cunnington, Stonehenge Notes : — " The 
Fragments," Wilts. Arch, and Nat. Hist. Mag.^ vol. xxi., p. 141 ; " Notes 
on Sections of Stonehenge Rocks belonging to Mr. W. Cunnington," Wilts 
Arch, and Nat. Hist. Mag., vol. xxvii., p. 60. 

' J. W. Judd, " Note on the Nature and Origin of the Rock-fragments 
found in the excavations made at Stonehenge by Mr. Gowland in 1901," 
Archseologia, vol. Iviii., p. 70. 



The Source of the Foreign Stones of Stonehenge, 

4, and sandstone 1 (altar-stone). These are respectively shown on the 
accompanying plan (fig. 1) as full-black, lined, and stippled. It is only 

Plan of Stonehenge showing the " Foreign Stones " or '* Blue Stones ' 
black or shaded. 

necessary here to refer to characters that are of specific importance and 
to amplify or correct previous descriptions where needful. 

The Dolerites or Diabases are compact moderately coarsely crystalline 
igneous rocks of blue-green to greenish-grey colour in the hand-specimen. 
Descriptions given by Maskelyne, and based upon the microscopic exami- 
nation of small chips taken directly from the stones, might convey to the 
reader the impression that several distinct varieties of rock, and possibly 
a multiplicity of source, are indicated. Some slight variation in texture 

By Herhert H. Thomas. 327 

^nd in the relative proportions of constituent minerals is certainly met with, 
but such variation is no more than occurs normally in many single rock- 
masses of doleritic nature. There are, however, two unifying characters 
that link all these doleritic rocks together and point to a single source of 
origin. The first is the albitized condition of the dominant felspar, and 
the second is the occurrence in all the stones of white or pinkish felspathic 
spots of all sizes from that of a pea to that of a walnut. These spots are 
composed of irregular crystals and crystal-groups of oligoclase-albite felspar, 
and are often so widely spaced in the rock that there is every possibility of 
their being unrepresented in a micro-section. This common and most 
valuable characteristic of the Stonehenge dolerites appears to have escaped 
the notice of previous observers or, if noticed, was deemed of no specific 
value for determinative or comparative purposes. 

The Rhyolites (38, 40, 46, and 48 of Plan), known to earlier writers as 
"Hornstone" (Sowerby), "Compact Felspar" of Mac Oulloch (Phillips), 
Felsite, and Felstone, are obviously masses of siliceous volcanic rock (lava), 
:and, as pointed out by Maskelyne, present the characteristic fluxion-structure 
as well as the fragmental and brecciated character of rocks of this class. 
The rocks are flinty and dark grey, with a delicate fluxion-banding in the 
iorm of narrow frequent parallel lines. On a freshly broken surface they 
exhibit a microcrystalline appearance, and the fluxion-banding is less easy 
to observe. 

In these rocks also the felspars when present are of the kind rich in 
.«oda (albite and albite-oligoclase). An excellent description of these stones 
was given by Judd i in 1903. 

The altar-stone (micaceous sandstone) is a fine-grained, pale sage-green, 
micaceous sandstone with a partly calcareous and partly siliceous cement. 
In the hand-specimen, the mica shows as bright spangles on the divisional 
planes along which the rock will split. In thin sections the rock is seen to 
1)6 composed of finely angular chips of quartz, flakes of muscovite, abundant 
greenish chlorite, and a green mineral that suggests glauconite, in a fine- 
textured calcareo-siliceous matrix. 

As the rock is unique, in so far as it differs from all the other large 
Foreign Stones of Stonehenge, it may be well to discuss its origin apart from 
the others. Various sources of origin have been proposed, but there is little 
-doubt that it belongs to one of the Palaeozoic Systems. It was suggested 
by Maskelyne that it came from the Old Red Sandstone of the Mendips, 
but lithologically it matches most closely certain green micaceous beds in 
the Old Red Sandstone of South Wales which have the additional and 
somewhat rare character of being distinctly calcareous. Old Red Sandstone 
deposits of this type occur in the Senni Beds ^ that reach a thickness of 
about 1,000ft., and outcrop in an east and west direction throughout 
Glamorganshire ; also, as a higher group, known as the Cosheston Group, 

^ Note on the Nature and Origin of the Rock Fragments found in the 
excavations made at Stonehenge by Mr. Gowland in 1901," Wilts Arch. 
\ Mag., vol. xxxiii., p. 47. 

2 Geology of Merthyr Tydfil " {Mem. Geol. Surv.\ 1904, pp. 8, 9 ; also 
! *' Geology of Ammanford " {Mem. Geol. Surv.\ 1907, pp. 58, 59. 

Z 2 

328 The Source of the Foreign Stones of Stonehenge. 

which occurs in Pembrokeshire and forms the northern shores of Milford 
Haven, near Langwm, on the estuary of the River Cleddau. 

In the hand-specimen it would be difficult, if not impossible, to distinguish 
between certain members of the Senni Beds and those of the Cosheston 
Group; and both are equally like the altar-stone. Microscopically the 
structure and composition are similar. 

It was found, however, that the Cosheston Beds ^ were extremely rich in 
minute grains of garnet, most of which had crystal- form ; and in this respect 
the beds differed from all other Palaeozoic sediments which had been 
examined up to that time. 

The heavy detrital residue obtained from the altar-stone is also exceedingly 
rich in garnet of small dimensions, which occurs with the usual detrital 
minerals, zircon, rutile, tourmaline, anatase. Garnet is the most abundant 
of these accessory minerals, and occurs for the most part as angular pink 
or colourless grains devoid of crystalline form. There are, however, frequent 
instances to be noted of grains that show idiomorphic outline, and although 
this feature is not so general as in the majority of specimens from the 
Cosheston Beds hitherto examined, it is a likeness that cannot be disregarded. 

Without a more complete knowledge of the petrography of the Old Red 
Sandstone, and particularly of heavy residues furnished by the Senni Beds, 
it would be unsafe to state dogmatically that the altar-stone was derived 
from one or the other of the Old Red Sandstone divisions mentioned above. 
From general considerations, however, the type of heavy residue and the 
lithology of the rock as a whole are sufficient to make the identification of 
the altar-stone with the Old Red Sandstone of South Wales almost a matter 
of certainty. 

The bearing of the proper identification of the source of the altar-stone 
on the route taken by the transporters of the Stonehenge Foreign Stones 
is considerable. If the source is in the Senni Beds the inference would be 
that the stone was collected during an overland rout